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101: It appears that having failed to prohibit cannabis at the federal level, efforts were then redirected to achieve prohibition at the state level.
102: The Philippines was acquired by the U.S. in 1898 as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Paris. (1) It's interesting that the Philippines apparently played "an important role" in calling for the Shanghai Conference because William H. Taft, (S&B 1878) was initial governor of the Philippines until 1904, Francis B. Harrison of New York, (for whom the Harrison Act of 1914 was named) held that post from 1913 to 1921 and still later, Henry L. Stimson, (S&B 1888) also acted as governor-general in 1927. (1) Finally, note also that "the commission was a creation of the U.S. State Department." (1) Roosevelt's State Department during his second term was headed by none other than Elihu Root, law partner of Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888), (John Hay was Roosevelt's first-term Secretary of State).
103: According to (87), the date is 1803 but another source, (91) also indicates that 1805 is the correct date.
104: That is, heat production via "oxidation".
105: Gee (87), what was the Nobel prize actually for?! According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel prize for "work on biological combustion" which seems consistent with the stimulation of "vital oxygenation processes" as described by (42). Szent-Györgyi had previously done oxygenation-related research in 1924. Like (87), (99) also implies that the Nobel prize was involving Szent-Györgyi's work with Vitamin C. Which is correct is a good question to ask but why there is any confusion here at all may be a better question still.
106: She had worked as a researcher for the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. (20)
107: It's interesting to note that this sort of propaganda was being touted during a period in which hemp farming was legal. Was this stance taken all of a sudden in order to help guarantee that there would be little opposition to prohibiting hemp once again, in 1955?
108: The key likely isn't that marijuana was included with other, more dangerous drugs but that it was included with those which supposedly had no known medical use - as though its placement into Schedule I is intended to underscore marijuana's supposed lack of medicinal value.
109: Any consideration by Taft of reinstating the opium monopoly in the Philippines was likely intended only to focus public attention on the opium "problem" in the U.S. in preparation for future prohibition there, but that is merely my opinion. Also, mention is made here that missionaries in the U.S. were more or less united against this "moral wrong" and that they asked Roosevelt to step in and prevent the reinstatement of the opium monopoly. I wonder if Bishop Charles Henry Brent, (see 1903, 1909) was somehow involved in this uniting of missionaries in the U.S.
110: That Bishop Brent would become world famous for his pioneer efforts to launch the ecumenical movement among Christian churches is by no means a big surprise considering that similar efforts were later undertaken to unite churches, (See 1948, 1950). Of particular significance though is the fact that some such efforts were carried out by other Skull & Bones members, (See 1937). Bishop Brent himself was directly associated with at least one such member of the Order, William H. Taft, (S&B 1878) and indirectly, to at least one other as well - Henry L. Stimson, (S&B 1888) (through Elihu Root).
111: The founding of the Manila Medical Society occurred while the Philippines were under U.S. control.
112: Elihu Root had also been the attorney and close associate of William Collins Whitney (S&B 1863). (26)
113: Just as with the reorganization that took place in the nation's fisheries, we see here the isolation of institutions of research - an action that, in general, helps to maintain secrecy.
114: According to (101) Davenport's lecture was delivered five years after the publishing of his book Heredity in Relation to Eugenics in 1911 at a prominent sanitarium in the mid-western United States. I can only conclude from this that it was at the Second National Conference on Race Betterment in Battle Creek, Michigan that this lecture was given. This represents a close tie back to Harriman's eugenicists as does John Harvey Kellogg's correspondence with Skull & Bones members et al, which can be viewed in Note 87. To view Davenport's "creed", see (101).
115: Fairfield Osborn was a member of the American Eugenics Society. His father, Henry Fairfield Osborn, was one of the founders of that organization.
116: According to (105), in 1973 the Endangered Species Act, passed in 1966 was simply extended and strengthened.
117: (28) indicates that this investigation was known as the Siler commission and that it took place in 1930.
118: Notice that King is considered to be "one of Rockefeller's most faithful stooges" according to this event in 1917.
119: That the United States nor Egypt signed the recommendation is a glaring contradiction. Why hadn't the U.S and Egypt signed the recommendation when indeed, they had brought up the issue in the first place? What could possibly have been their objection? Certainly, the recommendation should have been viewed as a step in the right direction at the very least! It is my contention that the U.S. and Egypt didn't sign the recommendation because a convention based on such a recommendation would have merely outlawed, at best, those parts of the plant that contained cannabis resin and not the essential fatty acid bearing seeds! Note also how Anslinger emphasizes prohibiting the marijuana seeds in 1937. He goes to the extent of making up a story about a prisoner who is supposedly caught picking hemp seeds from a caged canary's bird feed in order to smoke them!? Though Anslinger will claim in 1937 that such emphasis on prohibiting the plant's seeds is an attempt to make his job easier at prohibiting marijuana, I don't buy that story at all. There's more to prohibiting the seeds than Anslinger's desire to make his job easier—a whole lot more.
120: Sagamore Hill, Theodore Roosevelt's home, is located one-half mile outside of Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island - the epicenter of the Eugenics movement! (1) This certainly fits right in considering that eugenicists surrounded Theodore Roosevelt and also considering his "crusade against 'race suicide' (occasioned by his alarm at the falling birthrate)..." (1)
121: His son was Edward Livingston Trudeau, Jr., (S&B 1896). (107)
122: What in the world is Baird referring to as the "movement"? Is this in reference to some sort of fertilizer movement? More important, why would Baird be promoting the increased exploitation of menhaden when just four years earlier he had been appointed Commissioner of the newly created Fish Commission as a result of his having "called attention to the problem of depletion of food fishes of the seacoasts" and given also that George Perkins Marsh—who had helped Baird in his appointment to the Smithsonian Institution—had just recently published the book, Man and Nature in which he (Marsh) cites menhaden as an example of man's destructive impact on the environment (though this was an addition to the 1885 edition)? Likewise, Goode's A History of the Menhaden published in 1877 also promotes the use of menhaden for agricultural uses, as can be seen just from the title page alone! That Baird was in fact operating contrary to the commission's own justification for existing will become clear in 1892, when the U.S. Fish Commission, headed by Commissioner (Confederate) Colonel Marshall McDonald, is found to be standing "shoulder to shoulder" with the United States Menhaden Oil and Guano Association (a.k.a. the "menhaden trust") attempting to defeat Maine's legislation protecting her own coastal waters from indiscriminate industrial fishing that was knowingly depopulating coastal waters of various food fishes. (304) Furthermore, in 1911 (or thereabouts) the U.S. Fish Commission will once again be the focus of attention when they, and various collaborators (including David Starr Jordan) are exposed in a Senate investigation as having knowingly brought about a huge diminution of the fur seal populations on the Pribilof Islands, defrauding the U.S. government out of millions of dollars in the process...
123: It's interesting how the USDA describes it merely as an "experimental farm".
124: Following 1886 Elihu Root developed a close friendship with Theodore Roosevelt and served him as legal adviser during Roosevelt's mayoralty and during his term as police commissioner of New York City. As governor of the state, Roosevelt continued to draw ideas from Root, especially on trusts and franchise taxes. (1)
125: The China Medical Board secured the China oil market and gave access to the highly profitable Asian drug trade after Rockefeller financed the rise to power of the Soong family, who created modern China. (6)
126: According to (78) this took place "during the 1890s".
127: Keep in-mind that the U.S. Public Health Service, of which the Surgeon General oversaw, was responsible for the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment in 1932. Also, see 1918.
128: Not sure how this could be as the process appears to have been patented in 1903.
129: Rosanoff's call comes at just the right time considering that the Harrison Narcotics Act of 1914 was guaranteed to produce hordes of new "criminals" and persons requiring "unrestricted psychiatric consultation and advice".
130: Webster's Dictionary defines "fifth column" as "a group of people who act traitorously and subversively out of a secret sympathy with an enemy of their country." (112)
131: Be suspicious of any published material whose title includes the words Fact or Facts - especially if it is a food ingredients label, (i.e. "Nutrition Facts"). What's wrong with say, "Nutrition Information"?
132: Not sure how this event fits into the "First", "Second", "Third Congress" sequence. This event needs to be verified.
133: I suspect that a goal in the of the fisheries has been to do to the small fisherman what has been done to the small farmer - make them dependent, (as opposed to independent), just like everyone else.
134: Before the discovery of vitamin B12, the nitrogenous alcohol choline appeared essential for growth of rats and chicks. Although required in amounts larger than most of the vitamins, it was nonetheless considered as a vitamin by many. The requirement for it largely disappears in animals provided with adequate amounts of the essential amino acid methionine and sufficient vitamin B12 to permit synthesis of its methyl groups. For this reason, its status as a vitamin is questionable, although it may promote growth in diets of marginal adequacy. Under conditions where it is required for animal growth, its absence results in hemorrhage of the kidneys and an excessive deposition of fat in the liver. The substance is an important component of the metabolically important fatlike substance lecithin. Choline also functions in the transfer of methyl groups in metabolism. (1)
135: According to (82) this was in 1933.
136: According to the author of (UNKNOWN REF), Lexington Kentucky is the site of the Addiction Research Center. My, what a coincidence!
137: If the name Heath sounds familiar, he's the doctor who created the flawed Heath / Tulane Monkey Study in 1974 touted by then Governor of California, Ronald Reagan as "evidence" to denounce the use (or more importantly, the legalization) of marijuana.
138: The "Naples" marine station mentioned is the Stazione Zoologica at Naples, Italy that was founded by Anton Dohrn in 1872. Also, according to this same source, Davenport took another trip to England (etc. ?) in 1909. (225) This trip might have concerned creation of the Eugenics Record Office in 1910 being as a similar organization already existed in the UK and was headed by Galton.
139: Though I can't be certain, it appears as though the "next meeting" that England managed to keep cannabis from the agenda for was the Advisory Committee's meeting in 1925, not the Second Geneva Opium Conference as was stated by the author of (UNKNOWN REF).
140: What's the big international interest in oceanography? Might it have some connection to the forthcoming sudden outbreaks of red tides, pfiesteria etc., leading to major fish kills worldwide?
141: Notice that this article, (126) originated from CNN News and that they fail to mention that Dr. Henry Perkins of the University of Vermont had become president of the American Eugenics Society that very same year, (1931). Certainly, the researcher cited in the article, Nancy Gallagher, had made this connection herself. To have reported this tidbit would have made it clear to readers just how big the eugenics movement in the U.S. really was.
142: Clearly there's a contradiction according to Mullin's as to when I.G. Farben was organized. One book indicates 1904 and the other 1925.
143: If anything, this was just a formality as the State Department has certainly pursued a population control agenda long prior to this date.
144: You'd be surprised at what can constitute "wetlands". According to at least two authors whose works I have read, land with little more than a puddle of water can qualify as "wetlands". Keep that in mind.
145: According to (144), it is known as the National Committee for Mental Hygiene.
146: Frederick Osborn was secretary / treasurer of the American Eugenics Society. (23)
147: In the 1960s, Nobel Laureate William Shockley, a physicist at Stanford University advocated programs of voluntary sterilization of people with lower than the average IQ score of 100. He received an estimated $180,000 from the Pioneer Fund. (153)
148: It's been suggested by various persons (many of whom are quite credible) that, although men truly did orbit the Earth, NASA never once landed men on the moon during the Apollo missions. Having looked over the abundant evidence myself, I can only conclude that what these people are claiming is true. It certainly doesn't help NASA's case that in 1915, those who were evidently pushing for the creation of NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, (NACA), were men such as Alexander Graham Bell and Charles D. Walcott, both of whom had extremely cozy ties to the eugenics community. Just a coincidence? It's hard to deny that, in the end, whether they initially foresaw the outcome or not, the Malthusians had obtained satellite technology much faster than they might have had there not been a space race to put a man on the moon. From the standpoint of altering the Earth's food resources, the potential for misuse of this technology against human populations is absolutely staggering. See 1988 for a mere glimpse into what I believe is ultimately a case-in-point.
149: In both of Humboldt's major published works, Equinoctial Regions of America as well as COSMOS: A Sketch of the Physical Description of the Universe, he repeatedly hints at his belief in Cuvier's catastrophism by making reference to historical catastrophies using the term "revolution" (which he applies to other types of events as well). Both he and Cuvier likely passed on this belief that the world undergoes regular cycles of destruction (capable of wiping out entire species) to Louis Agassiz as Agassiz had studied under both men for a time while in Paris in 1832.
150: Interestingly, Russell and Company is founded just a year following this period (in 1823) by Samuel Russell, second cousin to William H. Russell, founder of the death cult known as Skull & Bones! Furthermore, the business of Russell and Company is that of the British East India Company--trade in opium! Coincidence(s)?
151: The very first headquarters of NASA from 1958 to October 1961, was—of all places—the Dolly Madison house located at 1520 H Street in Washington, DC., which had earlier served as the location of the exclusive Cosmos Club founded in 1878! (210) This is not unexpected given that NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, (NACA) was established in 1915 as a result of efforts made by, among others, two Cosmos Club members: Alexander Graham Bell and Charles D. Walcott.
152: Chase follows this statement in his book by saying that, At Harvard, he taught zoology and morphology, and in 1899 his Statistical Methods with Special Reference to Biological Variation was, according to his friend and fellow biologist Oscar Riddle, "the first book to bring the newer investigations of Karl Pearson to popular attention in the United States."
153: According to Henry Adams biographer, Ernest Samuels, Adams's interest in the new directions of science took... a great leap forward when he came to Washington. Clarence King's arresting lecture at the Sheffield Scientific School on "Catastrophism and Evolution" reopened for Adams the old argument between Agassiz and Lyell. Adams dashed off a brief notice for the Nation to call attention to the epochal nature of King's theory. "In the face of the facts of our geology the uniformitarian theory breaks down and must be abandoned; ...the existence of geological catastrophes must be accepted as part of the science, and must be allowed to have had a considerable, if not a principal, effect on the evolution of species." In an environment of violent change only the most "plastic species" could survive. Nature, plainly "did proceed by what amounted to leaps" and these leaps corresponded with the alleged "gaps" in the geological record. Inherent in the idea was an escape from a deterministic universe, a crack in the iron fabric through which the romantic sceptic might defy science through science itself. In those "leaps" of nature was foreshadowed the possibility of a creative, emergent, evolution which would restore to life its immemorial mystery and wonder. The matter called for close watching. (214)
154: According to the Adams Memorial Foundation, Clarence King was apparently a close friend of the Adamses, having been a part of their social gathering, The Five of Hearts, a "tight-knit social and literary group" which also included Adams' wife Clover, John Hay (secretary to Abraham Lincoln, secretary of state under both William McKinley and Teddy Roosevelt) and his wife Clara. (213)
155: Though not its first President! As everyone else seems aware, the first president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington was Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852)! Notice how this wording by published author Edwin Black strongly implies that John C. Merriam was the institution's first president when in fact, Merriam was its third president! (228)
156: Interestingly, Edwin Black notes in regards to eugenics in England during the first decade of the twentieth century that, "no government agency in Britain officially supported eugenics as a movement. But in America, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and its network of state college agricultural stations lent its support as early as 1903 [presumably when the American Breeder's Association was created]." (183) This is an interesting statement in light of who in the U.S. seemed to be pushing hard for the creation of the "land grant" state colleges—men like death cultists Andrew Dickson White (S&B 1853) and Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852)! See 1862.
157: The first four Carnegie Institution of Washington presidents were: Daniel C. Gilman (S&B 1852); Robert S. Woodward, 1904-1920; John C. Merriam, 1921-1938 and Vannevar Bush, 1939-1955. (228) Some of the earlier trustees were: Henry Hitchcock (S&B 1879), 1902-1902; Abram S. Hewitt, 1902-1903; Edward D. White, 1902-1903; William E. Dodge, 1902-1903; Charles L. Hutchinson, 1902-1904; John Hay, 1902-1905; John C. Spooner, 1902-1907; Wayne MacVeagh, 1902-1907; Carroll D. Wright, 1902-1908; Daniel C. Gilman (S&B 1852), 1902-1908; Darius O. Mills, 1902-1909; Ethan A. Hitchcock, 1902-1909; William Lindsay, 1902-1909; Lyman J. Gage, 1902-1912; John S. Billings, 1902-1913; S. Weir Mitchell, 1902-1914; William N. Frew, 1902-1915; Andrew D. White (S&B 1853), 1902-1916; Seth Low, 1902-1916; Henry L. Higginson, 1902-1919; Charles D. Walcott, 1902-1927; William W. Morrow, 1902-1929; Elihu Root, 1902-1937; William Wirt Howe, 1903-1909; John L. Cadwalader, 1903-1914; Cleveland H. Dodge, 1903-1923; Alexander Agassiz, 1904-1905; Samuel P. Langley, 1904-1906; Robert S. Woodward, 1905-1924; William H. Taft (S&B 1878), 1906-1915; William H. Welch (S&B 1870), 1906-1934; Henry S. Pritchett, 1906-1936; William Barclay Parsons, 1907-1932; Andrew J. Montague, 1907-1935; Martin A. Ryerson, 1908-1928; George W. Wickersham, 1909-1936; Simon Flexner, 1910-1914; Henry P. Walcott, 1910-1924; Robert S. Brookings, 1910-1929; Henry White (S&B ????), 1913-1927; George W. Pepper, 1914-1919; Charles P. Fenner, 1914-1924; Henry Cabot Lodge, 1914-1924; Theobald Smith, 1914-1934; Myron T. Herrick, 1915-1929; John J. Carty, 1916-1932; Stewart Paton, 1916-1942; James Parmelee, 1917-1931; Herbert Hoover, 1920-1949; W. Cameron Forbes, 1920-1955; John C. Merriam, 1921-1938. (228) For a complete list of presidents and trustees, see biblio ref 228. NOTE: Not all Skull & Bones alumni above—marked with "S&B"—have been verified.
158: According to (230), this committee was actually formed in 1901.
159: The "brains behind the conservation movement", William J. Mcgee was married in 1888 to Anita Newcomb Mcgee, MD, founder of the U.S. Army Nurse Corp. Her father was astronomer Simon Newcomb. (239) He was a member of the Cosmos Club founded in 1878 as well as a member of the Society for Psychical Research which was founded in 1884. Both William J. McGee and Gifford Pinchot, (S&B 1889) were also members of the latter organization. Dr. Anita Mcgee, who according to (239) "took post-graduate training in gynecology at Johns Hopkins University" happened to be a member of the American Eugenics Society. According to A Decade of Progress in Eugenics, a collection of the scientific papers presented at the Third International Congress on Eugenics, Anita McGee herself presented a paper to attendees of the congress. (300) Not at all surprising, the library from which the scanned PDF of this particular source, (A Decade of Progress in Eugenics) originated is that of the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory as evident from the prominent stamp on the document's title page. (300) Anita Mcgee kept a home at Woods Hole as did her sister, Emily who worked at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute. (240)
160: The committee's address at this time is an office in the "Penn Terminal" building. (362), (244) It is changed (apparently within a year) to "185 Church St., New Haven, Connecticut"—a mere walking distance from the Skull & Bones "tomb" located at 64 High St. (23), (245) The initial meetings of the new Committee—at least the first two—took place at the American Museum of Natural History (which, beginning in 1918, also played host to the Galton Society). There were four participants, Charles Davenport, Irving Fisher, Henry Fairfield Osborn, and C.C. Little. (244) According to Mehler, "From the beginning the [ad interim] Committee was interlocked with the Eugenics Record Office (ERO), the Eugenics Research Association (ERA), and the Galton Society. Davenport, Fisher, and Olson were members of the Eugenics Committee and on the Executive Committee of the ERA and Grant, Davenport, and Fisher were leading members of the Galton Society." (244) "By July 1923, Eugenical News was being jointly published by the ERA and the eugenics society." (244)
161: "The early meetings of the AES took place in the Manhattan home of an influential friend of Fisher's from his college years, Madison Grant, Class of 1887. … The AES later established its headquarters in offices overlooking the New Haven Green, at Elm and Church Streets." (245) "When Ellsworth Huntington became president of the AES in 1934, membership was shrinking. He was obliged to lay off staff and move the operation into his university office, in a mansion at 4 Hillhouse Avenue (since demolished)." (245)
162: New Haven, Connecticut is home to both Yale University and to Skull & Bones. Come 1922, it will also be the home of the American Eugenics Society.
163: According to NOAA (see (66)) and reflected in Wikipedia, the periodical, Field and Stream was founded in 1895. The date that I've chosen to use here ( 1874) was produced via the book, American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation authored by John F. Reiger, "Professor of History at Ohio University—Chillicothe and the former Executive Director of the Connecticut Audubon Society." Other sources to back up Reiger's date are easily found including A History of American Magazines by Frank L. Mott. (255) Perhaps this is an example of the ongoing misrepresentation of the conservation movement by academic historians which Reiger makes note of on page 2 of his book: "Despite the publication of a number of books and essays purporting to treat the 'origins' of the crusade, academic historians invariably begin their works at the close of the nineteenth century, with perhaps a passing nod to a few 'prophets' like George Perkins Marsh and John Wesley Powell." (236)
164: George Franklin Edmunds, who in 1870 helped Spencer F. Baird lobby for passage of the bill establishing the Fish Commission in 1871, married the niece of George Perkins Marsh, who in 1850 had helped Baird obtain his position as Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian. Also, Henry Laurens Dawes had a son who was a member of Skull and Bones. His name was Chester Mitchell Dawes (S&B 1876). (281) Baird and Edmunds had apparently co-drafted the bill together. (340)
165: Baird's complete letter to Congressman Dawes is recorded in the Congressional Globe, 2nd session, 41st Congress, Part 3, p. 585. (305)
166: In A History of the Menhaden, George Brown Goode, states, "Most of the work on this report was done in the winter of 1874-'75. Since that time two pamphlets have been published, containing very valuable contributions to the knowledge of the menhaden." (308:4) A page earlier, Goode records that some of his time was spent in Noank, Conn and that he "used every opportunity to study this fish." (308:3) So, we know that almost immediately after the U.S. Fish Commission was established, it began a massive study of the menhaden. So large was it that the fish commissioner of Maine commented with regards to the menhaden that the U.S. Fish Commission "has ... made remarkably exhaustive investigations concerning it, to an extent vouchsafed no other fish." (304)
167: Although it should come as no surprise to anyone who has studied the "death cult" Skull & Bones, it's always welcome to find one of its most important members, Andrew Dickson White (S&B 1853), fawning over his hero, Thomas R. Malthus as seen on pages 67,68 of (313).
168: Henry Leavitt Ellsworth was a Yale educated attorney. (315) An "old friend" of his was Margaret Dwight, daughter of Yale president Timothy Dwight IV. (316) In addition, he was an early benefactor of Yale College, donating some $700,000 to his alma mater, as well as title to the Ellsworth lands in the former Western Reserve. (316) Timothy Dwight IV's grandson and namesake was an early member of Skull & Bones.
169: In a most amazing coincidence, Judge Frederick Watts not only served contemporaneously with Spencer F. Baird of the U.S. Fish Commission, but both men were also from the same home town—Carlisle, Pennsylvania—and both men had attended Dickinson College (Watts furthermore served on its board of regents)! (321:133), (322) How interesting, considering that the founding in 1852 of the United States Agricultural Society—itself credited with bringing about the creation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture—took place at the Smithsonian Institution where Baird was serving as Assistant Secretary!
170: According to Dall, Baird's appointment as President of the Cosmos Club "dissipated the suspicions of some perturbed individuals who had seen in the formation of such a club a scheme to influence Congress and create a scientific cabal intended to control governmental scientific activities." (341) This shows that the formation of the Cosmos Club wasn't without suspicion on the part of some and that such suspicion was apparently widespread enough to merit mentioning in a biography of Baird.
171: "With Hyatt as president, the MBL trustees decided to hire Johns Hopkins Professor of Zoology William Keith Brooks as the first director. … Hyatt knew Brooks, and had recommended him for his job at Hopkins." (342) Though it's almost certainly true that Brook's recommendation was a matter of his association with Hyatt, another source of influence may have been that of Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852), who was then President of Johns Hopkins, and from whose papers Maienschein obtains information regarding Hyatt's recommendation of Brooks.
172: The creation of the MBL was influenced both by Agassiz's school on Penikese Island and by Hyatt's laboratory at Annisquam. (342) "As the MBL's first director Whitman said repeatedly, the MBL was a lineal descendant of its genetic ancestors, Agassiz's Penikese School and Hyatt's Annisquam laboratory." (342) For the most part however, the MBL was Alpheus Hyatt's laboratory at Annisquam transferred to Woods Hole as even Hyatt himself made the move. So why was wood's hole chosen for Hyatt's laboratory (now the MBL)? "The answer lies largely with Spencer Baird. For several years, Baird had wanted his friend Hyatt to move the Annisquam school to Woods Hole,..." (342) For one thing, "Baird wanted to attract researchers and students to form a research community at the Fish Commission." For another, Hyatt himself wanted to move away from a laboratory centered around teaching to one that centered around basic research. (342) As if Baird had anticipated these events, the land adjacent to the Fish Commission which the MBL occupied was acquired by a Fish Commission employee in advance of the establishment of the MBL.  According to Dall, "That the growth of the establishment should not be hampered by land speculators, a friend of Baird's, a co-worker at the Smithsonian, Dr. J. H. Kidder, purchased at prevailing values a sufficient amount of adjacent land which he held for the laboratory's future use." (341) Jerome H. Kidder was not only Baird's "co-worker at the Smithsonian," but he was also a Fish Commission employee in charge of the Fish Commission's physical and chemical laboratory (part of the Woods Hole or "Fisheries" laboratory which Baird, as Fish Commissioner, oversaw) as well as medical officer of the Fish Commission's steamer, the U.S.S. Albatross. (340) In summary: "The Marine Biological Laboratory is the immediate outgrowth of the sea-side laboratory conducted at Annisquam, Massachusetts, from 1880 to 1886 by the Women's Educational Association of Boston, in cooperation with the Boston Society of Natural History. The Annisquam Laboratory, modeled after Louis Agassiz's short-lived Anderson School on Penikese Island, was organized to serve as a summer school of Natural History. Its director was Alpheus Hyatt, Curator of the Boston Society of Natural History, and a student of Agassiz. In 1886, at the end of the Annisquam Laboratory's sixth session, the school was closed and Hyatt began a search for persons and institutions that might be interested in cooperating to establish a larger and more permanent laboratory. In the course of the next year, the Boston Society of Natural History and the Women's Education Association raised about $10,000 for this purpose. Hyatt, and his supporting organizations then began to consider sites for their laboratory. … Woods Hole was considered largely due to Hyatt's friendship with Spencer Baird, head of the United States Fish Commission." (343)
173: It was James Dwight Dana who had written Baird three years earlier (in 1847) encouraging him to apply to Joseph Henry for the Curator of Natural History (or Assistant Secretary) position at the Smithsonian.
174: Not only is Benjamin Silliman, Jr. a member of Skull & Bones, his brother-in-law's brother is none other than Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B1852), the incorporator of Skull & Bones!
175: See (352) for additional details regarding the association's history.
176: In regards to the requirement that military science be a part of state university instruction, it's interesting to note that during this same year, (1862) Edward L. Molineux published his Physical and Military Exercises in Public Schools in which he states, "It must be acknowledged that the States now in rebellion have devoted much more attention to military instruction in special schools, than we have, many of them pursuing the European plan of State Academies devoted to military science. Thus while we have been obliged to _create_ officers from the small nucleus afforded us from West Point, they have had the students from State Colleges to officer their regiments." (359), (360)
177: Interestingly, Russell's Skull & Bones co-founder, Alphonso Taft, later (in 1876) served as Secretary of War under Grant's administration.
178: For a detailed account of the Morgan affair, see (366). Another detailed account can be found in the paper by Thurlow Weed published in connection with the dedication of Captain William Morgan's monument at Batavia, NY in 1882. See (368).
179: These footprints generated quite a bit of discussion in this country as well in Europe. They are discussed at least twice in the pages of the American Journal of Science and Arts, a scientific periodical which was being published by Benjamin Silliman of Yale University (See (372) and (374)). In the earlier issue, (vol. V of 1822), some letters of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft are published with regards to these prints and Schoolcraft expressed his belief that the prints were authentic. In the later issue which includes an illustration of the quarried slab on which the prints were impressed, (vol. XLIII, 1842), David Dale Owen argues that the prints were objects of art made by the Indians.
180: Note in Schoolcraft's letter to Senator Thomas H. Benton he reveals his belief in catastrophism by stating: "We point to the fossil trees, and shrubs, and to the beds of mineral coal having vegetable impressions, as evidences of the destruction of forests, which once flourished upon the older series of rocks. The bones of the mastodon, the horns of elks, and the osseous and undecomposed remains of other large quadrupeds, birds, fish, and reptiles, which are abundantly found, not only in the alluvial soils, but also occasionally in the rock strata of Europe and America, sufficiently indicate the revolutions and changes which the earth's surface has undergone at comparatively recent periods." This is made all the more interesting by the fact that Schoolcraft had lived among the Indians for thirty years (and was almost certainly well-versed in American Indian folklore regarding the earth's history according to the various Indian traditions). In Schoolcraft's Plan for American Ethnological Investigation which was submitted to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution at their first meeting in 1846, Schoolcraft calls for the institution to make a proper ethnological investigation that not only includes the various American Indian nations but also the various nations of the world. According to Wikipedia, "among the goals of ethnology have been the reconstruction of human history" and here, Schoolcraft seems sincere in wanting the Smithsonian to carry out an investigation to discover the truths about our past. He wrote: "Traces of organic life of the higher species have been found deeper down in the geological column, in later days, than were known to the elder geologists, and the vestiges of man should be carefully sought in all the unconsolidated strata. We know the globe has been disturbed since its creation and destruction, and we should be prepared to find physical evidences of it." (375:912) Little did Schoolcraft realize (apparently) that the Smithsonian Institution wasn't really about the "increase and diffusion of knowledge among men" nor were the men who sought its creation unaware of these facts which he himself believed. As such, his plea fell on deaf ears. In the Annual Report of the Board of Regents for 1886, Schoolcraft's paper was published along with the following notice to readers: "[The following programme, though never officially adopted by the Smithsonian Institution, embodies the result of much study of the subject by the distinguished author; and even after the lapse of forty years possesses sufficient interest and suggestiveness to justify its publication.]" (375:907)
181: This date seems to be in error as all other sources I've seen indicate that Goldberger made this discovery in 1914 or so.
182: Recall that in 1890 Franklin William Hooper, the general director of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences founded the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and in 1898 he appointed as its director none other than eugenicist and AES member Charles B. Davenport. Of course, David Starr Jordan, who was appointed chairman of the Fur Seal Advisory Board, was himself also a eugenicist and member of the AES. Furthermore, at this time the New York Aquarium which was directed by Townsend, was under management of the New York Zoological Society, whose founders included Madison Grant and George Bird Grinnell. Incidentally, it's said that the Fur Seal Advisory Board "enjoyed the support of influential men like George Bird Grinnell." (402:185) Perhaps there's a good reason why. Once again, both he and Madison Grant were eugenicists and AES members... Are we beginning to see a pattern here?
183: Was it merely "their perception" of a failure or was there more to it than that? Hmm... What have we here in 1914 with regards to the federal government's mishandling of the fur seal industry? Might this provide us with a clue?
184: The Aleuts on the Pribilof islands didn't fare much better than the fur seals as Dorothy Jones writes in Century of Servitude: Pribilof Aleuts Under United States Rule. (421)
185: "The United States Agricultural Society played an important part in securing two outstanding enactments by Congress. The first was the Land Grant Act for the support of colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts, and the second was the law creating the United States Department of Agriculture. Historians of the agricultural colleges have failed to give much credit to this society for having had any connection with their creation, but the facts speak for themselves." (446) My, aren't we just shocked!!!
186: "Despite the protests of those who thought the society should confine its activities strictly to farming problems, the subject of a Federal department of agriculture was discussed at every annual meeting. A search through the agricultural press of the time fails to show any urgent demand for such a department from any other source [than the United States Agricultural Society]." (446) Then, in the "early sixties," once the United States Department of Agriculture had been created, the society itself disbanded. (446)
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