Federal government assumes management of the Pribilof Islands fur seal resource.
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, formed on February 9th is the
first Federal agency concerned with natural resource
nation's first fisheries laboratory is established at Woods Hole by the U.S.
Fish Commission, the forerunner of today's NMFS. The first U.S. Fish
Commissioner, Spencer F. Baird, selects Woods Hole for its central location,
support facilities, clean water, and good access to offshore fishing sites. A
survey of marine life in local waters begins. Others conduct research at Cape
Hatteras and on the Great Lakes. Baird personally investigates the alleged
decrease of southern New England fisheries, taking testimony from many
Fish Commission is directed by Congress ... to determine whether a diminution of
the number of food-fishes of the coast and lakes of the U.S. has taken place;
and, if so, to what causes the same is due; and whether any and what protective
prohibitory or precautionany measures should be adopted in the premises....
Baird immediately initiates a broad spectrum of ecological research.
N. Edwards , the first permanent federal employee of the fisheries service is
employed as an all-around technician, a position he holds until his death in
1919. Edwards had no scientific background but was often described as an
"intuitive" naturalist with an encyclopedic knowledge of the ocean
processes and marine life in and around Woods Hole.
Fish Culturists Association appropriates $15,000 for the U.S government to begin
fish culture development, adding aquaculture to the Fish Commission's charge.
March, northern fur seal research on the Pribilof Islands begins when Henry Wood
Elliott of the Treasury Department is sent to the islands to supervise fur seal
management. Under Baird's direction, Elliott conducts the first seal studies,
and his watercolors illustrate every aspect of seal life.
Commission's summer station is set up at Eastport, Maine, and a special herring
study is made.
August 30th, Livingston Stone makes the first collection and fertilization of
salmon eggs at Baird Station on the McCloud River in northern California and
ships them to the east coast by rail. He is also appointed Secretary of the
American Fish Culturist's Association
October 23rd, 30,000 chinook salmon eggs are shipped from California to the East
Coast; all but 7,000 die in transit. About 200-300 hatch and are raised to
fingering size and planted unsuccessfully in the Susquehanna River in March
Fish Commission's summer research station in Portland, Maine, is augmented by
the loan of an 80-ton steamer from the U.S. Navy. Outer waters between Mount
Desert and Cape Cod are also explored with the U.S. Coast Survey steamer Bache
January Stone plants Great Lakes whitefish into Clear Lake, Calif., the first of
many such unsuccessful efforts there.
with a special railway California Aquarium Car leaves Charlestown, N.H. for the
Pacific coast on June 3rd. Approximately 300,000 fish, including catfish, eels,
bullheads, perch, bass, trout, and lobsters, are accidentally planted in
Nebraska's Elkhorn River when a railroad bridge collapses. Stone and his
assistants swim to safety, but three people die in the accident.
July 2nd, Stone releases 35,000 Hudson River shad into the Sacramento River.
Shad transplants continue for several years, and the Atlantic species becomes
well established on the Pacific coast.
publishes the first of the annual USFC reports on the Commission's operations
and research. The series provides a much-needed outlet for scientific reports on
the Nation's fisheries and oceanographic studies. The first edition details
Baird's findings on "The Condition of the Sea Fisheries of the South Coast
of New England in 1871 and 1872."
will allow agents of the U.S. Fish Commission to ride in the baggage-cars and to
attend to the tanks which they have charge."--A. J. Cassett, Pennsylvania
Baird Hatchery on the McCloud River is recognized as a permanent station of the
Fish Commission. From it, fertilized salmon eggs are shipped around the world.
The hatchery site now lies under the waters behind Shasta Dam.
Commission's research work is centered at Noank, Conn., and an attempt is made
to introduce shad to European waters.
combination of federal and private funds make renovation of a shed into a more
permanent, two-story lab at Woods Hole complete with a windmill for pumping
seawater to research aquaria.
Fish Commission presents a large exhibit of fish culture methods and aspects of
American fisheries at the Philadelphia International Exhibition; carp are first
imported from Germany
conductors and Baggage-masters. You will permit his Fish Commission deputy's
cans of living fish to be carried in the baggage cars."--Gen'l
Superintendent, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway Co., Cleveland.
War Department furnished Baird station a military guard this year, which proved
to be a very valuable acquisition.--Livingston Stone.
first successful U.S. east coast sardine cannery is started at Eastport, Maine,
43 years after the world's first sardine cannery began operating in Nantes,
Commission investigations resume at Salem, Mass., and later at Halifax, Nova
Scotia. Federal carp ponds are established in Washington, D.C.
Halifax Fishery Commission is charged with settling the amount of compensation
to be paid by the United States for the privilege of fishing off the eastern
Canadian Provinces and Commissioner Baird is summoned to testity. Baird's
assistant, G. Brown Goode, reports that "The information at that time
available concerning the fisheries was found to be so slight and imperfect that
a plan for systematic investigation of the subject was arranged and partially
undertaken." The full study of America's fisheries and their history and
status would later be published as part of the Tenth U.S. Census.
first salmon cannery in Alaska is established at Klawok.
first major monograph on the menhaden, a prolific and widely useful species, is
published by G. Brown Goode, Assistant Fish Commissioner. The menhaden is still
one of the Nation's most important fisheries, and research into its ecology and
utilization continues today.
R. Shotwell, in a letter to Baird, describes the efforts of a New Jersey gas
company to remove harmful products from distilled coal waste before dumping in
the Delaware River.
U.S. Fish Commission occupies a permanent station in Gloucester, MA to
supplement fish propagation studies ongoing at the Woods Hole Station. This
would eventually become the first seafood technology lab in the United States.
first clam cannery in the United States is established at Pine Point, Maine.
Also, crab is first canned at Norfolk, Va.
breeding of cod and haddock is accomplished at Gloucester, Mass.
Commission publishes six annual or biannual reports totaling 5,650 pages during
1871-78 and they provide a much needed outlet for fisheries and oceanographic
research papers and reports.
Baird initiates a landmark study on the composition of fish to determine their
food and nutritive values. The research, conducted by W. O. Atwater and Charles
Woods, provides important bench- mark data, many of which are still useful
field of fish technology opens with investigations of methods for freezing fish,
and in 1882 net preservatives are studied.
Fish Commission's summer station is located at Provincetown, Mass.
propagation is accomplished cooperatively with the Maryland Fish Commission and
under the direction of Major Ferguson. Distribution of the German carp is also
initiated--a move later rued.
hundred and fifty east coast striped bass are successfully transplanted by
Livingston Stone to the Pacific near Martinez, Calif.
Fish Commission, cooperating with the Superintendent of the Tenth U.S. Census,
dispatches specialists to all parts of the Nation to study and record the
biological, statistical, and practical aspects of all U.S. fisheries. The
results are published in 1887 as a huge, comprehensive seven-volume work on The
Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States.
Fish Commission's first research vessel, the 156.5-foot U.S.S. Fish Hawk is
launched. The coal-burning steamer is built to serve as a floating hatchery in
coastal waters for shad, herring, and striped bass production.
Fish Commission's summer station is at Newport, R.I., where the Fish Hawk
operates for the season. Over 50 Commission investigators are in the field.
Baird receives the first-honor prize at the Berlin Exposition from the Emperor
of Germany, not only for the excellence of the Commission's fisheries display,
but also owing to the international regard of Baird who was widely seen as the
preeminent fish culturist for his successful promotion of fish culture and fish
acclimatization--exchanging fish and fish ova throughout the world.
Addison E. Verrill estimates that in just 10 years, research, mainly by the
Commission, has added 1,000 new species to the list of known marine creatures in
New England waters--not including finfishes. About 100 newly discovered
finfishes were added during the same period on the Atlantic coast.
having a very stylish Washington address (1445 Massachusetts Ave.) Baird is
characterized in an article "Celebrities at Home", as dressing in the
plain and slightly old-fashioned style of a well-to-do country English farmer.
is ... a most wonderful fauna, vastly exceeding in richness and extent on
anything known to science."--S. F Baird, on results of explorations of the
Gulfstream slope 80 miles south of Martha's Vineyard, Mass.
than 260,000 fertilized rainbow trout ova are shipped east from California for
distribution to state fish commissions.
lab receives its first presidential visit, from Chester A. Arthur. Arthur is
taken for a collecting cruise off Woods Hole in the Commission steamer Despatch.
April vessels report countless dead tilefish floating in an area from Georges
Banks to Cape May. A conservative estimate made by Capt. J.W.Collins of the RV
Grampus placed the number of dead fish at upwards of 1,438,720,000 (That's 1.43
billion fish!). Allowing 10 pounds for each fish he estimated this amounted to
288 pounds for every man, woman and child in the U.S. at the time. The mystery
was never explained, but a plausable explanation for the deaths seemed to be a
sudden chilling of the deeper waters along this stretch of ocean. No catch of
tilefish was reported again for 15 years.
March, the 234-foot U.S.S. Albatross, the first U.S. research vessel built
exclusively for fisheries and oceanographic research, is launched. The ironhull,
twin-screw vessel was designed to conduct its marine investigations in any part
of the world's seas
1, for 1881, of the Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission is published
"... for the purpose of utilizing and of promptly publishing the large
amount of interesting correspondence of the Fish Commission in reference to
matters pertaining to fish culture and to the apparatus, methods, and results of
the fisheries.... Parts of the text were distributed signature by signature, the
remainder in bound annual volumes." Now the quarterly, peer-reviewed
journal Fishery Bulletin, this series has been in continuous publication for 115
Hole, Mass., property is deeded to the U.S. Government for the construction of
the Commission's first full-time research laboratory.
suggests that purer forms of salt be used to solve the problem of red cod a
discoloration found in cured cod.
of the laboratory building at Woods Hole begins.
first permanent lab is completed, built on land given for the purpose by a local
resident (Joseph Story Fay) with a combination of federal and private funds. The
building remains useful until 1958. Because of the permanent facility, the
Commission's research vessels Fish Hawk and the world-renowned Albatross begin
to use Woods Hole as a base.
summer, Atlantic shad are transported in a railroad car to the Pacific coast and
planted in Washington Territory and Oregon waters. On return, clams, Tapes
staminea, are collected and brought back to Woods Hole
writes excitedly about acquisition of female and male pygmy sperm whales taken
from Atlantic waters. These whales had been known to exist only in the Pacific
Grampus, another Commission research ship, is completed, providing a
revolutionary new fishing vessel design.
August 19th, Spencer F. Baird, first Commissioner of Fisheries, dies at Wood
Hole, Mass. Confined to a wheelchair in his latter days, he reportedly requested
that he be wheeled around the station for final contact with his handiwork. He
is buried at Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington,
There rises again the thought that kept recurring then, that the sea is very
ancient, that it ebbed and flowed before man appeared on the planet, and will
ebb and flow after he and his words have dis- ppeared; and a singular,
indefinite impression, as if something had passed that was, in some fashion,
great and mysterious, and ancient like the sea itself."-- Edwin Linton,
speaking of the day of Baird's death
Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), private research facility, is established at
Woods Hole, and staff are given free access to Commission Facilities
trout, a western species, is doing so well in eastern U.S. fish culture stations
that shipments of them from the west are discontinued.
September, George Brown Goode temporarily succeeds Baird, but he resigns atter 6
months to devote full time to his duties as Director of the U.S. National
huge and extensive five-section, seven-volume review of the history and
conditions of U.S. fisheries is published by the Commission. Edited by George
Brown Goode, it is titled "The Fisheries and Fishery of the United
January 20th, Congress establishes the U.S. Fish Commission as an independent
agency of the Federal government and terminates its administrative relationship
with the Smithsonian Institution. Marshall McDonald is appointed Commissioner at
a salary of $5,000 per year
Albatross sails to the Pacific Ocean where it is used for fisheries and
oceanographic research and for marine mammal (fur seal) law enforcement patrols
July 4th the first Federal efforts in fishery studies along the North Pacific
coast begin as the Albatross leaves San Francisco to collect marine samples and
observe fish and other aquatic life. It con- ducts fisheries investigations off
the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska
O. Atwater publishes the 200-page report on the nutritive values of various
fishes in the Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for 1888-1889.- It
provides a basic reference on proximate composition of fish and shellfish and
remains valuable today for comparison of composition ranges in relation to
species size and distribution
Pacific halibut fishery is inaugurated as a sailing schooner returns to Seattle
with its catch.
Wilson publishes his classic fish embryology paper on sea bass, based on his
work at the Fish Commission lab.
halibut is shipped to the east coast by rail, and as the market develops and
demand grows, the fishery gradually extends farther offshore.
Albatross is ordered to escort the Dawes Commission along the Pacific coast.
Stone likens the Pacific salmon of Alaska to the buffalo and calls for the
formation of a National Salmon Park.
Albatross carries two presidentially appointed commissions to study the plight
of the fur seal; their reports confirm that seal populations are being seriously
harmed by pelagic (high-seas) seal hunting.
6th, Vineyard Haven, Mass.: About 7 o'clock last evening, during the
southeasterly storm, United States Fish Commission schooner Grampus, bound to
Woods Holl (sic) from Hyannis, ran ashore on L'Hommidieu shoal, Vineyard Sound.
United States Fish Commissioner Col. McDonald, his wife and daughter, Assistant
Commissioner Capt. J. W. Collins and Mrs. Bean and Patten, left the schooner in
a dory, and succeeded in making a safe landing at Falmouth.' The Grampus was
on Stone's recommendations, Afognak Island, Alaska, is set aside as a Forest and
Fish Cultural Reserve.
last of four carloads with 1,000 specimens of fish representing 40 species is
delivered by the Commission to the Chicago World's Fair for a fish culture
contract to complete a fishway at Great Falls, Va., on the Potomac River is
accepted for $15,000.
U.S. Fish Commission becomes responsible for northern fur seal research.
Commission's Division of Propagation and Distribution of Food Fishes is
McDonald steps down as commissioner of the Bureau of Fisheries and Herbert A.
Gill becomes acting commissioner.
research from the Albatross leads Congress to regulate Alaskan salmon fishing
with net restrictions, closed seasons, spawning escapement requirements, etc.
first successful Pacific coast sardine cannery is established at San Pedro,
rainbow trout is now successfully acclimatized in almost every state east of the
Fish Commission publishes "A Manual of Fish Culture," and 60 years
later it is still considered the most complete text on the subiect.
response to commercial obstruction of Alaska's Karluk River, Congress passes its
first salmon protection law.
M. Bowers becomes commissioner of the Bureau of Fisheries.
U.S. River and Harbors Act allows Alaska fishermen to secure a permit granted by
the War Department to buy salmon traps. The War Department's sole interest in
the matter is to assure that the traps would not obstruct navigation.
the first time, total Commission production of fish eggs, fry, and larger fish
exceeds one billion.
western-style purse seine is first used in the Pacific herring fishery,
gradually replacing the Norwegian style of oar-propelled seine boats.
Theodore Roosevelt signs a law for construction of the second Federal fisheries
laboratory in the United States at Beaufort, N.C. Its first director is Henry
Van Peters Wilson, a University of North Carolina professor.
A. Wilson begins summer work at the Woods Hole Laboratory, that culminates in
publication of "The Copepods of the Woods Hole Region Massachusetts",-
a standard reference in copepod biology.
Commission employs a fish pathologlst on a part-time basis.
American Fisheries Society places a granite monument to Baird at the Woods Hole
lab, where it remains today in a public park.
Nation's second Federal fisheries laboratory, in Beaufort, N.C., is occupied on
May 26th. Though not yet complete, it provides a laboratory, aquarium, office,
12 bedrooms, storerooms, etc.
Fish Commission research activities are turned over to the Department of
Commerce and Labor Bureau of Fisheries.
Act of February 14th, the U.S. Fish Commission and the Office of the
Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries are placed in the Department of Commerce and
Labor which is also created by the new Act. The transfers take place on July
formerly independent Fish Commission is named the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. The
new Bureau retains the scientific responsibilities of the Fish Commission and
incorporates other fishery-related functions: i.e. jurisdiction, supervision,
and control over the fur seal of Alaska are assumed from the Department of the
Starr Jordan is chosen to head a commlttee appointed by President Theodore
Roosevelt to investigate the causes for the decline in the salmon fisheries of
first salmon-marking experiments are begun by Fred Chamberlain of the Bureau of
Fisheries in southeastern Alaska.
million whitefish, 100,000 brook trout, 53,000 lake trout, and 50,000 landlocked
salmon eggs leave New York harbor for Argentina. Losses are later reported as
only 10% except for lake trout which began hatching en route.
first Federal hatchey in Alaska is established on a lake at Yes Bay in
1905, the fishing on New England banks was revolutionized by the introduction of
the otter trawl ... which met with a great deal of opposition from many members
of the industry--Herbert W. Graham, writing in 1952.
testing begins on a new wooden shipping case that holds 24 trays of eggs. Each
tray can hold 192,000 lake trout eggs.
Sponge Act is passed as the first assertion of Federal authority to manage
marine fisheries. It set conservation rules for taking sponges from the Gulf of
Mexico and Straits of Florida
a raid on the Pribilof Island (Alaska) seal rookeries, five poachers are killed
by bureau personnel acting in self defense, and a dozen others are jailed
Albatross sails on a lengthy research cruise to the Aleutian Islands, Russia and
Japan, making extensive biological collections and discovering hundreds of new
genera and fishes. Capt. LeRoy Mason Garrett, U.S. Navy, thrown from the vessel
in a violent storm is lost at sea.
1906 cruise of the United States Fisheries steamer Albatross had for its
especial object the investigation of the fish and fisheries of the Japanese
seas, where the ship spent most of the time. The journey out was made by way of
the Aleutian Islands, at several of which they stopped, Petropaulski, Kamchatka,
and the Kuril islands. They returned by way of Honolulu. As the purpose of the
expedition was the investigation of fish and marine invertebrates, and the ship
was usually occupied in work offshore, their opportunities for collecting birds
theyre reather limited, especially as their time was largely taken up by their
duties in connection with the marine work, as the representative of the Bureau
· Unalga Pass (24 May 1906?);
· Dutch Harbor/Unalaska (24-28 May 1906);
· off Bogoslof Islands (28 May 1906);
· Atka (30-31 May 1906);
· at Bower’s Bank (3 Jun 1906);
· off Semisopochnoi (?);
· Agattu (7-8 Jun 1906);
· off Semichi Islands (?);
· Attu (9-11 Jun 1906);
· Copper Island SIBERIA (13-14 Jun 1906);
· Bering Island SIBERIA (15-16 Jun 1906);
· Petropavlovsk/Avacha Bay KAMCHATKA (17-20 Jun 1906);
· off Cape Lopatka SIBERIA (?);
· Simushir KURILES (23-24 Jun 1906);
· Japanese waters and ports (27 Jun 1906-20 Sep 1906);
· Korsakoff SAKHALIN (24 Sep 1906);
· off Cape Patience/Terpenia SAKHALIN (27 Sep 1906);
· off southern KURILES (1 Oct 1906);
· Japanese waters and ports (4 Oct 1906-10 Nov 1906); and
· Honolulu (24 Nov 1906-2 Dec 1906).
From the paper entitled " The Birds Collected and Observed during the Cruise of the United States Fisheries Steamer "Albatross" in the North Pacific Ocean, and in the Bering, Okhotsk, Japan, and Eastern Seas, from April to December, 1906"
Louise Carson is born on May 27th. The famed conservationist, author, marine
biologist, and Bureau employee wrote "The Sea Around Us" (1951),
"Silent Spring" (1962), and other books that heightened public
Albatross leaves San Francisco for a 2-1/2 year cruise to Midway, Guam,
Philippines, Borneo, Dutch East Indies, and Formosa.
second Federal hatchery in Alaska is built at Litnik Lake on Afognak Island,
near the site selected in 1889 by Livingston Stone and on the resereve
established earlier by Presidential proclamation.
Verrill completes his study of the specimens collected during the survey that
began at the Woods Hole lab in 1871. The project has formed the basis of
hundreds of scientific papers on invertebrates. The specimen collection includes
some 2,000 species taken from 3,000 locations in New England and is eventually
given to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard with duplicates in the
Peabody Museum of Yale University.
July 7th the United States~ Great Britain (for Canada)~ Japan, and Russia
conclude a convention for the protection of the North Pacific fur seals that had
been virtually decimated by overhunting on the high seas. This provides a sound
basis for managing the species.
Albatross returns to San Francisco after a trip along the California coast in
which six yearling elephant seals, thought to be extinct, are captured and sent
to the New York Aquarium.
Alaska Fishery and Fur Seal Service is separated from the Division of Scientific
Inquiry and made an operating Division of the Bureau of Fisheries.
Bigelow begins sixteen years of research on the oceanic fisheries in the Gulf of
Maine. This fundamental work, along with extensive investigations with W.B.
Schroeder results in the 1953 treatise "Fishes of the Gulf of Maine,"
a standard reference in the field.
eruption of Alaska's Mount Katmai covers a Bureau salmon hatchery with nearly a
foot of volcanic ash.
Bureau of Fisheries publishes results of a massive bottom sampling program
operated out of Woods Hole, describing the distribution of about 250 animal and
plant species at several hundred sampling stations.
Department of Labor is separated from the Department of Commerce, which retains
the Bureau of Fisheries.
study on age determination of Pacific salmon is begun by Charles Gilbert,
initially using the scales of fish collected from the Columbia and Fraser
small office opens in Seattle's historic Smith Tower Building as an
administrative center for the Bureau's Pacific coast operations.
Department of Commerce and Labor becomes the Department of Commerce.
F. Thompson, an early student of David Starr Jordan's, begins his study of the
halibut fisheries of the North Pacific; later he will become the director of
investigations for the International (Halibut) Fisheries Commission, the
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, and the Fisheries Research
Institute of the University of Washington. This halibut research is the first
scientific study made on the Pacific coast fishery that is aimed at fishery
approves the appointment of a full-time fish pathologist to the Bureau staff.
The Albatross conducts research off Oregon, Washington, and California,
including tuna studies of southern California and Baja California. However,
during World War I, the Albatross is placed under U.S. Navy direction and
patrols the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea region.
Albatross undergoes repairs for a November transfer to the U.S. Navy for the
duration of WWI. It is returned to the Bureau in 1919
emphasis at the lab is changed from general interest to work concentrating on
the immediate increase of aquatic food supplies--a change precipitated by the
onset of World War I. During this time, the Navy occupies the lab.
destroys the fisheries laboratory building at Fairport, lowa, with total loss of
a collection of rare scientific papers related to freshwater mussels.
U.S. Navy takes over the Bureau's Beaufort, N.C., fisheries laboratory in World
War I to study the fouling of ship bottoms, and returns it to the Bureau in
is approved for the first fishery products laboratory, in Washington, D.C. to
house rooms for drying, smoking, canning and refrigerating of fish. An
experimental kitchen is also built.
first of 125 nationwide cooking demonstrations begins in Seattle to show
consumers the best and most economic ways of preparing and cooking fish.
Supreme Count confirms its prior opinion enjoining Alaska Pacific Fisheries
"from maintaining" and compelling it to remove, a fish trap erected by
it in Annette island Waters. Alaska.
Bureau reports that, "In no branch of the fisheries is there greater need
for exhaustive study than in the methods or preservation of fishery
Edwards dies on April 5. Vinal was the first permanent employee of the Bureau of
over all land fur-bearing animals, except those of Alaska and the Pribilof
Islands, is transferred from the Bureau of Fisheries (Commerce Department) to
the Agriculture Department.
reared in lowa are successfully planted along the Potomac River at Harpers
destroys the dining hall, kitchen, and laundry room of the Woods Hole Laboratory
cooperation of the Naval Aviation Service and Chesapeake Bay fishermen, the
Bureau inaugurates use of aeroplanes to locate menhaden.
Albatross is decommissioned and retired from service on October 29th, but the
scientific research into as well as the naming and cataloging of the many
hundreds of thousands of specimens it has collected will continue for decades.
the first time, Bureau of Fisheries scientists begin research to determine fat
contents of fish oils at its Washington D.C., laboratory. Such research would
continue during 1926-30 at a Reedville Va. laboratory on menhaden oil
manufacture. Later Bureau research would target the vitamin content of fish oils
and other healthful and nutritional attributes of fish oils.
salmon studies by Willis H. Rich, in cooperation with the Oregon Fish
Commission, begin on the Columbia River. Meanwhile, salmon studies by Charles
Gilbert begin in Bristol Bay and on Karluk River and Karluk Lake in Alaska.
H. Rich former student of David Starr Jordan, becomes chief of the Bureau's
Division of Scientific Inquiry. He later heads the Pacific Fishery
Investigations at the Bureau's Stanford station and is Director of the Montlake
Laboratory in Seattle.
180 million fish are rescued in the Mississippi Valley and relocated from
overflow ponds and lakes. The practice is abandoned in 1939 owing to improved
flood control measures.
F. Prytherch makes his first report on his work with artificial propagation of
oysters. He works in facilities provided by the Connecticut Oyster Farms Company
of Milford, CT. Increased interest in molluscan culture for stock enhancement
and direct sale eventually leads to establishment of a full-scale research
facility at Milford, which is still a laboratory of the NEFSC, concentrating on
pollution effects on marine life and molluscan and finfish aquaculture.
passes the White Act in an effort to deal with the use of fish traps in the
Alaska salmon fishery. It sets a 50% escapement level for streams where fish
could be counted or reliably estimated giving the Commerce Secretary authority
to limit catches and set seasons, but it does not allow the limitation of the
amount of gear in the fishery.
O'Malley, Bureau Comissioner and a member of the Halibut Commission, sends
Harlan Holmes to Seattle to find working space for the Bureau. A small staff of
Bureau employees work at the University of Washington's Fisheries Hall Number 4
until construction of the Montlake Laboratory is completed in 1931.
Cobb begins to spend his summers working at Woods Hole fisheries lab. Cobb was a
world-known nematode specialist whose contributions included many discoveries
regarding these animals, as well as in the taxonomy of nematodes. Cobb's
outstanding contributions included using these animals to study biological
problems such as heredity, phylogeny, adaptation, and parasitism.
Galtsoff begins lifelong work on the
American oyster which culminates in the extensive classic "The American
Oyster," published by the service in 1952.
Bureau's steamer Fish Hawk is relinquished. Shortly after, the Bureau obtains
the ocean tug Patuxent from the Navy. It is renamed the Albatross II and
outfitted for research use.
Higgins, former student of David Starr Jordan, becomes chief of the bureau's
Division of Scientific Inquiry.
Bureau begins studying problems and methods of fish passage at various water
diversion projects along the Pacific coast.
Iselin (Became director of WHOI) in center, O.E. Sette on right onboard Atlantis
Sette becomes director of the Fisheries lab and brings his pioneering work
tagging and reporting on the schooling of mackerel.
investigations begin on the sockeye salmon in Bristol Bay under Alan Taft and on
the Copper River under Seton Thompson. Investigations on the pink salmon of
southeastern Alaska begin under Fred Davidson.
of Pacific salmon regulations is emphasized, and the Bureau employs 228 agents
using 24 vessels and the Bureau's first airplane.
of oak brush in Georgia's lower Duplin River proves successful for collecting
small coal-burning steamer Phalarope under the command of Capt. R. N. Veeder,
was used for collecting trips to fish traps, or for dredging or taking plankton
samples around Woods Hole.
Sockeye Salmon Fisheries Convention is signed to address conflicts between U.S.
and Canadian fishermen in Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia, where they
compete for sockeye salmon bound for the Fraser River in B.C. Despite the
Convention, questions remain unresolved, including the role of the Commission in
regulation of the fishery, the division of catch between the fishermen of the
two countries, and the agencies responsible for investigations. Bureau studies
of the fishery would begin in 1931.
law enforcement work has long been a part of many U.S. Fish Commission and
Bureau activities, an official Division of Law Enforcement, is not set up until
May 21st, the Preservation of Fishery Resources Act (Mitchell Act) is passed to
provide for the conservation of the fishery resources of the Columbia River.
new Act (H.R. 7405) is approved, authorizing construction of more than 25 Bureau
fish culture stations, three new laboratories, and two fish distribution
railroad cars over the next 5 years.
Loosanoff is hired by Paul Galtsoff (now lab director) to go to Milford and work
with the oyster industry. Loosanoff would eventually become, along with Galtsoff,
a world-class expert on oyster culture.
Carson is hired by the Bureau's Chesapeake Bay Investigations Division as a
William C. Herrington begins his studies of haddock in the Gulf of Maine,
incorporating both fishery dependent and independent information. This work is
the foundation for the longtime series of information on haddock response to
fishing effort in this highly productive region.
Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is established with H.B. Bigelow as its
Bureau's Montlake Laboratory opens on May 22nd in Seattle. Present at the Open
House are Henry O'Malley of the Bureau: Miller Freeman, editor of the Pacific
Fisherman; and U.S. Senator Wesley Jones, author of the Jones Act; as well as
local Bureau staff members and International Fisheries Commission (commonly
known as the Halibut Commission) staff. A 1931 reponse by O'Malley states:
Personnel and equipment of the Stanford field station were transferred to the
new Fisheries Biological Laboratory in Seattle, along with all of the Bureau's
Pacific biological investigations dealing with Pacific coast fishery problems,
except shellfish and the cooperative work on Calfornia trout...
Halibut Commission moves to the Montlake facility in July.
study of the biology of Puget Sound runs of sockeye salmon begins under the
direct supervision of Montlake Laboratory director Joseph Craig.
small, short-term Rogue River steel head trout tagging operation is started in
the winter of 1930-31 and completed in 1931.
extensive herring tagging program begins in southeastern Alaska using the new
metal "belly" tag which can be recovered by a magnetic detection
system on the conveyer belts at processing plants. Ed Dahlgren's ideas led to
the development of this tag, and he also devised and developed the electronic
and magnetic systems for recovering the tagged herring or the tags as they
passed through the reduction plant.
than 4,100 flounder are tagged and released during an investigation into their
migratory patterns near the Woods Hole Laboratory.
Bureau's long-sought experimental station for fish disease research is set up at
Leetown, West Virginia.
cooperative project between the Bureau, Cornell University, and the State of New
York results in an experimental laboratory for fish nutrition research at
Bureau's Beaufort Laboratory is seriously damaged by a hurricane on September
16th- later the Public Works Administration provides funds to hire workers and
restore buildings and equipment.
Davidson is appointed Montlake Laboratory director and focuses on statistical
analysis of fisheries research. He hires a statistical analyst, and, at about
the same time, the Halibut Commission begins to apply Baranof's theory of
fishing to the regulatory problems of the halibut fishery.
Alaska Territorial Civil Works Administrator is authorized to furnish the Bureau
with 198 unskilled laborers to improve salmon spawning streams in southeast
field facilities for pink salmon survival studies are built on Sashin Creek near
the Little Port Walter Field Station in southeastern Alaska. They include the
weir cabin, built in Seattle, barged to Alaska, and still in use in 1995.
Columbia River Investigations program begins at the Montlake Laboratory and is
closely associated with the water use development program for the Columbia River
basin. An early and major part of the program is a comprehensive survey of all
accessible salmon streams in the Columbia system.
coho salmon researchers in Puget Sound, Wash., study the relationship between
the release time of young salmon from the hatcheries and the ultimate number of
returns of adults.
March 10th, Public Law 732 is enacted to provide for the mitigation of losses to
fish and wildlife caused by Federal government construction.
Bureau begins large-scale tagging experiments on white shrimp, and Peterson disc
tags are used to determine growth rates and alongshore movements. Later,
scientists would use biological stains and numbered internal plastic tags to
mark the shrimp.
77 is passed by the Washington State Legislature to eliminate all fixed fishing
gear (i.e. traps and set nets) from state waters and divide the Puget Sound
fishing area into an inner area for gill nets and an outer area for all
remaining legal gear
Carson is recruited by Henry Higgins, head of the Bureau's Division of
Scientific Inquiry, to write scripts for some Bureau radio broadcasts on marine
life. She would serve with the Bureau until 1952.
Sockeye Salmon Fisheries Convention between the U.S. and Canada is ratified by
the U.S. Senate; ratification documents are exchanged between the countries in
F. Fish, stationed at the Bureau's Leetown, W.V., hatchery, reports that an
epidemic of blue sac is causing heavy losses among the brook and brown trout
Congressional mandate, the Bureau establishes the South Pacific Investigations
Program at Stanford University to study the decline in the California sardine
fishery. This program is the foundation of the California Cooperative Sardine
Research Program which would later become the California Cooperative Oceanic
Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program.
Current Resources Laboratory (CCRL), one of the forerunners of today's Southwest
Fisheries Science Center, is established at Stanford University in Palo Alto,
Calif., with O. E. Sette as Director
U.S. Congress appropriates funds for a Fishery Market News Service in the Bureau
U.S. Canada treaty sets up the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission
to manage those regional fisheries and coordinate extensive salmonid research
programs. W. F Thompson is Director of investigations.
hurricane and its accompanying storm wave demolishes many of the Woods Hole lab
facilities, but equipment and boats are relatively undamaged.
expansion of the Alaska fishery research program at the Seattle Montlake
Laboratory begins with a large, comprehensive two-part program of study on the
salmon runs in the Bristol Bay area of the Bering Sea. A field station and
experimental area are established on Brooks River. One part studies the
freshwater life history of the Bristol Bay sockeye salmon and the environmental
factors affecting their survival. The other part studies the ocean life history
of salmon and is done in close cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard using the
cutter Redwing. The studies end in 1941 with the outbreak of WWII and Japan's
invasion of the Aleutian Islands.
authorizes $25,000 to establish a fishery laboratory at Little Port Walter,
Bureau of Fisheries is transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Bureau's monthly publication Fishery Market News begins in January as "a
review of conditions and trends of the commercial fisheries."
Holmes, an expert on fish passage, becomes Biologist-in-charge of the new
Hydraulic Engineering Section at the Montlake Laboratory. The section is to
review all Federal power permit applications and develop, design, and restore
needed fish-passage structures and de- vices including fish screens on the
first trial marking of sardines results in a 10% recovery of 964 metal tagged
sardines recovered by magnets.
1940 Reorganization Plan No. III, effective June 30th, merges the Bureau of
Fisheries and the Biological Survey as part of the Interior Department's Fish
and Wildlife Service; in addition, it provides for the establishment of five
regional fisheries offices. The Bureau of Fisheries and Biological Survey groups
would be separated again in 1956 as the renamed Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
and the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.
Little Port Walter Station opens and as of 1995 is the longest continually
operating fisheries research facility in Alaska.
1872 and 1940, the Fish Commission/Bureau plants and distributes 200 billion
fish and other aquatic animals in national and international waters.
U.S. Congress appropriates $100,000 for a 1-year study of the potential of an
Alaska king crab fishery. The report is favorable and provides many data on
harvest areas, fishing gear, preservation, canning, and the fishery potential.
Bureau's Alaska Technological Laboratory is set up in Ketchikan; it moves to
Kodiak in 1971.
fisheries utilization laboratory operates for a few years in Mayaguez, Puerto
Rico, during the 1940's.
Woods Hole lab is closed, and the buildings occupied by the Navy until the
spring of 1944. Limited scientific work continues in space borrowed from the MBL.
October 23rd Japan terminates the international fur seal convention but
protection for the Pribilol herd is arranged by a provisional agreement between
Canada and the United States.
Carson's first book "Under the Sea Wind," is published just before
Pearl Harbor is bombed. She continues her Federal service as an aquatic
biologist until 1946 when she would become an information specialist and, later,
editor-in-chief of the Information Division of the Fish and Wildlife Service.
C. Herrington publishes his circular entitled "A crisis in the haddock
fishery" based on 10 years of sampling and biological work conducted in
cooperation with the fishing industry. The paper warned of the dangers caused by
a developing market in baby haddock, a situation not unlike that caused by fish
discards in the present era. Herrington maps out the likely results of removing
large numbers of young fish with such precision that the description resonates
in today's NW Atlantic haddock fishery.
for war is the present aim of the Fishery biological investigations of the [Fish
and Wildlife] Service," states the Department's Annual Report.
F. Hildebrand moves to Smithsonian Institution's National Museum to continue his
fish systematics and taxonomy work for the agency. This is the beginning of
todays NMFS National Systematics Laboratory, part of the NEFSC until 1995.
108-page supplement to the May issue of the Fishery Market News reviews
"The Alaska King Crab, noting that Alaska waters hold ... an enormous
reserve of edible fish--notably sole and pollock--which is at present wholly
every major war fought by the United States, the fishing fleet has formed a
second line of naval defense, fishing boats and fishermen being employed in
various capacities for patrol as mine sweepers in supplying protein food to the
armed forces and the civilian population." Charles E. Jackson.
first permanent station was built at Milford. After working out of a building
donated and moved across the harbor by a local oyster company, the staff is
presented with a real scientific laboratory.
World War II, the agency's Ketchikan Laboratory is asked to investigate
potential emergency sources of marine foods in case military activities in
Alaska cause food shortages. It studies various sharks and the Steller sea lion
as well as groundfish and shellfish.
second hurricane ravages Woods Hole, destroying the docks, part of the seawall,
and much of the roofs, windows, porches, and outer skins of Woods Hole
War Food Administration frees sperm whale oil from restricted civilian use,
allowing it to be used for grinding oils, carbon paper, mimeograph inks,
typewriter ribbon, etc.
War Manpower Commission emphasizes the need "for encouraging employees to
adapt more fishing jobs to the employment of women ... women can do much of the
work in fish processing plants that formerly was considered for men only."
Service State Directors are given authority to recommend draft exemptions for
18-25-year-old captains of fishing vessels of 20+ gross tons.
the 600 fishing boats requisitioned for emergency use by the U.S. Army, Navy,
and Coast Guard, 142 are released to the War Shipping Administration by the
military; 13 are returned to their original owners.
dogfish shark, once considered a pest becomes the nation's chief source of
Harry S. Truman issues a proclamation asserting U.S. jurisdiction "... over
the natural resources of the continental shelf under the high seas contiguous to
the coasts of the United States and its territories and providing for the
establishment of conservation zones for the protection of fisheries in certain
areas of the high seas contiguous to the United States."
September issue of the agency's Fishery Market News publishes a warning to the
fishing industry about a new pesticide: In spite of its apparent usefulness in
improving sanitary conditions in such fishing industry plants DDT may have
undesirable and even dangerous effects unless its use is properly
controlled....~ Rachel Carson would later draw on such early Federal research in
writing her acclaimed volume "Silent Spring."
Walford becomes Director of research and reorganizes the entire fisheries
study on the population dynamics of salmon spawning in the tributaries of the
Columbia River begins with funding by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Crossroads the nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll begins and Woods Hole Laboratory
oyster expert Paul S. Galtsoff is an invited scientist on the project.
after the hurricane results in a useable lab and a small number of
fisheries technology lab is established in Boston.
promotion and "home extension" type work by the bureau creates
thousands of new fish recipes, puts on countless fish cookery demonstrations
which taught America how to use fish.
progress in establishing conservation zones in the Pacific and other waters to
protect salmon and other fisheries is temporarily suspended, the State
Department advises of its "Firm intention to resume attention to this
highly important matter at the earliest possible opportunity."
80th Congress declares the policy of developing and maintaining the enormous and
untapped high-seas fisheries resources of the tropical and subtropical Pacific
territories. Public Law 329 leads to the formation of the Pacific Oceanic
Fishery Investigations (POFI) unit and the construction of the agency's Honolulu
interest in health of fish stocks off New England results in transfer of
fisheries investigation offices from Cambridge, MA to Woods Hole.
Albatross III, formerly a steam trawler in the New England groundfishery, is
commissioned in ceremonies at the Boston Fish Pier.
Royce becomes director of the Woods Hole station.
Boston Technological Laboratory initiates a major study of freezing fish at sea.
Columbia River Fishery Development Program begins.
final draft is made of the convention forming the International Commission for
the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF) which will govern fishing in
international waters of the North Atlantic until the middle 1970's.
Carson (center), then chief editor of publications for the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, and Marie Rodell become the first women to spend more than a
few hours aboard a U.S. fisheries research vessel. They reported on the 10-day
cruise to Georges Bank. [Contrary to what is often reported, Carson never worked
at the fisheries lab in Woods Hole. She was, however, at the Marine Biological
Laboratory in Woods Hole while she was a graduate student, beginning in 1930.]
California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI), a consortium
of industry, university, state, and Federal agencies, is established to
investigate causes of the collapse of the Pacific coast sardine fishery.
E. L. Bartlett of Alaska introduces a bill in Congress to provide for the
gradual reduction and ultimate elimination of salmon traps in Alaska waters; a
Department of Fisheries is created by Alaska's Territonal Legislature.
International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries (ICNAF), a treaty
organization, is set up on July 3rd to study and report on fisheries activities
and fish stocks in more than two million square miles of ocean outside the
territorial waters of the nations rimming the northwest Atlantic. Research
activities for areas of U.S interest are largely headquartered at the Woods Hole
Tuna Conventions Act of 1950 is passed to enforce international agreements on
fishing rights, fishery management, and preservation.
CCRL establishes a field station at Pt. Loma in San Diego, Calif., for CalCOFI
River research is focused almost exclusively on problems of fish passage at
dams, especially in the diversion of downstream migrants away from turbine
intakes and other sources of mortality.
sixth regional fisheries office is established in Alaska to facilitate
administration of the Territory's fisheries.
John N. Cobb
RV John N. Cobb is commissioned with a public open house at Seattle, Wash.
field station at Pascagoula, Miss., is established for fishing and gear research
and to catalog marine fauna of southeastern regional waters.
benefits from early Gulf of Mexico exploratory research surveys include
extension of the brown and pink shrimp grounds, discovery of a royal red shrimp
fishery, and establishment of a longline fishery for tuna and swordfish.
RV Oregon becomes the first research vessel designed for exploration of marine
fauna of southeastern waters; it pioneers marine research in the Gulf of Mexico,
Caribbean Sea, and tropical western Atlantic.
Graham becomes director of the Woods Hole station.
investigations begin in the northwest Atlantic, leading to a new and growing
east coast tuna industry.
oceanographer with the Honolulu Laboratory, Townsend Cromwell, discovers a major
new ocean current, now named after him, in the tropical Pacific. It is about
3,000 miles long and carries more than 1,000 times the volume of the Mississippi
first ICNAF meeting is held at Woods Hole.
Tuna Week, November 5-14 celebrates the 50th Anniversary of the tuna canning
industry. In 1903, the entire U.S. tuna industry consisted of one cannery in San
Pedro, Calif., supplied by a few boats fishing nearby waters.
explorations for salmon in the offshore waters of the Aleutian Islands are made
by the John N. Cobb, mainly to develop techniques for fishing salmon with gill
nets on the high seas.
International Convention for the High Seas Fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean
establishes the International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC)
Annapolis Biological Laboratory is opened by the BCF.
of fundamental work, "Fishes of the Gulf of Maine," a standard
reference, By W.B. Schroeder and H.B. Bigelow
Carol strikes Woods Hole, destroying much of the lab and its environs, the
saltwater pipes and pumps, and resulting in closure of the public aquarium for
Coulton and R. Marak begin plankton surveys of the Gulf of Maine and Georges
Bank to determine the drift of eggs and larvae in the area.
population studies of sea scallops begun by J.A. Posegay.
first factory trawler, the British vessel Fairtry, appears in international
waters on the Grand Banks, ushering in the high-tech, high-volume fishing
vessels that play a major role in declarations of 200-mile EEZs by countries of
the NW Atlantic.
83rd Congress passes Public Law 466, popularly known as the Saltonstall-Kennedy
(S-K) Act, which sets aside funds for fishery-product and market research,
fisheries development, and other research.
Cooperative Game Fish Tagging North Program begins at the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institution; it later will be transferred to the NMFS Southeast
Fisheries Science Center
first survey to determine the distribution of salmon in the eastern North
Pacific Ocean is made in the spring by John N. Cobb, and is followed later this
year by similar cruises with two chartered halibut schooners, the Mikkov and the
Paragon. The general distribution of North Pacific Ocean salmon will be firmly
established by 1961.
first coastwide samples from the Atlantic menhaden reduction fishery are
acquired; sampling is continuous during the next 40 years.
appropriates money for rebuilding the Woods Hole lab after hurricane damage.
Boothbay Harbor Lab is administratively separated from Woods Hole.
biological research associated with the Alaska finfish fisheries (except that
being performed for the International North Pacific Fisheries Commission) is
transferred from the Montlake Laboratory in Seattle to Juneau.
1956 through 1964, the Montlake Laboratory studies and defines the biology and
populations of king crab in the eastern Bering Sea.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service establishes two bureaus-the Bureau of Sport
Fisheries and Wildlife (BSFW) and the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (BCF) with
the Boothbay, Woods Hole, Milford, Boston, and Annapolis Labs going to BCF.
Tuna Oceanography Research (STOR), composed of Scripps Institution of
Oceanography (SIO) oceanographers and largely supported by BCF, is established
in La Jolla, Calif.
full reorganization of the USFWS early in the year, Donald L. McKernan is
designated Director of the new BCF. The Bureau now has a headquarters and five
regional organizations including 80 field installations, plus the Pacific Ocean
Fishery Investigations office in Hawaii.
February 9th a new interim North Pacific Fur Seal Convention is concluded by
Canada, Japan, the USSR, and the United States similar to the 1911 Convention.
Japan had withdrawn from the 1911 convention in 1941.
Bureau's new Fisheries Loan Program begins operation late in the year, initially
with assistance from the Small Business Administration.
exploratory longline fishing in the North Atlantic reveals several species of
tunas in an area north of their previously known winter ranges and within 15
hours sailing time of Massachusetts Nantucket Lightship.
the end of the year, a large number of Gulf of Mexico shrimpers have converted
from single-trawl to the more efficient two-trawl rigs.
new protocol to the U.S.-Canada Sockeye Salmon Convention of 1930 be- comes
effective in July, extending the same type of protection to the pink salmon
fisheries of the Fraser River system as that provided the Fraser's sockeye
exploratory fishing operations off Alaska locate new Pacific ocean perch and
the first time, shrimp discovered off Washington in earlier BCF research cruises
by the John N. Cobb are fished commercially and landed.
assumes the administration of the Columbia River Fishery Development Program
which had begun in 1948. Construction begins on three new salmonid hatcheries
and two major fishways. Program hatcheries release 65 million salmon and
research in the central, eastern, and northern Pacific reveals that Japanese and
American fishermen are exploiting the same stocks of albacore.
redfish tagging at Eastport, Maine, provides the first direct evidence that the
growth rate of this species is extremely slow, less than one-sixth inch in 9
research shows that the yield of sea scallops in the North Atlantic can be
materially increased by regulating the sizes of the rings used in the scallop
markets are found for Lake Erie rough-fish, as the pet-food and mink food
industries take nearly the entire catch of freshwater sheepshead.
research conclusively shows that improved processing and packaging techniques
can extend the storage life of frozen fishery products by many months. Bureau
technologists publish a conprehensive five-part manual on handling, processing,
freezing, storing, and distributing fresh-frozen and precooked and frozen
fishery products, the only authoritative reference on all phases of the frozen
fishery product industry.
home economists develop thorough series of fish and shellfish recipes for use by
the Food Service Div of the Army and Air Force and by the Quartermaster Food and
Container Institute of the Armed Forces
fishing industry help, the Bureau organizes a safety program to reduce the
number of accidents on fishing vessels.
Bureau begins participation in the international Geophysical Year (IGY)
operations as its Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations unit occupies an
oceanographic station off Oahu, Hawaii.
Bureau's Honolulu Biological laboratory initiates a program to study tuna
behavior in their natural environment.
at the Woods Hole station begins with demolition of old buildings.
new laboratory is established in Pascagoula, Miss., for regional fisheries
July article in the Bureau's Commercial Fisheries Review by Charles Butler,
entitled "Nutritional value of fish in reference to atherosclerosis and
current dietary research," notes the early interest in heart disease and
the eating of fatty foods, and discusses the implications of current knowledge
of atherosclerosis as applied to the marketing of fish. An S-K study is
initiated on the relationship of fish oils to circulatory diseases.
passes the Alaska Statehood Act, and the new state will eventually be
responsible for its fish and wildlife resources.
agrees, under terms of the North Pacific Fisheries Convention, to abstain from
salmon fishing on the high seas of the North Pacific east of long. 175 deg. W
while research continues to determine the proper line to divide Asian and North
American salmon stocks equitably.
first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea convenes in Geneva during
February-May, with 86 nations participating. The U.S. delegation uses background
documents on U.S. and world fisheries during the deliberations. For the first
time, broad agreement is reached on a system of rules to guide nations toward
preserving marine species. A fishery attache post is established in Tokyo in
conjunction with the State Department Foreign Service Program.
shows that red salmon of the North American type appears to predominate in the
North Pacific as far west as long. 175 deg. E.
Bureau's Biological Laboratory at Stanford, Calif., obtains indices of air
circulation changes over the North Pacific for a 32-year period (1926-57) and
studies their effects on sea temperatures, up- wellinq, and fish populations.
new fleet headquarters opens at Kewalo Basin for the 10-year-old Honolulu
begins in Honolulu on the use of paper chromatography to identify adult tunas
and tuna larvae. Bureau scientists continue their IGY participation by studying
the Pacific Equatorial Undercur- rent (Cromwell Current), a newly discovered
easterly flow beneath the Equator of about 30,000,000 m^3/second.
Bureau's Galveston Biological Laboratory successfully tests a new shrimp-marking
technique using vital stains which remain with the shrimp even as they molt.
Research shows that Everglades bays are an important nursery area for the
Tortugas pink shrimp and that brown and white shrimp peak in abundance at
different seasons of the year.
Biological Laboratory scientists develop a method for estimating the relative
abundance of each new year class of menhaden prior to its entry into the
commercial fishery, allowing accurate catch predictions for each year class.
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries moves its laboratory in Annapolis to a site in
Oxford, Maryland to be in a better site to investigate MSX disease, which has
wiped out commercial oyster concentrations in Chesapeake Bay.
Fisheries Technology Lab is opened in Ann Arbor.
Hole Biological Laboratory scientists develop a method to determine the age of
scallops using marks on the shell and ligament as annual rings.
fluorinated nitrophenol chemical, discovered the previous year, is used to treat
eight streams entering the Great Lakes. Developing lamprey larvae are killed,
bringing hope for an effective control of this fish predator.
prototype automatic deicing and weighing machine is developed and tested by
Bureau technologists to increase efficiency of unloading fish at the dock.
scientists show that introducinq fish oils into the diet markedly reduces high
serum-cholesterol levels; test animals also show more rapid growth rates than
control animals. The researchers also develop an accurate method for measuring
the nutritive value of fish meals through controlled-diet feeding studies.
tilapia rearing program in href="http:/cgi-bin/goto.pl?hHonolulu to provide
baitfish for tuna vessels produces over 1,000,000 tilapia fry.
new Biological Laboratory is set up in Washington, D.C., to study the mechanisms
by which the elements of the marine environment affect commercially important
fishes and invertebrates.
new fishways are completed on Columbia River tributaries for a total of 20 major
fishways constructed since the Columbia River Fishery Development Program began
Jolla Biological Laboratory researchers design a high-speed plankton sampling
device to study the continuous distribution of plankton in the environment of
the sardine. And, using erythrocyte antigens as genetic indicators to study
subpopulations, they find three sardine blood systems, designated A, B, and C.
underwater viewing chamber is installed in the stern of the BCF vessel Charles
H. Gilbert to facilitate tuna behavior studies.
insecticide reports show DDT is toxic to adult white shrimp at concentrations of
15 ppb; endrin and lindane are toxic to postlarval shrimp at 0.5 and 2.0 ppb,
respectively; and endrin is also highly toxic to fish, killing the sailfin molly
at 2.5 ppb.
fishing operations off North Carolina find an extensive commerical hard-clam bed
and sizeable concentrations of calico scallops.
new test method to determine quality is developed at the Colleoe Md., Technology
Laboratory and is put to use in the Bureau's inspection and certification
technologists at the Gloucester Laboratory demonstrate the practicality of using
refrigerated sea water (RSW) to store whiting prior to processing.
October 13th the "Don McNeil Breakfast Club Show" includes a fish for
health message to 30 million listeners, announcing a major nutritional
breakthrough resulting from Bureau- sponsored research which indicated the value
of fishery products in lowering blood cholesterol levels.
Fish Cookery," a Bureau- financed motion picture, is honored with a showing
at the 1959 American Film Festival.
new Biological Laboratory is established at San Diego, Calif., to investigate
tuna ecology and tuna fishing operations in the eastern Pacific and to apply
specific oceanographic and biological findings to problems of the west coast
South Atlantic fisheries exploration and gear research program begins.
Bureau is called upon to intensify fishing treaty enforcement and foreign
fishing surveillance in international waters, especially off the Alaska coast
where Japan and Russia have concentrated their greatest fishing efforts.
management of Alaska's commercial fisheries ends on December 31st as the new
state's agency assumes that responsibility.
newly recruited team of biologists, histologists, and parasitologists begin a
long-term study of diseases, including MSX, of molluscs at the Oxford
nation's first saltwater sport fish lab is established by BSFW at Sandy Hook,
NJ. Dr. Lionel Walford is its first director.
Boston Technology Lab is moved to Gloucester.
at the BCF Seattle Technological Laboratory on composition and taste of various
sharks finds wide variability in palatability between shark species.
Bureau s northern fur seal and whale research studies are combined in Seattle
and designated as the Marine Mammal Biological Laboratory.
Auke Bay Laboratory near Juneau opens to house the Alaska fisheries research
Pacific Northwest trawl fleet begins catching bottom fish off Washington on
grounds newly discovered by the BCF research vessel John M Cobb.
February, the Honolulu Biological Laboratory makes the first successful transfer
of skipjack tuna from the sea to a holding pool ashore; it is the first time
that oceanic skipjack have been held for more than a few hours or have been
induced to feed. In addition, albacore, bigeye, and bluefin tuna larvae,
previously unknown, are tentatively identified, opening the way for studies of
their seasonal and geographical distribution and abundance throughout the
Galveston Biological Laboratory announces significant advances in identifing
specific penaeid shnmp larvae; early larvae derived from known parents were
obtained for three species and comparable results are anticipated for several
researchers discover extensive calico scallop fishing grounds over a
1,200-square-mile area off the Florida coast. Also 1,000,000 pounds of hard
clams are taken by commercial vessels from a new bed discovered last year by
Bureau scientists off North Carolina.
Hole lab is completely reopened in the new buildings.
dedication ceremonies open the Bureau's new Technological Laboratory in
at Woods Hole find that oysters suspended from rafts on cultch strings reach
commercial size in less than half the time needed by bottom-grown stock in the
same areas, and mortalities are less than one-fourth of those grown under usual
milestone in Great Lakes sea lamprey control is achieved with the chemical
treatment of all lamprey-producing streams feeding Lake Superior. Treatment of
Lake Michigan and Lake Huron streams to eradicate lampreys begins in cooperation
with the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
chemists demostrate the use of thin layer chromotography for isolating and
characterizing chemical classes of lipid compounds in fish oils, a new basic
test procedure for chemical laboratories.
Alaska fisheries exploration and gear research program is initiated, based at
Juneau. Also, the use of radioactive materials in biological research is new,
and a radiobiological consultant is assigned to the BCF Central Office to advise
Bureau laboratories on use of radioactive materials in biological research.
Feb. and April, more than 220,000 inches of newspaper food column space are
devoted to fish topics, of which one-third is based on the Bureau's consumer
education releases to food editors.
studies of the Pacific sardine show that there is a genetically distinct stock
in the Gulf of California, the third sardine subpopulation to be found in the
Bureau establishes the Tiburon Marine Laboratory near San Francisco, Calif., to
conduct research on migratory gamefishes.
Bureau's Biological Laboratory in Honolulu develops a new method for predicting
the seasonal catch of skipjack tuna for the Hawaiian Islands based on the time
of zero rate of temperature change of the ocean climate--the time and rate of
warming and salinity change occurring during late February and early March of
research locates promising fishing grounds off North and South Carolina for
vermillion snapper, grouper and scup.
BCF research vessel Delaware tests the effectiveness of trawls with various
parts made of polypropylene, finding these new nets to be more efficient than
the standard manila trawls.
first comprehensive program to study juvenile salmonid migrants in the Columbia
and Snake Rivers is initiated.
research into the drastic declines of Lake Erie blue pike and walley produces
evidence of marked environmental changes, including increases of chemicals
related to domestic and industrial wastes. Severe oxygen depletion is found over
thousands of square miles of the lake along with dramatic changes in the
abundance of fish-food organisms livinq on the bottom.
researchers develop new analytical techniques to produce better fish oil
fractions and devise new methods to determine rapidly the chemical components of
new Bureau-produced film "Fishing the Five Great Lakes" makes 20 such
educational films in national distribution. Since 1946, the Bureau's educational
motion pictures have earned 18 national and international film festival awards.
Bureau begins a major study of the manufacture of fish protein concentrate (FPC),
a fine powder containing essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins necessary
for human health. The FPC is viewed worldwide as a potential human dietary
supplement that could combat world hunger while creating a use for under or
response to increasing numbers of foreign vessels fishing along U.S. coasts, the
Bureau increases its surveillance efforts to ascertain possible effects on U.S.
August 30th, Congress authorizes construction at Milford, Conn., of a shellfish
laboratory for research and training.
Bureau's new 65-foot exploratory fishing and gear research vessel Kaho is
commissioned in late October and based at Saugatuck, Mich., for Great Lakes
Loosanoff, the first station director, moves from the Milford laboratory to the
Tiburon Lab where he stayed until his retirement. The next laboratory director,
Dr. James Hanks, stays with the service in that capacity until 1984.
approves a marine geology program for the USGS, and a five-year geological
survey of the continental shelf and slope between the U.S./Canada border in the
north and the tip of Florida on the south. Although the focus of the study is
marine geology and topography, scientists at Woods Hole process the benthic
samples taken in this project for biological specimens. This is the first and
last large-scale baseline benthic survey conducted in the U.S. Atlantic.
BCF biologist/writer/editor Rachel Carson publishes her landmark environmental
book "Silent Spring," drawing in part on BCF and other Federal and
university studies on pesticides like DDT.
George B. Kelez is acquired for the Seattle Laboratory from the U.S. Navy, and
for the first time it allows the Bureau's oceanographic and high-seas salmon
studies to be extended into the winter season.
new fishery for royal red shrimp begins off Florida's east coast and in the Gulf
of Mexico, and 19 commercial trawlers are converted for it within the year.
Bureau explorations first discovered the deepwater shrimp grounds in 1956.
active commercial fishery for snow crab develops in southeastern Alaska waters
as a result of Bureau explorations.
on October 9th, authorizes $10 million for construction and operation of the
"National Fisheries Center and Aquarium" in Washington, D.C., for
fisheries research and displays.
Bureau's foreign fishery reporting program expands, receiving regular fishery
reports from about 90 U.S. embassies and consulates and the three full-time
fishery attaches in Copenhagen, Tokyo, and Mexico City.
Bureau makes it's first whale marking and observation cruise off southern
California and northern Baja California to determine the condition of the North
Pacific whale stocks and those pursued by the two U.S. whaling companies.
2-year emergency Alaska salmon research program concludes, having determined the
carrying capacity of the freshwater spawning and nursery areas of the state,
with a better understanding of the Pacific salmon runs and their management, and
with data needed for renegotiation of the International North Pacific Fisheries
Convention in 1963.
Bureau's first winter high-seas salmon survey cruise in the North Pacific finds
a significant concentration of immature red salmon in a broad area about 200
miles south of Kodiak Island and helps toward understanding the distribution and
survival of salmon at sea. Methods are also developed to distinguish between
North American and Asian pink salmon.
scientists at the La Jolla Laboratory studying the early development of fishes
use a temperature-gradient block to study the development of one group of fish
eggs at 18 diHerent temperatures simultaneously.
new Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass., is dedicated on June 23nd. The
3-story building has 24,000 square feet of floor space devoted to wet
laboratories, as well as other laboratories, offices, a scientific library, and
a conference room. A second building houses maintenance facilities and an
insurance underwriters offer a 5% reduction in protection and indemnity
insurance premiums for all New England fishing vessels that install new trawl
wire level-winders on the main winches of the vessels as a result of the Bureau
s fishing vessel safety program.
new 187-foot research vessel, the Albatross IV, is delivered to the Woods Hole
Laboratory in November; a contract is also awardad for another new 158-foot
vessel to be named the Townsend Cromwell for use in the central Pacific.
shellfish genetics research begins at the Bureau's Milford Conn. Biological
Laboratory, and the goal is to produce strains of oysters and clams with better
growth ratas, disease resistance, and market qualities.
cooperative shark tagging program of the NEFC begins, with about a dozen
volunteer taggers. Today the program has several thousand volunteers worldwide
and is the source of most of the data collected on the migration, reproduction,
growth, longevity, and exploitation in the Atlantic.
era of aggressive prosecution of fisheries by factory trawlers in the NW
Atlantic and an equally active era for the cooperative research projects between
NEFSC scientists and those of the other nations involved in ICNAF. During this
period, NEFSC staff took part in more than 200 at-sea research projects, on 40
different vessels, representing 8 nations.
NEFC autumn bottom trawl surveys begin. These are the source of the longest
continuous time series of marine research vessel sampling data in the world. For
the finfish survey, about 300 sites are randomly chosen in waters 2 to 200
fathoms deep off the NE U.S. from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras. Spring
surveys are added in 1968.
ceremony is held for the new BCF Fishery-Oceanography Center in La Jolla. Calif.
565-ton Townsend Cromwell. a 158-foot reseanch vessel, is completed. It has a
top speed of 13.5 knots, a 10,000- mile cruising range, and can perfomm a wide
variety of scientific missions anywhere in the world s oceans and under most
severe weather and sea condions
biologists are placed on some Japanese trawlers and factory ships in the Bering
Sea and the Gulf of Alaska, obtaining data on the catch by species, area, and
quantity, and on gear efficiency.
sciantists confirm the successful use of tetracycline antibiotic marking of
fishes with marked adult silver salmon returning in the fall to the Clatskanie
Hatchery on the lower Columbia River
gear research demonstrates that electrified trawl net can significantly improve
the efficiency of commercial shrimp trawling methods.
analyses of Atlantic coast shore-station sea-surface temperature records show a
warming trend which started near the turn of the century and reached a peak in
the early 1950s
of a chemical toxicant in Lake Superior streams reduces lampreys there by over
80%, bringing a substantial increase in the average size, survival, and spawning
populations of lake trout.
Bureau participates in two international oceanographic expeditions: The
International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) and the International Cooperative
Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic (ICITA).
215 million pounds of fishery products are inspected and certified by Federal
inspectors in 17 states nationwide. Since 1956, the Bureau has developed grade
standards for 14 fishery products upon which the inspections and certifications
programs to prevent botulism in smoked fish and salmonella are initiated when
several consumers are stricken by those microorganisms.
begins on a new laboratory at Milford, CT. The staff occupies the new station in
new fishery-oceanography center in La Jolla, Calif., is dedicated on October
31st. BCF s CCRL and Tuna Research Laboratory, along with the Inter-American
Tropical Tuna commission (IATTC), STOR, the CalCOFI Coordinator, and U.S.
Geological Survey (USGS) field station per- sonell move into the new facility.
BCF s Seattle Technological Laboratory initiates research on the Pacific
whiting, then called hake, another potentially large fishery.
Bartlett Act, Public Law 88-308, of May 20th, prohibits fishing in U.S.
territorial waters by foreign-flag vessels unless allowed by treaty. Pre-MFCMA
(1976) territorial waters were within 3 miles along most US coastlines.
at the Bureau's Seattle Biological Laboratory use the results of pioneering
studies in serology, or blood group analysis, to identify several subpopulations
of salmon in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.
new MPDI (Marine Products Development Irradiator) is dedicated at the Bureau's
Technological Laboratory in Gloucester, Mass. By processing up to 1 ton of fish
per hour at 250,000 rads, scientists can study the extension of seafood shelf
life by using radioisotopes to destroy the bacteria that cause food spoilage.
first coastwide samples from the Gulf of Mexico menhaden reduction fishery are
acquired, and sampling is continued through the next 31 years.
Hook sportfish biologists begin long-term investigations into egg and larval
fish surveys, red tide, and behavior of adult blue fish
surf clam and ocean quahog surveys begin at tha Woods Hole Laboratory, providing
a continuous time series of species information comparable to that supplied by
the finfish survey sampling program since 1963.
completing a BCF charter, the St. Michael fishes Pacific whiting successfully in
Puget Sound, Wash., taking about 100 tons in 13 tows; it is the first commercial
fishing operation for this species in the North Pacific area and the beginning
of a new regional fishing industry.
the first time in a laboratory, blue king crab,Paralithodes platypus, are raised
from the egg through four zoeal stages and one glaucothoe larval stage.
Biological Laboratory scientists find scale characters useful in distinguishing
Asian from Bristol Bay, Alaska, sockeye salmon, and for identifying stocks of
intermingled salmon in the Gulf of Alaska from various North Amencan river
systems. Pink salmon are also identified to their area of origin by scales.
Biological Laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Fla., establishes a cooperative nationwide
system to monitor nearly a dozen organochlorine pesticides using monthly
analyses of clam, mussel, and oyster samples from 150 coastal stations.
ecological benchmark of the distribution and abundance of groundfish on New
England banks is completed, based on 3 years of intensive surveys with Bureau
Bureau's comprehensive systematic and anatomical study of the giant tunas, genus
Thunnus, is completed, and a study on systematics and distribution of sharks
Milford, Conn., Biological Laboratory begins a long-term study of the genetics
of commercial mollusks aimed at hybridization and selective breeding.
Honolulu Biologicat Laboratory establishes a sampling station on Palau for
studies on the substantial skipjack tuna fishery in the Trust Territories of the
Anadromous Fish Conservation Act is passed to conserve, develop, and enhance
anadromous fisheries covered under international agreements and the fisheries of
the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain,
171-foot RV David Starr Jordan, a new BCF research vessel, replaces the
35-year-old, 150-loot Black Douglas at the La Jolla, Calif., research center
an increase in the fishery demonstrated, California legalizes the taking of
anchovies for meal and oil. The Bureau's research laboratory in La Jolta,
Calif., shifts emphasis from sardines to anchovy.
Hook staff begin studies of experimental reef fisheries
BSFW establishes a laboratory at Narragansett, RI to take on the gamefish
responsibilities of the Sandy Hook laboratory, which began to concentrate more
on habitat and environment
new law passed on November 2nd authorizes the development of economical
processes for producing fish protein concentrate from unutilized and
underutilized species of fish
recognizes the need for a comprehensive, long-range oceanography program and
passes the Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act of 1966 (MAREDA)
which sets up a National Council at the Secretarial level with a 15-member
Commission. Later, Congress amends the MAREDA with the href="http:/cgi-bin/goto.plNaltional
Sea Grant College and Program Act of 1966.
passes Public Law 89-658, extending the U.S. fisheries zone 9 miles beyond the
3-mile territorial sea, making a full 12-mile zone in which the United States
will exercise the same exclusive rights in respect to fisheries as it has in its
territorial sea. This is in response to the increased foreign fishing activity
off the U.S. coasts.
with the Ketchikan Technological Laboratory discover a new method for peeling
Alaska's pink shrimp quickly and maintaining their quality and color, thus
overcoming a major obstacle to commercial production.
biologist at the Auke Bay, Alaska, Biological Laboratory devises a new type of
lightweight, simple, and inexpensive plastic driftcard to chart surface ocean
currents. A patent on it is secured for the Bureau.
and contract personnel create a new model sonic tag to place inside fish. Tests
on adult chinook salmon and steelhead trout at the Bonneville Field Station are
Bureau's California Current Resources Laboratory in La Jolla rears Pacific
mackerel and sardines from the egg to an advanced juvenile stage in its
expermental seawater aquarium.
Honolulu Biological Laboratory completes the "Oceanoqraphic Atlas of the
Pacific Ocean," providing a definitive summany of data from more than
50,000 oceanographic stations taken by various agencies between 1917 and 1964.
It also describes the environment of every known and potential fishery resource
of the Pacific Ocean.
Honolulu scientists also develop evidence leading to the identification of one
of the last large untouched tuna resources in the world in the Central Pacific
Ocean, an intermediate size group, only a small portion of which is fished from
marketing personnel introduce such underutilized Gulf of Mexico species as
mullet, Spanish mackerel, calico scallops, and soft clams to restaurant chains,
state school lunch programs, and state institutions.
Bureau's Environmental Oceanic Research Program in Washington, D.C., completes
detailed bottom topographic mapping of the Middle Atlantic Continental Shelf and
arranges for publication of the maps by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
first commercial shellfish hatchery opens on the Pacific coast it and nine other
private shellfish farms use data and techniques derived from research at the
Bureau's Milford, Conn., Biological Laboratory.
large study is completed into conditions causing drastic changes since 1900 in
fish populations in Lake Michigan. Important factors include high fishing
intensity and the explosive increase in the sea lamprey population in the 1940
promoting fishery products, Bureau efforts produce over 74,000 column inches of
space in newspapers and magazines with a total readership of over 300 million
subscribers or purchasers. In addition, Bureau home economists develop and test
633 recipes during the year for consumers, as well as for institutional, school
lunch, and restaurant use.
new cooperative study is begun on the northern anchovy on the Pacific coast to
assess the species abundance, distribution of various life stages, and rates of
fecundity and mortality, to facilitate its conservation,
at the Bureau s Biological Laboratories at Galveston, Tex., and Pascagoula,
Miss., help deterimine the feasibility of using crewed spacecraft to obtain
natural resource infommation. Particular emphasis is on determination of sea
surface temperatures, current patterns, sea state, shoaling processes,
bioluminescence, and productivity. Sensing devices being tested employ
photography, radar, infrared, Passive microwave, and spectroscopy.
Fur Seal Act is passed to protect the fur seal herd and administer the Pribilof
Islands in the Bering Sea.
Jellyfish Act is passed to protect fish and shellfish resources in coastal
water, promote water-based recreation, and to control and eliminate jellyfish
and other aquatic pests.
Bruce B. Collette (with R.H. Gibbs) of the National Systematics Laboratory
publishes a benchmark work on the comparative anatomy and systematics of tunas.
campaigning Hubert H. Humphrey visits the Woods Hole facility, with Sen. Edward
Kennedy, for a full-press walk-about.
of the era of ecologically-based fisheries research and management in the
January 9th President Lyndon B. Johnson appoints the 15 members of the Stratton
Commission who immediately begin their study of the Nation's marine problems and
southwest laboratories (CCRL and the Tuna Research Laboratory) are merged into
one and the director, Alan Longhurst, also becomes EASTROPAC (Eastern Tropical
Pacific) Director and launches the 4-year expeditionary EASTROPAC program which
seeks to learn the distribution and abundance of skipjack tuna resources and to
understand how fish distribution is related to the oceanography of the eastern
Sandy Hook Laboratory begins studies of natural and artificial marine reefs
which lead to several national and regional programs to create new artificial
new $3 million 215-foot ocean research vessel, the Miller Freeman, is launched
and it is designed with laboratories and equipment especially for North Pacific
oceanographic and fisheries studies. In addition, several field stations are
established on the Columbia River and Puget Sound.
salmon aquaculture program is established at the Bureau's Seattle Laboratory,
with a field station at Manchester, Wash., on Puget Sound. The station soon
demonstrates the rapid growth of coho salmon in salt- water rearing pens from
0.3 ounces to a marketable 8-ounce size in just 6 months.
immersion freezing of fish, the Bureau's Technological Laboratory at Terminal
Island, Calif., finds that Freon 12 effectively preserves and maintains tuna
quality and that residual levels of Freon 12 are low. Propylene glycot is also
studied as a freezing agent.
of pelagic fish larvae, a problem for over a century, is improved at the Bureau
s Fishery-Oceanography Center in La Jolla, Calif., where sardine, anchovy,
Pacific mackerel, and more than 20 other species are reared from egg to advanced
juvenile or to adult stages.
culture production, which grew from just a few thousand pounds in 1963 to 15
million pounds in 1965, gets new impetus from the Bureau s cooperative technical
assistanca project which helps finance a technical assistance program for the
industry in nine U.S. south central states.
studies begin on the culture of four shrimp species which have been hatched and
reared to postlarvae in the Bureau's Galveston, Tex., Biological Laboratory.
data acquired by scientists at the Bureau s Biological Laboratory at St.
Petersburg, Fla., aids in obtaining the first denial of a dredge-fill permit by
the Corps of Engineers owing to the effect upon living resources and based on
provisions of the Fish and Wildlife Coordination act.
Bureau and three Gulf states begin an inventory of estuarine resources under the
auspices of the Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission.
Oregon II replaces the Oregon as the research vessel at the Pascagoula, Miss.,
laboratory. It discovers new stocks of northern tilefish in the Gulf of Mexico
which average 6-6 pounds--the first evidence of commercial concentrations of
mature tilefish in the region.
series of cooperative U.S.-U.S.S.R. fishery surveys are conducted in the Middle
Atlantic Bight to provide a common base to estimate stock abundance and manage
the harvests. Participating are the Bureau's vessel Albatross IV and a Russian
vessel likewise named Albatross.
by the Bureau and coagencies to control the predatory prey in the Great Lakes
shows progress: Lake trout populations Superior increase almost 35 percent over
at Bureau Technlogical Laboratories in Seattle, Wash., and Ann Arbor, Mich.,
show that the shelf life of perishable foodstuffs can be increased by placing
them in gaseous environments that inhibit growth of spoilage organisma Different
ratios of the gases CO2 O2 and N2 have been tested alone and in combination with
new program at the Honolu labratory is designed to increase the yeild and
efficiency of the pole-and-line fisery for skipjack tuna as well as the
efficency of the Hawaiian longline fishery. Efforts are also under way to
develop fisheries for high-seas skipjack tuna and for fish and shellfish other
Hook staff begin a special investigation to evaluate the effects on marine life
of oceanic disposal of sewage sludge. Journalists dub the study area "the
new research units are established at Seattle's Montlake Lab to study the
physiology and biocheistry fish and the effect of thermal and petroleum products
(and other environmental contaminantsl on fish.)
spring and summer, exploratory BCF fishing demonstrates the feasibility of using
large steel pots to catch offshore New England lobsters in deep water,
stimulating commercial fishermen to enter the fishery.
contract is awarded in October to build a demonstration FPC plant in Aerdeen,
Wash., to show the commercial feasibility of FPC and to get operating and cost
data for such an operation,
at the Seattle Technological Laboratory modify a refrigerated brine technique
used to freeze tuna by incorporating dissolved CO2 in it. The new technique
increases the shelf-life of samon by 10-18 days because the CO2 inibits
and Japanese scientists cooperatively study several U.S. fish species as
potential ingredients for surimi, a frozen fish product used in Japan to make
fish sausages and fish cakes. Studied are the spiny dogfish, starry flounder,
and several Pacific coast rockfishes.
Technological Laboratory researchers demonstrate that otherwise wasted proteins
can be inexpensively and simply recovered from diluted solutions in processing
plant effluents. Comparative feeding tests (protein efficiency ratio) indicate
that the nutritive value of the complexed protein is about equal to the value of
the noncomplexed protiein.
Biological Laboratory researchers show that skipjack tuna of the western Pacific
(which forms Japan's largest tuna fishery) differ genetically from those of the
eastern and central Pacific, with the dividing line at about long. 155 deg. E
near Marcuis Island. The discovery is based on chemical analyses of the tuna's
Pascagoula Technology Laboratory removes a roadblock to the marketing of snapper
fillets: A newly devised chemical treatment with TDP and cryovac packaging
prevents fillet and skin discoloration and curling during cooking.
at the BCF Beaufort Biological Laboratory conduct what is believed to be the
largest fish tagging program in the world, tagging more than 844,000 menhaden in
five areas off the Atlantic coast. The 93,000 recovered tags provide much
information on the species migrations.
with the Gloucester Technological Laboratory conceive and benchtest a simple
oyster-shucking procedure using microwave heating to open the shells. The
technique later shows a 50% increase in shucking productivity without reduction
in total meat vields.
Gloucester Laboratory also discovers that the characteristic iodine flavor of
the ocean quahog can be removed by several washings, allowing the species to be
used in such products as chowders or clam puffs.
laboratory begins pioneering study of fish irradiation as a method of extending
Stratton Commission presents its final report on January 11th and recommends
creation of a new Federal entity-a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency to
include initially the BCF and other Federal marine and anadromous fishery
functions, the National Sea Grant College Program, and other agencies.
first rearing of larval tunas beyond the yolk-sac stage from eggs collected in
the ocean is reported by BCF scientists at the Tropical Atlantic Biological
Laboratory at Virginia Key, Fla.
schools are first counted and measured by sonar off California from the BCF's
research vessel David Starr Jordan.
BCF diver-scientists participate with the U.S. Navy, NASA, and other
diver-scientists in the new TEKTITE I project, spending 60 consecutive days on
the ocean floor at a 50-foot depth.
at the Seattle Biological Laboratory provide estimates of growth, morality, and
other data for Pacific whiting and Pacific ocean perch; this research forms the
basis for the U.S. position in discussions with the U.S.S.R. to reduce its
Bay Laboratory scientists provide U.S. negotiators and management agencies with
background data on king crabs in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The data
help U.S. representatives obtain a 48% reduction in the king crab quotas of
Japan and the U.S.S.R.
Honolulu Biological Laboratory successfully tests another baitfish the
freshwater threadfin shad, to replace the native nehu. This shad is as effective
as the nehu in the skipjack fishery and survives better in baitwells.
Biological Laboratory researchers track a small tuna with an ultrasonic
transmitter and find that it traveled farther at night than in daylight and was
always at the surface at night-leading to the possibility of developing a night
mid-water pup-tent-shaped structures placed off Panama City, Fla., in July
attract commercial quantities of round scad, scaled sardines, and Spanish
sardines as much as 25 tons of fish--and consistently attracting 0.5-5.0 tons
New England haddock decline since 1966, due partly to heavy Soviet fishing, is
accurately predicted by BCF scientists who have studied the fishery since 1931.
new Remote Underwater Fisheries Assessment System (RUFAS) is developed by the
Pascagoula Laboratory as a remotely controlled underwater sled equipped with
television and motion picture cameras which can be towed at varying depths.
the first time ever, tuna eggs, collected at sea, are hatched in a laboratory
and the young survive about 3 weeks. href="http:/cgi-bin/goto.pl?http://www.sefsc.noaa.gMiami
Biological Laboratory staff collected the eggs from a sample of mixed plankton
from nearby waters.
at the Ann Arbor Biological Laboratory provide data on fish contamination that
lead to banning or reducing the use of DDT in some states adjacent to the Great
Lakes. The studies also show that the ordinary preparation of fillets of fish
such as perch produces an edible product well within safe tolerance limits.
Bureau establishes a small environmental forecasting unit of the U.S. Navy's
Fleet Numerical Weather Center in Monterey, Calif., to identify the part of the
Navy's vast oceanographic and meteorological data that can be used for related
fisheries oceanographic forecasting.
Bureau and the University of California study 175 female northern fur seals
found at San Miguel Island, Calif.--the first confirmed record of these seals
breeding on other than the Pribilof Islands.
first meeting of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic
Tunas (ICCAT) is held in Rome, Italy, beginning a period of U.S.-foreign
cooperation in research on important oceanic fisheries.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is formed. The Bureau of
Commercial Fisheries and the saltwater labs of the BSFW become its National
Marine Fisheries Service. In subsequent reorgnization actions, the Ann Arbor
Biological Station is moved to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. There is a
prposal to close both the Milford and Ann Arbor Technology Stations. The
Gloucester Lab is moved under the Division of Fishery Products Technology,
Office of Management Services, along with the nation's other fisheries
L. Freeman and Lionel A. Walford at the Sandy Hook lab begin collecting
information that will eventually become an eight- section atlas describing sport
fish distribution, abundance, life history, and industry shoreside facilities
from the Gulf of Maine to the Florida Keys. The atlases are published between
1974 and 1976 under the title "Angler's Guide to the United States Atlantic
scientists in La Jolla, Calif., successfully spawn the northern anchovy in the
laboratory, the first time any important commercial pelagic fish has been
induced to spawn under artificial conditions.
Office of Resource Research is formed. The National Systematics Lab and the
Atlantic Environmental Group are moved into that office.
Boothbay Harbor Lab is closed and its functions moved to the Woods Hole Lab.
Ann Arbor Fisheries Technology Lab is closed.
White, first NOAA Administrator, establishes four major offshore fisheries
research centers throughout the Nation: the Northwest and Alaska Fisheries
Center (NWAFC), Southwest Fisheries Center (SWFC), Northeast Fisheries Center (NEFC),
and Southeast Fisheries Center (SEFC). They report to NMFS headquarters. Three
coastal fisheries research centers, which report to Regional Directors, are also
established: Gulf Coast Fisheries Center (GCFC), Atlantic Estuarine Fisheries
Center (AEFC), and Middle Atlantic Coast Fisheries Center (MACFC). The basic
five-regional office structure is retained.
Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC) is established by the Secretary of
Commerce to advise on marine fisheries resource issues.
on fish protein concentrate production culminates in construction of an
experimental plant (which began operation in March) and issuance of U.S. Patent
3,598,606 for a novel washing pro- cedure that removes the bulk of the lipids.
to reduce mortality of porpoises caught accidentally in tuna fishing operations
are evaluated by the SWFC.
are developed at the SWFC for rapid countinq and aerial mea- surement of fish
schools by sonar.
scientists successfully rear coho salmon in floating saltwater pens - a
technique that shows great promise as a commercial salmon production venture.
and lightweight deepwater fish traps are developed at the NWAFC, found to be
effective, and are adopted commercially.
Auke Bay Laboratory scientists survey prior to and after detonation of nuclear
device at Alaska's Amchitka Island; no significant damage to marine fauna or
environment is found.
international tagging program is reviewed by the NEFC Narragansett Laboratory
which describes blue shark migration routes.
scientists find fin rot disease in fish to be caused by several pathogenic
bacteria. Incidence of the disease appears to be related to environmental
amoebae and bacteria from several fish and shellfish are identified and
characterized by MACFC scientists.
scientists complete an atlas on the distribution of tunas and billfishes in the
scientists successfully test a low light level image intensifier system to
locate fish schools at night by detecting the bioluminescent halo that surrounds
scientists determine optimum culturing techniques for larval shrimp and for
diatoms used as shrimp food.
scientists document the rate that fish colonize newly constructed canals and
assess the freshwater requirements of marine fishery resources in coastal
Louisiana and south Florida.
scientists prove that the Atlantic menhaden resource is composed of one stock of
migrating fish. Gulf research indicates that menhaden populations east and west
of the Mississippi River may constitute separate stocks.
scientists develop mathematical models that indicate that a large proportion of
total marine productivity is required to support exploited fish populations.
National Fisheries Engineering Laboratory is located at the National Space
Technology Laboratories (Miss.) to launch a remote sensing program and to modify
satellite technology to support fisheries research. It is renamed the Bay St.
commercial whaling ends as of December 31st.
Director Philip Roedel announces that the agency, under NOAA, has a much broader
charter than its predecessor agencies and is now resource-oriented rather than
Marine Mammal Protection Act is passed and establishes a moratorium on taking
marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas.
Coastal Zone Management Act is passed to provide guidance, expertise and funding
to help states protect and manage U.S. coastal areas.
first, the spawning of haddock in captivity at the NEFC Narragansett Laboratory,
program for reef fishery descriptions and analyses for southeastern U.S. water
Bay St. Louis, Miss. Laboratory installs the first computer-based scientific
data-logging system aboard the Albatross
GCFC is dedicated at Panama City Fla., to study the biology and ecology of
coastal marine fishes, with emphasis on Sport species.
Central Western and South Pacific Fisheries Development Act is passed to
establish a program for the development of tuna and other fishery resources of
those Pacific regions.
Fisheries Loan Program receives more than $2.2 million this year. Since 1956,
$31.3 million has been loaned to fishing vessel owners.
Endangered Species Act is passed to protect species and populations whose
numbers are small or declining; NMFS is responsible for marine species under the
Atlantic Environmental Group is moved to the NEFC Narragansett Laboratory. The
group analyzes the marine environment of western North Atlantic and its
influence on fishery resources.
of large volumes on ocean variability within the U.S. Fishery Conservation Zone
begin. Staff at the Narragansett Laboratory are in the forefront of mapping and
tracking physical and chemical processes in relation to fish distribution,
abundance, and stock composition.
NMFS-wide Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment, and Prediction (MARMAP)
Program is established, based largely on the advice of NEFSC staff members Dr.
Ken Sherman and Dr. Robert Edwards. The project forms the basis for uniform data
collection necessary for fisheries management, and critical to the ecosystems
approaches now being developed by fishery management councils. Data collected
over time includes biological surveys of fish, fish eggs and larvae, predators,
prey, water circulation, sea temperatures, water column structure, biological
production, and pollution.
NMFS Atlantic Environmental Group is moved from Washington, D.C., to the NEFC
NMFS Gloucester Laboratory initiates a landmark program on quality assurance of
fresh fish fillets, including a U.S. Department of Commerce Inspection Program,
which provides for quality assurance tests at dockside, at the processing plant,
and at retail outlets.
sensing applications to fisheries research in southeastern U. S. waters are
stimulated when SEFC scientists find significant relationships between water
color and Gulf menhaden distribution pat- terns.
Auke Bay Laboratory (ABL) in Alaska becomes a part of the NWAFC.
mandatory Marine Mammal Observer Program is implemented in the U.S. purseseine
fishery for yellowfin tuna in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.
November, 30,000 young silver salmon reared at the NMFS Tiburon Laboratory are
released. Many will return in 1976 to San Francisco Bay, which never before had
Mid-Atlantic Center is incorporated into the Northeast Fisheries Center.
National Laboratories and Technology Labs are incorporated into the Centers,
with the National Systematics Lab the AEG, and the Gloucester Tech Lab organized
into the NEFC.
Helgoland undersea habitat project was conducted in the Gulf of Maine to study
spawning behavior of sea herring. The equipment belonged to Germany, the project
logistics were conducted by Poland, and scientists on the study hailed from five
countries, including the U.S.
sea scallop surveys begin at the NEFSC, providing a continuous time series of
species information comparable to that supplied by the finfish survey sampling
program since 1963.
NMFS Tiburon Laboratory near San Francisco becomes another element of the SWFC.
195 cases are investigated relating to the Marine Mammal Protection Act as are
381 cases involving endangered species and related products including seizures
of quantities of sperm whale oil and teeth, raw baleen and scrimshaw.
Magnuson Fisheries Conservation and Management Act is signed into law. The NMFS
mission becomes the study of commercially fished species and the environmental
factors affecting their numbers and health.
Polish Plankton Sorting and Identification Center in Szczecin, Poland opens for
business. The facilities and staff were established and trained in a
multinational effort in order to process samples taken in the massive ongoing
research efforts during the ICNAF era. Scientists from the NEFSC were
instrumental in training staff to identify and classify zooplankton and in
helping establish laboratory procedures. The Sorting Center proved so successful
that it is still operating today.
Pacific Environmental Group, now the Pacific Fisheries Environmental Group (PFEG)
in Monterey, Calif., becomes another element of the SWFC.
NMFS Southeast Fisheries Center is reorganized to include the research that had
been done under four smaller laboratories. Headquarters are in Miami, Fla., and
additional research facilities are in Beaufort, N.C.; Charleston, S.C.; Miami
and Panama City, Fla.; Bay St. Louis and Pascaooula, Miss.: and Galveston, Tex.
October 1st, The Northwest Fisheries Center in Seattle officially becomes the
Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center (NWAFC).
NMFS consolidation on the east coast incorporates the Woods Hole, Sandy Hook,
and Narragansett Laboratories with four regional laboratories into the Northeast
Pacific Utilization Research Center is brought into the NWAFC and renamed the
Utilization Research (UR) Division.
Pascagoula Laboratory Harvesting Systems Division develops the first defined
efficiency value (Q) for a sampling trawl.
agents investigate and assist with a stranding where 28 false killer whales are
successfully unbeached and returned to sea at Dry Tortugas, Fla. All but one
long-term environmental monitoring program was established by the NEFSC in its
Ocean Pulse and Northeast Monitoring Programs. This project was later expanded
to a nationwide project, NOAA's Status and Trends Program in 1984-85.
the extremely cold winter of 1977-78, SEFC scientists first discover the
apparent hibernation of sea turtles, finding loggerhead sea turtles
overwintering and sheltered in the mud of the Port Canaveral, Fla., ship
Bruce Collette and others publish a paper definitively showing that Spanish
mackerel prevalent in the Gulf of Mexico and along the U.S. East Coast were a
species distinct from Spanish mackerels known in Brazil. These results convinced
U.S. fishery managers not to base decisions on the only available biological
data, which was from the Brazilian fishery, preventing a sure failure since the
Brazilian fish were larger, and had very different maturity characteristics.
College Park Technological Laboratory is moved from Maryland to Charleston,
S.C., and renamed the Charleston Laboratory.
SEFC begins an extensive gear research and development program to reduce the
incidental capture and mortality of sea turtles in shrimp trawls, leading to the
development of various trawling efficiency devices (TED's).
conducts tests to develop excluder panels that keep turtles from being caught in
shrimp nets while permitting shrimp harvest.
and green sea turtles are listed as threatened for all populations worldwide.
April 1st, four NMFS biologists set up camp in snow caves at Cape Lisburne,
Alaska, to study and count endangered bowhead whales during their spring
Bay St. Louis Laboratory designs an at-sea porpoise impoundment system for
marine mammal research in the Gulf of Mexico.
NMFS Pascagoula Laboratory and the Engineering Laboratory at Bay St. Louis,
Miss., are merged to form the Mississippi Laboratories.
February the NWAFC Marine Mammal Division is designated as the National Marine
Mississippi Laboratories designs the prototype satellite-linked porpoise
tracking tag which successfully charts the position of porpoises off Hawaii.
March 12th, scientists of the NWAFC Resource Assessment and Conservation
Engineering (RACE) Division discover a large concentration of walleye pollock
eggs in Shelikof Strait, Alaska, near Kodiak Island. In subsequent years
researchers measure the spawning population and trace the movements of the eggs
and larvae. This research has expanded into The Fisheries Oceanography
Coordinated Investigations (FOCI) program, a joint effort with NOAA scientists
at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory.
original FCMA is officially renamed The Magnuson Fishery Conservation and
Management Act (MFCMA) in honor of Sen. Warren Magnuson.
Mississippi Laboratories achieves success with its prototype satellite-linked
sea turtle tracking tag in the Gulf of Mexico.
NMFS Mississippi Laboratories Harvesting Systems Division develops the first
turtle excluder device to prevent capture of endangered sea turtles in shrimp
staff become part of the boundary dispute that had been simmering between the
U.S. and Canada over how to divide Georges Bank in light of 200-mile EEZs
claimed by both countries. Outlining species distribution, abundance, spawning
areas, and traditional uses of commercial fishermen in the areas, the staff
reports generated over several years formed the basis of the ICJ decision
dividing the Bank.
SWFC promotes cooperative interregional rapport on west coast groundfish
research and oversees an NMFS technical committee to plan a groundfish
conference as an annual forum for reviewing and coor- dinating NMFS groundfish
research with the states, academia, and Canada. The first Groundfish Conference
is held in Gleneden Beach. Ore. November 18-20
computer-based albacore fishery and resource modeling effort is under- taken by
SWFC staff and University of Washington contract scientists.
major compilation of the research on the chemical composition and nutritive
values of fishes and fish products is published by SEFC Charleston Laboratory
Southeast Area Monitoring and assessment Program (SEAMAP) is initiated. It is a
collaborative State/Federal University effort for collection, management, and
dissemination of marine data from the U.S Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and
Caribbean regional waters.
Lacey Act Amendments are passed to make it illegal to trade in fish wildlife, or
plants taken in violation of any U.S. or Indian tribal law, treaty, or
NMFS Northwest Regional Office moves to the first completed building at the new
NOAA Western Regional Center at Sand Point in Seattle.
Northern Pacific Halibut Act is passed to enforce the terms of the U.S.-Canada
agreement prohibiting fishing by unauthorized foreign vessels.
Southeast Region's SEAMAP Resource Survey begins in cooperation with the Gulf
States Marine Fisheries Commission.
SEFC begins a series of research cruises to develop an effective strategy to
understand latent or underutilized fishery resources. The studies help generate
new fisheries for the Gulf butterfish and other species. Coastal herrings and
associated species are estimated to have a potential yield of up to 5 million
metric tons per year.
scientists develop yield-per-recruit models for the major species found along
the southeastern U.S. coast and set the pattern for reef fish management by the
Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Fishery Management Councils.
March 10th, the FCZ is designated as the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) by
August 15-18, the NMFS sponsors the Symposium on Ontogeny and Systematics of
Fishes in La Jolla, Calif., an international symposium dedicated to the memory
of its late scientist Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom.
James Hanks steps down as Milford laboratory director after 22 years.
NWAFC's Center Director's Office and its RACE and Resource Ecology and Fisheries
Management (REFM) divisions move to the new NOAA Western Regional Center at Sand
Point in Seattle. The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) also moves to the
August 18th, a plane carrying four biologists from the National Marine Mammal
Laboratory crashes into the frigid waters of the Arctic Ocean during bowhead
whale surveys. Miraculously, all survive.
Eastern Pacific Tuna Licensing act of 1984 is passed to issue and enforce rules
protecting designated species of tuna under the Eastern Pacific Tuna Fishing
Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act is passed to assist in the conservation,
restoration, and management of the species and enforce compliance with the
Interstate Fisheries Management Plan for Striped Bass.
U.S.-Japan squid surveys in the Gulf of Mexico are initiated at the NMFS
arsonist destroys the Sandy Hook laboratory building housing the research
aquarium facilities, many records, and the library.
NMFS Southwest Region signs the first Memorandum of Understanding between the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and NOAA/NMFS for fisheries habitat enhancement.
NMFS Northeast Fisheries Center's Woods Hole Laboratory is rededicated in
August, celebrating its first century of research accomplishment and service.
scientists begin a new fish oil program to help the biomedical community
ascertain the effects of the omega-3 fatty acid subcomponents on human health.
Systematics Laboratory staff publish a paper identifying various species of
spiny lobster from the tails alone. This was to address difficulties military
purchasers were encountering with buying "U.S. origin only." The paper
was reprinted by Osprey Books as a mass-market illustrated guide popular with
processors and buyers.
SWFC develops strategic plans for the joint SWFC-SWR-California Department of
Fish and Game Marine Recreational Fisheries Program.
Congressionally mandated, 5-year program to survey dolphin populations in the
eastern tropical Pacific is launched, and the first expedition is carried out
using two NOAA research vessels.
petitions the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to seek affirmation of menhaden
oil and partially hydrogenated menhaden oil as being Generally Recognized as
Safe (GRAS), culminating 9 years of research into the chemistry of fish oils and
the history of their safe use.
Interjurisdictional Fisheries Act of 1986 is passed to distribute Federal money
to the states for use in developing research programs to enhance the management
of interstate fisheries.
multi-year collaboration among NEFSC scientific staff and outside colleagues
results in publication of a comprehensive atlas of Georges Bank, a benchmark
work published by MIT Press under the title "Georges Bank"
SWFC plays a vital role in the development and signing of the MEXUS-Pacifico
agreement for fisheries cooperation between Mexico and the United States.
South Pacific Tuna Treaty between the governments of certain Pacific Island
States and the U.S. government is signed in Papua New Guinea, giving U.S. tuna
fishermen access to over 10 million square miles of rich fishing grounds in the
signs a joint Memorandum of Agreement with the Port of Los Angeles for the
largest wetlands restoration project (600+ acres) in southern California (Batiquitos
Driftnet Impact Monitoring, Assessment, and Control Act is passed to monitor,
assess, and reduce adverse impacts of driftnets on marine fisheries.
data collected by the Sandy Hook laboratory the Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) closes the 12-mile sewage sludge dumpsite in the New York Bight.
John Pearce of the NEFSC chairs the New Jersey Governor's Blue Ribbon Panel on
Ocean Incidents which leads to a State of the Ocean report, quelling rumors and
misperceptions about the New York- Middle Atlantic Bight water quality.
SWFSC receives the Group Award for Excellence from the American Institute of
Fisheries Research Biologists, in recognition of the Center's outstandinq
achievements in marine biological research.
South Pacific Tuna Act is passed by Congress, implementing the treaty between
the United States and various Pacific Island states, covering prohibitions and
licensing procedures for tuna fishing and authorizing NMFS to carry out U.S.
obligations under the treaty. The SWR establishes a field office in Pago Pago,
American Samoa, to take species composition and length-frequency samples of U.S.
catch from the Treaty area, inspect vessel logbooks, and facilitate the
placement of observers aboard vessels.
NWAFC is divided into the Alaska Fisheries Science Center and the Northwest
Fisheries Science Center
Maurice Stansby Fish Oil Biomedical Test Materials Laboratory is dedicated at
the NMFS Charleston Laboratory.
first comprehensive film on shrimp trawl design and performance is produced by
the Mississippi Laboratories Harvesting Division.
receives a report of three gray whales trapped in ice near Barrow Alaska. For
three weeks, NMFS leads an international rescue operation that allows two of the
whales to swim free from the ice on October 28th.
James J. Howard Marine Sciences Labratory - Sandy Hook NJ Laboratory
groundbreaking ceremony is held for a planned state-of-the art laboratory
facility for oceanic and estuarine marine research to replace the Sandy Hook
laboratory facility destroyed by fire.
Coast Watch Program begins receiving satellite imagery of sea surface
temperatures used to study and manage red tides and sea turtle/fishery
winter run of chinook salmon in California's Sacramento River is listed as a
L. MacKenzie, Jr. of the NEFSC Sandy Hook Laboratory publishes "The History
of the Fisheries of Raritan Bay," a modern classic of regional history
combining information on fisheries and science.
Mississippi Laboratories Harvesting Systems Division develops a protocol for the
qualification of new turtle excluder devices using captive-reared turtles.
Mississippi Laboratories Harvesting Systems Division develops Bycatch Reduction
Devices (BRD's), selective gear modifications to reduce catches of nontargeted
species in shrimp trawls. It also develops new trawling technology for sampling
and harvesting coastal pelagic species in the Gulf of Mexico.
value of U.S. commercial fisheries landings are at over $3.5 billion at dockside
with economic value of recreational fishing an additional $13.5 billion.
--Letter from American Fisheries Society to U.S. Senate Committee.
a symposium organized for the purpose, Sandy Hook staff report the results of a
four-year study into the recovery of marine life and habitat at the 12-mile
dumpsite off New Jersey. The intensive, multidisciplinary effort described
changes in the physical oceanography, sediment processes, and biota. The results
will be reported in a dedicated issue of a peer-reviewed journal in 1995.
nationwide Coastal America Program (CAP) is established. The SWR chairs the
first meeting of the CAP Southwest Regional Implementation Team, composed of
representatives from the Department of the Interior, EPA, Corps of Engineers,
interdisciplinary team of scientists headquartered at Woods Hole begins the
first large-scale ecosystems study of Georges Bank GLOBEC. The resulting work
will be the first attempt to describe and model the processes and marine life on
the bank as a complete system.
Convention for the Conservation of Anadromous Stocks in the North Pacific Ocean
is signed in Moscow by Canada, Japan, Russia, and the United States establishing
the North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission.
North Pacific Anadromous Stocks Convention Act repeals the North Pacific
Fisheries Act of 1954 and implements protective measures for salmon and shad.
NOAA/NMFS lawsuit results in successful judgment prohibiting the Glenn-Colusa
Irrigation District in California from violating the ESA by diverting Sacramento
River water during the endangered winter-run chinook salmon migration period
Central Valley Project (CVP) Improvement Act is passed to balance competing
demands of humans, fish, and wildlife for use of CVP water throughout California
ban is imposed on importation of shrimp caught with gear that harms sea turtles
unless the country in question has a strong turtle conservation program in
High Seas Driftnet Fisheries Enforcement Act is passed to maintain a list of
nations that allow large-scale driftnet fishing (which entangles protected
mammals and fish as well as commercial fish) beyond their EEZ.
NEFSC Cooperative Shark Tagging Program marks its 30th anniversary. The value of
the in-kind contribution of the volunteers is estimated at $8 million annually.
Shark scientists decide to aggregate results of the program for a benchmark
publication on distribution and migration to be published in 1995.
issues a biological opinion (with alternatives) concluding that longterm
operation of the Central Valley Project in California will likely jeopardize the
continued existence of the Sacramento River endangered winter-run chinook salmon
new NMFS facility at Sandy Hook, N J., now named the James J. Howard Laboratory,
is officially dedicated, replacing the one destroyed by arson.
new NMFS laboratory at Sandy Hook, the James J. Howard Laboratory, is officially
SWR and other Federal and state resource agencies, working with public and
private interests, reach a hardfought, three-year Bay-Delta agreement on water
quality standards to protect the Sacramento-San Joaquin estuary in California.
South Korean fishing company, whose vessel was caught poaching fish from U.S.
waters in the western Pacific settles in U.S. District Court for a $1 million
fine and agrees to have its fleet of 17 fishing vessels tracked by satellite for
5 years. The provision allowing satellite tracking by U.S. authorities is
1994The federal Marine Mammal Protection Act is reauthorized and amended to
include a requirement for the service to develop, with stakeholders, plans for
reducing and eventually eliminating significant takes of marine mammals in all
fisheries known to frequently or occasionally capture marine mammals. Nearly all
of the category 1 and 2 fisheries occur along the U.S. eastern seaboard.
Delaware II is sent to Detyen's Shipyard in Charleston, South Carolina, to
undergo an RTE (Repair to Extend its useful life), under the Fleet Replacement
and Modernization (FRAM) Program.
of the Pacific halibut and sablefish fisheries off Alaska is converted from an
open-to-entry derby-style system to individual fishing quotas, allowing an
8-month season, improved product quality, and availability of fresh halibut and
sablefish to the consumer.
State University and the SEFSC Panama City Laboratory sign an agreement to study
new ways to increase stocks of declining fisheries. Seagrasses (which serve as
fish nurseries) and sharks (which are dwindling) are early research targets.
to a budget impasse in Washington, the National Marine Fisheries Service
employees are among those government workers furloughed with full pay from
December 22, 1995 to January 8, 1996.
Fisheries celebrates it's 125th anniversary by, among other things,
co-sponsoring two exhibits at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of
Natural History in Washington, DC. - Ocean Planet and "Science at Sea"
oil spill occurs in Narragansett Bay when the vessel North Cape runs aground
during a storm. NOAA Fisheries NEFSC diverts the NOAA Ship Albatross IV to the
scene to sample marine life at the site in order to provide a baseline against
which to measure recovery. The NOAA Fisheries Northeast Regional Office assists
the State of Rhode Island with seafood inspection and closures of Narragansett
Bay to fishing until the spill effects are dissipated.
and James Spalt, owners of Cape Spray Fisheries, are served with violation
notices in the largest fishery violation case to date. The notice includes more
than 100 counts seeking damages of $5.8 million for damage done to groundfish
and sea scallop stocks owing to their violations of fishing regulations intended
to rebuild these stocks.
new field test that confirms the presence of bleach on the abdomens of female
lobsters is approved for use by NOAA Fisheries Enforcement agents. The test was
developed by NOAA Fisheries agents and seafood specialists in partnership with
other scientists. It is illegal to land an egg-bearing lobster, and bleach can
be used to remove the eggs. Word of the new test results in a zero incidence of
7 to the New England groundfish recovery plan is put in place. For the first
time, the plan includes measures to end overfishing and rebuild the stocks.
scallopers test the first ever electronic reporting system in the northeast. As
part of a voluntary experiment, the vessels use transponders linked to a
satellite to report their use of days at sea.
Fisheries goes to public hearing with a plan intended to reduce takes of large
whales in gillnet, lobster, and shark drift gillnet gear off the East Coast as
required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The hearing set in motion a unique
program of cooperative research and training to reduce large whale
Fisheries scientists report first progress toward rebuilding for Georges Bank
groundfish stocks, noting improvements in the weight of the spawning stocks for
cod, haddock and yellowtail flounder.
the second time in the organization’s 95- year history, the U.S. hosts the
annual meeting of a convention organization, the International Council for
Exploration of the Sea (ICES), in Baltimore, MD. NOAA Fisheries NEFSC and the
National Science Foundation do most of the work organizing the meeting. More
than 500 scientists from 28 countries attend. The meeting’s keynote address
was on harmful algal blooms (HABs) and the event coincidentally occurs during an
outbreak of pfiesteria, a harmful algal bloom, in Chesapeake Bay, attracting
significant local interest in the ICES meeting.
England Fishery Management Council committee confirms that for the first time in
more than 20 years, Georges Bank stocks are not being overfished.
tanker vessel strikes and kills a blue whale, probably during its transatlantic
crossing. The whale is spotted across the tanker’s bow, towed to shore near
Middletown, RI, and attracts national attention as the carcass is necropsied by
a group of nationally known whale scientists. It is only the second recorded
stranding of a blue whale off the U.S. Atlantic coast in this century.
Spalt brothers settle their case with the government, pay $2 million in fines
and accept a lifetime ban on fishing commercially.
regions first all-female scientific party conducts the annual marine mammal
survey aboard the NOAA Ship Albatross IV
Fisheries NEFSC assists in conducting the most formal experimentation to date
involving commercial scallopers in research that has direct implications for
evaluating management schemes to be used in their fishery. Six commercial
vessels conduct survey and depletion experiment work in Closed Area II on
Georges Bank, resulting in more than 1700 tows and important measurements that
can be used to evaluate the effects of rotational closure to manage the scallop
Within weeks of one another in different incidents, two Massachusetts whale watch vessels strike whales while returning from Stellwagen Bank, the first such recorded incidents in the region