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1: Obviously, by initially referring to essential fatty acids as "vitamin F" researchers had established through their nutritional deficiency-oriented research that essential fatty acids were indeed essential and that they must be obtained in the diet.
2: Proctor & Gamble most assuredly was a driving force in the National Association of Margarine Manufacturers, (NAMM) during the 1930s.
3: On most diets the requirement of man for nicotinic acid (niacin) is approximately 10 to 20 mg. per day . However, the amino acid tryptophan ... can be converted to nicotinic acid by animals, and hence the requirement for the vitamin varies with the amount of this amino acid supplied by the diet. On diets high in good-quality protein the amount of tryptophan present may be such as to reduce the dietary requirement for nicotinic acid to zero. ... Like thiamine and riboflavin, nicotinic acid is also part of enzyme systems concerned with the metabolism of carbohydrates. In these systems it acts (when combined as cozymase) in catalyzing the oxidation of sugar derivatives and other substances. (1)
4: This chronic disease due to deficiency of niacin is found principally among maize-eating populations, who are particularly predisposed because the principle protein of maize, zein, lacks tryptophan, an amino acid the body can convert into niacin. The symptoms characteristically involve the skin, the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system, forming the classical clinical triad of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. The skin lesions tend to appear bilaterally symmetrically on the areas of the body exposed to sunlight. Treatment consists in giving niacin daily in divided doses with supplements of yeast, liver by injection and thiamine and riboflavin to combat the deficiency of the other B vitamins. (1) In the later stages a person with Pellagra can become confused, have hallucinations, disorientation and death inevitably occurs unless the afflicted person receives prompt and intensive treatment. (1) As it so happens, tryptophan is one of the many amino acids found in hemp seed. (54)
5: Could the medical researchers have identified (isolated) niacin as the curative agent for pellagra in 1937 if they weren't already aware that the amino acid tryptophan was a variable in the deficiency?
6: An "important development" in the "mid-1930s"? Funny, that's not exactly how I'd expect the world renowned Encyclopedia Britannica to reference an event such as the perfecting of the hydrogenation process -- one which has touched each and everyone of our lives! Overall, this article in the Encyclopedia Britannica seemed to be rather incredibly biased towards the margarine manufacturers but that should come as little surprise considering that according to their bibliography, much of the referenced material originated from industry trade publications.
7: Given that, "American mothers produce milk that often has only one-fifth to one-tenth of the omega-3 content of the milk that well-nourished, nut-eating Nigerian mothers provide their infants," (16) rather than the milk containing some "tumour agent", perhaps it was simply lacking in an anti-tumor agent such as essential fatty acids.
8: Pathology is defined according to Webster's Dictionary as "the science or the study of the origin, nature and course of diseases".
9: The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations in New York had convened in 1946 the international health conference for the establishment of an international health organization called the World Health Organization, (WHO). (???)
10: At this point, Proctor & Gamble's inclusion in the PDFA list may be somewhat understood already but further details, if needed, can be acquired by reading (UNKNOWN REF). The very same source will help to explain the inclusion of these companies / organizations as well: Smith Richardson Foundation; J.P. Morgan & Co. Inc.; Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., (formerly, U.S. Rubber Co.); Readers Digest Association; Sears, Roebuck, & Co.; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Union Pacific Corp; Manufacturers Hanover; Chevron Corporation, (formerly part of Standard Oil) and many others. A scanning of the American Eugenics Society (UNKNOWN REF) will help to explain still others including American Telephone & Telegraph; Eastman Kodak Co., Inc. etc. (UNKNOWN REF) will surely help to fill in many of the remaining gaps. This book lists literally hundreds of useful connections in relation to the "Medical Monopoly". Another useful list can be found in (UNKNOWN REF) in its list of "Inner Circle" members of both North America and Europe. Here you will likely find all of the main players listed; not necessarily as corporations - but rather as individuals and "interests", for example, "Rupert K. Murdoch", "Lehman Bros. interests" etc. This book also contains other useful lists, one of which categorizes elite controlled organizations and provides the number of elite members per organization.
11: Asocial and anti-social behavior is exactly what the eugenicists are going to witness once the masses have finally awakened to the ultimate reality that they - and not just society's weaker members - are the ones considered by the eugenicists as the "undesirables"!
12: The "family firm" in this instance is a.k.a. Brown Brothers Co. of England. It will later merge with Prescott Bush's W. A. Harriman & Co. to form Brown Brothers Harriman in 1931. (3)
13: (6) indicates that the date is rather 1911.
14: "For years the dream of the oil chemist was to find a solution to the problem of converting oleic acid into stearic acid, or olein into stearin, simply by the addition of hydrogen." ... (1) According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the book from which this was quoted was written in 1930. With that in-mind, note that such use of the word dream usually implies a very long wait. My guess would be 30 years or more. Now, onto something else of interest. This likely has no connection whatsoever but it is definitely interesting that "tuberculostearic acid, [a fatty acid] from the fatty capsule of the tuberculosis bacillus, mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a derivative of stearic acid." (1) Does that statement in any way indicate that the tuberculosis bacillus cannot thrive without abundant stearic acid available to it? Hmmm ...
15: This treatment would later be used on Secretary of Defense James Forrestal at Walter Reed army hospital in 1949 prior to his "suicide". (3)
16: According to (48) the date of "organization" is 1903.
17: In animals, experimental vitamin B6 deficiency produces symptoms that depend to some extent on the other constituents of the diet; e.g., the skin lesions in rats may not appear if certain fats are present in the ration. The intensity of the deficiency symptoms and the amount of vitamin B6 required to prevent them are increased by feeding diets unusually high in protein or in certain amino acids, such as methionine. This situation is not unique for pyridoxine deficiency: a similar dependence of pathology on other constituents of the food is found with several vitamins. (1) According to Webster's Dictionary, pyridoxine is not only required for prevention of pellagra, but is also required for the formation of hemoglobin. (112)
18: Pantetheine is part of two larger compounds, coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein, which promote a large number of synthetic and degradative reactions in the body that are essential for growth and well being. In the absence of pantothenic acid (or of its dietary equivalents, pantetheine, coenzyme A, or acyl carrier protein), experimental animals fail to grow, show skin lesions, and frequently show a graying of the hair. All animals so far studied require the vitamin, but a dietary deficiency severe enough to lead to clear-cut disease has not been described in man. Prisoners of war in Japan during World War II, however, were reported to develop subjective symptoms described as "burning feet" that were relieved by administration of pantothenic acid. (1)
19: (6) indicates that this occurred in 1933, not 1936.
20: The recognition that bacteria and yeasts may require the same vitamins that man requires greatly facilitated recognition of various vitamins. Approximately half the vitamins now known to be required by animals were discovered originally as substances required for growth of one or another of these microorganisms. (1)
21: Dr. Budwig discovered that the blood of diseased persons lacked albumin, an important blood-producing lipoprotein. Albumin is a marriage of linoleic acid and sulfur-based proteins. Without this vital combination of the essential fatty acids and sulfurated proteins, blood analysis showed an unhealthy greenish-yellow substance in place of the red oxygen-carrying hemoglobin present in healthy blood. Without linoleic acid, the blood-producing mechanisms of the body can't manufacture hemoglobin. Without hemoglobin, cells and tissues become starved for oxygen. (42) The complete protein in hempseed gives the body all the essential amino acids required to maintain health, and provides the necessary kinds and amounts of amino acids the body needs to make human serum albumin and serum globulins like the immune enhancing gamma globulin antibodies. (2)
23: As essential as LA and LNA [essential fatty acids] are to our health, they are also very temperamental, and easily destroyed by light, air, and heat. For this reason, care needs to be taken in the processing, packaging, and storing of the oils containing them. Nature packages these essential oils in seeds, in a way that keeps light, air and heat out. (15)
24: Not all fish oils are special, at least in the sense of their health-enhancing capacity. Oils of some fish contain fatty acids that may not be good for us. An example is cetoleic acid (22:1w11), found in herring and capelin oils, which makes up between 12 and 20% of the oil these fish contain. Cetoleic acid is also found, in smaller quantities in the oils of menhaden and anchovetta, and to some extent also in cod liver oil ... Cetoleic acid has been suggested by some to be toxic to heart tissue because it resembles erucic acid, but this suggestion has not yet been verified, and erucic acid has now been found to be relatively harmless. (13)
25: With a "blind" trust, its the public that is kept in the dark, not the public officials.
26: Many CIA personnel originated from the ranks of Yale's Skull & Bones secret society. (3), (22)
27: As defined by Webster's, pharmacology is "the science dealing with the preparation, uses and esp. the effects of drugs".
28: "Growth promoting substances" in this case apparently refers to the essential amino acids.
29: Meyer Lansky had very cozy connections to the CIA. (3) Naval Intelligence maintained direct relations with Mafia boss Meyer Lansky for Anglo-American political operations in Cuba during World War II. (3)
30: The essential fatty acids are also the precursors for even longer and more (5 and 6 times) unsaturated fatty acids which are needed in the most active energy-exchanging and electron-exchanging, as well as oxygen-requiring tissues, especially the brain, retina, inner ear, adrenal, and testicular tissues. They carry the high energy required by these most active tissues, and ensure very high oxygen availability. (15) Essential fatty acids govern growth, vitality and state of mind. LA and LNA are involved in transferring oxygen from the air in the lungs to every cell in the body. They play a part in holding oxygen in the cell membrane where it acts as a barrier to invading viruses and bacteria, neither of which thrive in the presence of oxygen. (2)
31: Cleveland E. Dodge was a member of the American Eugenics Society. (23)
32: Biologists have been coming to the Marine Biological Laboratory to study cell division almost since the Laboratory opened its doors in 1888. Recognizing the advantages offered by marine embryos, generations of scientists have looked to sea urchins, sea squirts, marine worms, and other simpler marine organisms for answers to the key questions of cell and developmental biology: what triggers cell division, and how is it organized? Why does one cell of the growing embryo give rise to muscle, another to the nerve, and another to blood? Where is information about the cell's destiny stored, and how does it get translated into action? A roster of biologists working on these questions at the Marine Biological Laboratory in the Laboratory's fledgling years reads like a who's who of early American biology. Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856-1939), one of the founders of the Marine Biological Laboratory was the first to understand the logic of a unified study of cells, heredity, and the developing embryo. Working on embryos of marine organisms such as sea urchins and marine worms, Wilson discovered the role of chromosomes in determining sex. In the first half of the [20th] century, he literally wrote the book on cell and developmental biology (The Cell in Development and Inheritance). E. G. Conklin (1863-1952) established the relationship between the organization of cytoplasm in the fertilized egg and the subsequent development of specialized tissues in the developing embryo. Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945), who won the Nobel Prize in 1933 for studies on the role of chromosomes in heredity, studied gene action in embryonic development at the Marine Biological Laboratory. (74)
33: Refined sugars and starches are converted to the kind of fats that kill, the sticky, saturated kind of fatty acid, the kind that increases the chance of stroke, heart attack and arteriosclerosis. ... The fatty acids made from sugars and starches increase the likelihood of diseases of fatty degeneration. Excess refined starches and sugars also increase the cholesterol level in the blood. ... High blood sugar inhibits the release of the essential linoleic acid (LA, 18:2w6) from storage in fat tissue and thereby contributes to essential fatty acid deficiency. (15)
34: In several species of rodents and in dogs, lack of vitamin E leads to muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, in rats a deficiency results in sterility in the male and leads to failure to bear young in the female. ... In addition to their functions in animals, the tocopherols act as antioxidants that retard the rancidification of fats. (1)
35: Tuberculosis is caused by infection from a pathogenic bacterium; it is, therefore, basically an "environmental" disease. There is, nevertheless, good evidence that the carriers of certain genotypes contract the disease more easily than do the carriers of other genotypes. (1) Studies of populations in periods of deprivation show a correlation between nutritional deficiencies ... and increase in tuberculosis. (1) Diabetics are especially liable to tuberculosis. (1) Tuberculosis is occasionally encountered in wild animals and birds in their native state; it is much more frequent when they are in captivity, [This, clearly due to a difference in nutrition]. (1) Hemp seed was used to treat nutritional deficiencies brought on by tuberculosis. (2), (14)
36: As in Standard Oil?
37: "Professional Standards", "certification" -- where have we seen this before?
38: Sloan-Kettering is the largest cancer research institute in the world. (39)
39: Hamburg Amerika Line was taken control of by W. Averell Harriman and George Herbert Walker in 1920 in negotiations with it's post World War I chief executive, Wilhelm Cuno and with the line's bankers, M. M. Warburg & Co. (3) Otto Kahn was one of Kuhn Loeb & Co.'s British-affiliated private bankers. He had arranged credit for E. H. Harriman to gain control of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1898. (3)
40: Notice the on-going emphasis on eradication of hemp from the outset.
41: As is still being done today, the desire in the 1930s was to treat drug users as criminals. Considering drug addicts as unfortunate victims in need of medical care or better still, as citizens of a democracy "pursuing happiness" just doesn't lend itself to the kinds of agendas the eugenicists have in-mind.
42: The fisheries appear to do a significant amount of work involving criteria that the fisheries service uses to name their research vessels, this may deserve further attention. Interestingly, by their own admission, NMFS officials indicated that "Living resource ecosystems will inevitably be modified to man's ends [or, at least the NMFS's needs] in many different ways, and natural ecosystems, per se, will not be the entities conserved or managed in the long run. In point of fact, it is doubtful that we have been dealing with natural ecosystems for many years now. ... Conservation and management both stem from value judgments made by society, not science. ..." Later in the same document, they point out, "It has been said often enough that the real problem is not fisheries management or fisheries research, but the management of man. ..." (64) and in another, "The recent growth in wild fish production is less than the rate of growth of the world population ... " (67)
43: Although every racist isn't necessarily a supporter of eugenics, the inverse can be assumed.
44: Interesting choice of words on the part of Mr. Gibbons -- "legally or otherwise" and "product".
45: Anslinger was satisfied being as the only thing he really cared about was fully covered—the essential fatty acid-bearing seeds! See also 1923, 1925, 1998.
46: According to Encyclopedia Britannica, "A few states, notably California, New York, and Connecticut, established similar incarceration-treatment facilities..." (1)
47: That's Mental Hygiene as in E-U-G-E-N-I-C-S!
48: It's always been my experience that when someone ends a statement with "Now don't get me on that" or "don't get me started..." etc., that the subject at-hand is one that is of utmost interest to them. Given that the words exhibited at this point in the phone conversation could have come straight out of Clarence Gamble's or Margaret Sanger's mouth, I wouldn't be a bit surprised to learn that Dr. Munch, besides being a pharmacologist, was also a card-carrying eugenicist. But a mere coincidence? I don't think so.
49: The state government agency assigned to respond to pfiesteria outbreaks in Maryland is still called the State Department of Health and Mental Hygiene!
50: It was also an important idea for investigators who might be interested in the nature, (read, "cause") of sickness and death. I'm not implying here that von Liebig had ulterior motives in carrying-out his research -- that would be rather unlikely. What I am implying is that in support of a eugenics hypothesis, it is important to keep in-mind that hypothetically speaking, were someone to fund medical research posing as a "savior of mankind from suffering", (a philanthropist) , to almost everyone else, (including the research staff) it would be virtually impossible to detect their actual intentions. Indeed, to learn the cause of pain and suffering is to also learn how to cause such pain and suffering. File that for future reference -- pseudo-philanthropy plays an important part in the development of this eugenics hypothesis ...
51: Not to minimize pollution or it's effects on the environment, but were it not for pollution, the NMFS would be without a scapegoat to explain just how millions of menhaden and other such fish continue to die unexpectedly. They would also be unable to explain how or why it was that the same sorts of fish kills were occurring along the coastlines of other countries beginning at practically the very same point in time.
52: Interestingly, during this very same period of time, President Kennedy is reported to be using marijuana to control his own back pain. (28)
53: "as a result of a proved conspiracy". Perhaps this explains why so many so-called drug offenders in prison are sentenced for "LSD conspiracy", "conspiracy to import and distribute", "cocaine conspiracy", "conspiracy to manufacture marijuana", "conspiracy to 'knowingly know' that others are growing marijuana", "conspiracy to transport", "conspiracy to distribute LSD by providing a phone number to an acquaintance of her boyfriend", "marijuana conspiracy", "conspiracy to aid and abet in distribution", "conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute" ... (50)
54: No doubt many of the papers involving plant and animal genetics originated from Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole.
55: Sloan-Kettering's principle director for many years was the late Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss, partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., the Rothschild bankers in the United States. Another prominent director of Sloan Kettering was Dorothy Peabody Davison, wife of F. Trubee Davison, (S&B 1918), son of Henry Pomeroy Davison, a Rockefeller relative who had been the right-hand man for J.P. Morgan. Davison was one of the group of five leading bankers who met with Senator Nelson Aldrich (his daughter married John D. Rockefeller, Jr.) at Jekyll Island in a secret conference to draft the Federal Reserve Act in November of 1910. Henry Pomeroy Davison's son and namesake, Henry P. Davison married Anne Stillman, daughter of James Stillman, head of the National City Bank, [now CitiBank] which handled the enormous cash flow accruing to the Standard Oil Company. H.P. also became a partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (48) F. Trubee Davison was president of the American Museum of Natural History which hosted the Third International Congress on Eugenics in 1932 and Dorthy Peabody Davison's son, Endicott Peabody Davison, was the Skull & Bones attorney representing the Bush family in the 1986 case involving the robbing of Geronimo's grave in 1918 by Prescott Bush, (S&B 1917). (3) Lewis L Strauss by the way, was also the acting head of Herbert Hoover's U.S. Food Administration in 1917. (130)
56: In reference to the laboratory established for him by the Rockefellers, note that in 1929 C.C. Little was the founder of Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor.
57: Interestingly, according to Johanna Budwig in Udo Erasmus' book, Fats and Oils, "Sun-caused skin cancers too, are the result of deficiency of the necessary oils in the skin, and of other nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamins A and B6. " (15)
58: According to the National Association of Margarine Manufacturers, (NAMM), this date is 1878. According to (UNKNOWN REF), the date is 1894. I am unsure which is correct and since there was a discrepancy, and this firm is apparently involved in early sales of margarine, I included both.
59: Though this event was only one of many described in (UNKNOWN REF), this was the only one that an actual date was associated with. The reader is highly encouraged to read the other examples that help indicate why it is that our politicians push for long, unjust prison sentences for various "crimes" such as this one: "Conspiracy to distribute LSD by providing a phone number to an acquaintance of her boyfriend"! (50)
60: David Starr Jordan was chosen as the first President of Stanford University by Andrew White (S&B 1853), founder of Cornell University. (???) In 1912, David Starr Jordan was a Vice President of the International Congress on Eugenics held at London University in England, as were Gifford Pinchot (S&B 1889) and Charles B. Davenport. (49)
61: 12 bedrooms? What is this - a laboratory or a hotel?
62: As noted by (115), as no Jewish person would ever refer to the "Jewish Oxygen Famine of 1939 - 1945", so no Irish person ought ever refer to the Irish Holocaust as a famine.
63: According to author Mark A. Largent, this letter and one in 1907 from Mrs. Davenport to B.K. Bruce both "precede Charles Davenport's interest in eugenics, [and] contains research questions with which he later became involved, and suggest that his wife played as powerful of a role in his increasing interest in eugenics as she did in helping him secure his first academic position at the University of Chicago." Earlier in his article, Largent provides additional support by stating, "Davenport did not turn his interest to eugenics until sometime around 1905, after his wife, Gertrude Crotty Davenport, persuaded him that eugenics was a viable biological research program and he became increasingly involved with the newly founded American Breeder's Association, the first American organization to sponsor the investigation and promotion of eugenics." (186:5) Largent's contention that Davenport hadn't become interested in eugenics until "around 1905" seems in dispute due to 1897 and/or 1902.
64: According to (104), this event was in 1839.
65: This is likely to be the very same laboratory that was previously set up with an experimental kitchen in 1918.
66: The principle species used in the manufacture of fish meal and oil are the menhaden and herring in the United States, the herring in Canada and in many northern European countries, anchovies in Peru and Chile and the pilchard and maasbanker in southern Africa. (1) According to Encyclopedia Britannica the menhaden is characterized as having "... a large head (almost one-third the length of the body)..." and which averages "12 to 15 in. in length and two-thirds to one pound in weight." (1)
67: Black Douglas is clearly in honor of the Scottish Sir James Douglas, whose "many successful raids on the English won him the dreaded name of the Black Douglas." (1)
68: Remember the birdseed manufacturers' preference for using hempseed?
69: S-K is the Saltonstall-Kennedy Act, passed in 1954.
70: At a ton of fish per hour, the researchers must've had to study awful fast!
71: Its always a new disease or organism that amazingly, none of the "experts" through the years have ever seen before! It either "just fell from the sky" or it came from Africa, Russia or some other country where it had originally had "just fallen from the sky".
72: That's fraction as in fractionation or fractional distillation.
73: Why did the Indians stop using Ghee? Who convinced them to switch? Well, if you have an extra $5,000.00 pocket change, perhaps the industry handbook, (UNKNOWN REF) can help provide some real clues. For those of you a bit short on cash, simply search on the web for "margarine". You'll find numerous international distributors of margarine and shortening standing by, ready to undermine peoples health around the globe.
74: Pfiesteria - according to a BBC article was, "originally a harmless plant. But in North Carolina, USA, pollution has caused pfiesteria to mutate into a highly toxic killer preying on fish." (57) Am I missing something here? Pollution certainly may be a factor in triggering cancer but that's a long way from causing a harmless organism to evolve -- in a matter of a decade or so -- into a monster capable of lurking about in the depths, waiting for hapless menhaden fish to swim nearby and suddenly attack them! What is this, the X-Files? If pollution doesn't explain the transformation then that means that the organism has behaved this way for what, centuries? How could science possibly have overlooked such an amazing and deadly phenomena for centuries?! Call me what you will, but I say something else is going on here.
75: So, those scientists in 1964 really weren't capable of studying a ton of fish per hour after all, now were they? Mental weaklings! So what were they doing?
76: David Starr Jordan was a vice president of the First International Congress of Eugenics held at the University of London in 1912. In general, what are the chances that Woods Hole would serve as a stepping stone for at least five registered members of the American Eugenics Society? See for yourself at (23)
77: Sure is a lot of reorganization going on ... Note overall, the on-going containment of the commercial fisheries bureau along with the containment of significant research laboratories.
78: According to the author of (UNKNOWN REF), it was simply called the Eugenics Association.
79: The American Museum of Natural History had direct ties not only to the eugenics movement but also to members of the secretive Skull & Bones Society at Yale. The Second International Congress on Eugenics was held at New York's American Museum of Natural History in 1921 and the Third International Congress on Eugenics was also held there in 1932. (3), (49) F. Trubee Davison, (S&B 1918) was the American Museum of Natural History's president in 1933 and W. Averell Harriman, (S&B 1913) was on it's board of directors in 1918. Henry Fairfield Osborn, president of the Second International Congress on Eugenics, was director of the museum at the time, ( 1921). The Galton Society, founded in 1918, met monthly at the museum.
80: Not surprisingly, many of the 20 research projects are funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Forest Service etc. The "Haynie" part of Zapata Haynie Corp. comes from the Haynie family which began fish oil and meal processing in 1878 at Reedville, Virginia -- today the site of Omega Protein's largest plant. The "Zapata" part refers to George Bush's old Zapata Offshore Oil Co. Incidently, Zapata Haynie Corp. appears to also be involved in the grain milling business.
81: Here's a nice bio: William Henry Welch (1850-1934) Ed. B.A., Yale, 1870; M.D. College of Physicians, Columbia, 1875; extensive post-graduate work in Europe. Advisory council of the American Eugenics Society, 1923 - 1930. Welch was quite active in the eugenics movement. He was a founding member along with Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Davenport of the Eugenics Record Office. Welch served on the original committee of Scientific advisors to the Eugenics Record Office from 1912 to 1918. He was interested enough in world population problems to travel to Geneva for the organizing meeting of the International Population Union. [See 1927] Welch became known as one of America's leading advocates of the newer bacteriology of the Koch school. Among his students were Simon Flexner and Walter Reed. Welch was one of the guiding lights of the Johns Hopkins Medical School. He served as dean from 1893 to 1898 and as chairman of the department of pathology between 1889 and 1916. He was also Director of the School of Hygiene and Public Health between 1916 - 1926; professor of the history of medicine between 1926 and 1930; emeritus after 1930. He was President of the State Board of Health between 1898 - 1922. Founder and President of the Board of Directors of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1901. He was member of the International Health Board and trustee of the Carnegie Institute of Washington 1906 - 1934). He was one of the organizers of the NRC in 1916. He was president of the AAAS in 1906; the American Medical Association in 1910; National Tuberculosis Association, 1910; American Social Hygiene Association, 1916-19, and Honorary President of the National Committee on Mental Hygiene. Welch was without doubt one of the major figures in American science. He was a pioneer in medicine and public health. On his 80th birthday in 1930 eminent men came from all over the world to honor him in Washington with President Hoover as the principle speaker. Welch never married. (109) Let's not forget one of his most significant achievements: Skull & Bones class of 1870. (26), (107) See 1921 to better understand why President Hoover might serve as principle speaker at Welch's 80th birthday.
82: In August 1997 two fish kills involving menhaden were reported in the waters of the lower Pocomoke in the vicinity of Shelltown, Maryland. Here is a description of the condition in which the menhaden fish were found: "90% of menhaden sampled from trawl nets ... had gross lesions. These lesions were varied, but predominantly appeared as circumscribed areas of hyperemia, dermal erosion, and tissue sloughing over the epaxial, abdominal, perianal, or caudal regions. Lesions often appeared to penetrate deeply into the underlying musculature with necrotic tissue debris protruding from the wound. These lesions showed evidence of necrotizing dermatitis and myositis with floccular degeneration of skeletal muscle. Severe chronic granulomatous inflammation with hemorrhage, extensive tissue infiltration by lymphocytes and mono-nuclear cells, and multi-nuclear giant cell formation were also apparent. Where the lesion had penetrated to the abdominal cavity, abdominal organs were often involved; otherwise, involvement of other organ systems was limited. Aseptate fungal hyphae were evident throughout the lesions, particularly in association with granuloma formation. These lesions, both grossly and histologically are remarkably similar to lesions found in the disease syndromes epizootic ulcerative syndrome, red spot disease, mycotic granulomatosis, and ulcerative mycosis affecting fish species, including Atlantic menhaden, throughout the Asia-Pacific area, Australia, and the mid-Atlantic United States." Although lesions from the Pocomoke menhaden are thought to be associated with acute epizootics involving the toxic Pfiesteria complex, the chronic nature of the lesions described implies no direct relationship with ongoing blooms of toxic dinoflagellates. (34) According to another report by USGS, "... a fungus seems to be primarily responsible for lesions in menhaden fish of the Chesapeake Bay. ... The fungus, ... appears to be a pathogenic species of Aphanomyces that has caused identical lesions and fish kills of estuarine and freshwater cultured and wild fishes throughout the Indo-Pacific area, including Japan, Australia, India and Thailand. These fish die-offs in the Indo-Pacific area have been occurring since the 1970s in some countries and became a serious recognized problem in the 1980s. ... Future research will help determine if large numbers of migrating menhaden with open skin sores - such as those caused by the fungal infections - could stimulate the dinoflagellate blooms, including Pfiesteria." (35) These pathogens, which include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, may gain entry because of impaired immune or disease resistance factors or because the natural defense mechanisms of the skin are impaired or breached. ... Scientific evidence of a relation between these lesions and exposure to toxic dinoflagellates is lacking. Laboratory exposures to Pfiesteria have not resulted in similar lesions. ... The finding of massive cell death over the top of the chronic tissue damage in the muscle of fish from the river closure areas suggests these inflamed lesions were present prior to exposure to Pfiesteria toxin. It is possible that large numbers of migrating menhaden with open skin sores could stimulate the dinoflagellate blooms. (36)
83: Why do you suppose that it was written into Federal law that U.S. Government papers be written on hemp paper?!
84: Its interesting that Johanna Budwig noted a similar condition involving fatty acid degeneration involving humans. "Lack of phospholipids provided her with a way to explain the fact that cancer cells often have multiple sets of chromosomes (polyploidy). The genetic material divides, but the membranes (made of phospholipids containing LA) can't be made due to a lack of the material (LA) from which they are made. Cell division remains incomplete." (13)
85: Notice that the laboratory, ambiguously referenced - as though it was not property of the Bureau of Fisheries - is located at Reedville Virginia, where John A. Haynie sited his fish processing plant known today as Omega Protein.
86: Omega Protein is today a subsidiary of Zapata Corporation, George Bush's old company.
87: According to a historical archive at the University of Michigan, Kellogg corresponded with persons including: C.W. Barron, W. Boldyreff, Richard E. Byrd, B. Hodges Campbell, Mary G. Edison, Thomas A. Edison, G. Efromoff, Irving Fisher, Clara J. Ford, Henry Ford, Margaret LeHand, Ernest G. Liebold, Chase S. Osborn, Thomas Parran, I.P. Pavlov, Gifford Pinchot, Hazen Pingree, Sir Horace Plunckett, M. Pomari, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Franklin D. Roosevelt, George Bernard Shaw, William Howard Taft, Ida Tarbell, L. Tissier, Leo Tolstoi, Ilga Tolstoi, and Louis J. Van Shaick. (37) Not surprisingly, three of the correspondents are graduates of Skull & Bones - Gifford Pinchot (S&B 1889) , Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) and William Howard Taft (S&B 1878). (3), (22) Thomas Parran was Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service in 1936. (80)
88: Your tax dollars at work!
89: Prescott Bush is George H. W. Bush's father.
90: Why would the War Food Administration free sperm whale oil from restricted civilian use, if grinding oils, carbon paper, mimeograph inks and typewriter ribbon, etc. were the only typical uses?
91: The referenced date when the tax is "later boosted" is not known.
92: Interestingly, Timothy Dwight, (S&B 1849) was a member from 1872 to 1885 of the American committee for the revision of the English Bible.
93: According to (6), this is Dr. Harlan Jones, a professor of medical physics and physiology at the University of California.
94: I assume that this is the origin of the current-day practice of using hydrocarbon solvents such as hexane or heptane to extract remaining oil residues from pressed seed cakes during oil extraction such as is described by Erasmus in his book, Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill.
95: The Encyclopaedia Britannica indicates that the American Eugenics Society was created in 1905. All other sources that I have encountered indicate that the date is 1922. Be that as it may, one can easily make an argument that the date published by Encyclopaedia Britannica is, at the very least, much closer to the correct date. For one thing, the recognized, first ever national eugenics organization assembled in the U.S. was the eugenics section of the American Breeder's Association (ABA) which was created in 1906. Secondly, a common misconception regarding the eugenics movement in America is that it had no connection to corresponding movements in other countries. This is certainly not the case and the date that the eugenic section of the ABA was created ( 1906) just happens to fall neatly in place just one year after the creation of the corresponding society in Germany and one year prior to the creation of the British equivalent. I find it highly unlikely that the American society was created almost two decades after its counterparts in Germany and Great Britain considering how closely the American eugenicists collaborated with their foreign contemporaries. So, was the AES created in 1922 or was it created in 1906 and merely "formalized" in 1922, perhaps as a means of hiding the movement's international character? You be the judge.
96: This "war" between the two groups is of significant interest here as there is evidence indicating that some forms of mental disease are caused by nutritional deficiencies.
97: According to (133), Hamilton Wright was appointed to his present office on July 1, 1908. In addition, he had been attached to the Department of State since adjournment of the International Opium Commission.
98: The delay here of crediting Rous almost seems like a ploy to focus public attention on a cancer cause alternative away from nutrition.
99: The discovery of this "water soluble factor" is likely a direct result of the experiments performed on the prisoners in Mississippi, also in 1915.
100: The Encyclopaedia Britannica shows this date to be 1943 rather than 1945.
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