THE CASE FOR HEMP

 

THE PLANT AND ITS PRODUCTS:

The hemp plant produces the strongest natural fiber known. It is 3 times stronger than cotton and is softer, warmer, more absorbent, and longer wearing. Hemp has no natural insect enemies and is disease and drought resistant, therefore hemp cultivation requires NO chemical pesticides, herbicides, nor fertilizers.

One acre of hemp produces as much cellulose fiber as 4 acres of trees. This cellulose, in addition to producing paper, is excellent raw material for the production of durable building materials, carpeting, PVC pipe, paint and thousands of other consumer goods which now require the use of highly toxic petro-chemicals and consume huge amounts of non-renewable resources.

Throughout history, hemp seed --- which contains one of the most complete and ‘readily available’ vegetable proteins known --- has been regularly used in porridge, soup, and gruel by virtually all the peoples of the world. Sprouted hemp seed was used in salads and stir-fry cooking. Hemp seed was also pressed for vegetable oil and the high-protein cake by-product provided an excellent source of nutrition for farm animals.

Think about this in terms of world population and the daily hunger now faced by over half the people of the world. Yet, in accord of laws which began to find favor in 1937, the cultivation of hemp is currently illegal. Why?

PROHIBITION:

Our modern-day prohibition on hemp began with (some would say an ‘intentionally manipulated’) public confusion about the many names worn by this one simple plant. The name ‘hemp’ comes from the Old English word "hanf’ and identifies the natural plant which has produced fiber, food, and medicine for thousands of years.

The scientific name for the hemp plant is cannabis sativa. In recent times and throughout different cultures, hemp has been called by a number of different names: Indian (India) hemp, true hemp, muggles, pot, marijuana, reefer, grass, ganja, bhang, ‘the kind’, dagga, herb, etc. All these names and terms refer in some way to exactly the same plant. Hemp. (The term Loco Weed identifies Jimson Weed, a plant which is unrelated to hemp.)

Before cannabis hemp fell to disfavor, the U.S. Pharmacopoeia (a book authorized by the federal government which lists medicinal drugs and their uses) indicated preparations of cannabis for treating fatigue, fits of coughing, rheumatism, asthma, delirium tremens, migraine headaches, menstrual pain and its associated feminine complaints (now called PMS).

During the first three decades of this century and again from the 1960’s to the 1970’, independent scientific research of cannabis was supported by the federal government. In natural form, cannabis was shown to have therapeutic value and complete safety in the treatment of asthma, glaucoma, nausea, tumors, epilepsy, infection, stress, migraines, anorexia, depression, rheumatism, arthritis, possibly herpes, and even AIDS.

HEMP AND HISTORY

8000 B.C. Hemp is woven into fabric and over time grows in global popularity to eventually provide over 80% of all textiles and fabrics, including over 50% of the fabric called linen.

2700 B.C. Cannabis, as hemp fabric and cordage, medicine, food, and sacrificial herb, has been incorporated into virtually all cultures of the Middle East, Asia Minor, India, China, Japan, and Africa.

2300 B.C. Nomadic tribes from the East invade the Mediterranean and Europe, introducing hemp along the way.

1000 B.C. to 1883 A.D. Hemp is the world’s largest agricultural crop, providing the materials to support cultivation’s most important industries, including fiber for fabric and rope, lamp oil for lighting, paper, medicine and food for both humans and domesticated animals.

1000 B.C. to 1900 A.D. Hemp extracts are the #1, #2, and #3 most important and most frequently used medicine for two-thirds of the world’s peoples.

500 B.C. to 1900 A.D. Ninety percent of the sail cloth and rigging lines for all sea-going ships is made from hemp. (Including the U.S. ship ‘Constitution’ better known as ‘Old Iron Sides’.) The word ‘canvas’ comes into use through a Latin to French to Dutch translation of the Greek word Kannabis.

500 B.C. Ritual use of cannabis is common among Buddhists and traditional writings indicated that the Buddha himself used and ate nothing but hemp and hemp seed for six years prior to announcing his spiritual revelations. In Hinduism, the god Shiva is said to ‘have brought cannabis from the Himalayas for human enjoyment and enlightenment.’ Many Eastern religions consider cannabis to be their ‘most holy’ plant.

450 B.C. The Greek historian Herodotus records that inhalation of cannabis smoke is part of the Scythians’ funeral ritual and that this cultural custom has reportedly been practiced for over 150 years.

BIRTH OF CHRIST

It is widely believed among Christian scholars that the Magi who attended the birth of Christ were members of the Zoroastrian religion. It is known that utilization of the cannabis plant as a priestly sacrament and medicine was a fundamental tenet of Zoroastrian practice.

100 A.D. Chinese discover how to make paper from hemp.

1000 A.D. Moslem priests teach the use of cannabis for divine revelation, spiritual insight, and oneness with God.

1000 to 1600 A.D. Approximate period of the Roman Catholic Inquisition, a time in Western Europe when 10% to 33% of the entire population was tortured or put to death for owning a dinner fork, taking a bath, or using cannabis as a medicine. For example, during 1430-31, Joan d’Arc was accused of using cannabis and other herbs as a religious sacrament.

1470’s Gutenburg Bible is printed on hemp paper.

1564 King Philip of Spain mandated the cultivation of hemp for food, fiber and medicine throughout Spanish territory in Central and South America.

1600 Rembrandt paints on hemp canvas.

1611 King James Bible is printed on hemp paper.

1619 America’s first hemp law is enacted at Jamestown Colony, Virginia, ordering all farmers to grow hemp.

1631 ‘Must grow’ hemp laws are enacted throughout Massachusetts.

1631 to early 1800’s Hemp is ‘legal tender’ and taxes may be paid with hemp throughout most of the Americas.

1632 to mid-1700’s ‘Must grow’ hemp laws enacted in Connecticut and the Chesapeake Colonies.

1700 Gainsborough paints on hemp canvas.

1740 - 1940 Russia is the world’s largest and ‘best quality’ producer of hemp, supplying 80% of Western hemp rope.

1750’s Benjamin Franklin starts one of America’s first hemp-rag paper mills.

1763 - 1767 Farmers who do NOT grow hemp can be arrested and jailed in Virginia.

1776 Patriotic organize spinning bees to turn hemp fiber into clothing for General Washington’s Continental Army.

1776 First and second drafts of the Declaration of Independence are written on hemp paper.

1777 The Stars and Stripes is endorsed as the Capitol Flag of the U.S.A., and made of hemp fabric.

1790’s George Washington and Thomas Jefferson grown hemp on their plantations.

1800’s Van Gogh paints on hemp canvas. Australians survive two prolonged famines by using hemp seed for protein and leaves for roughage. Hemp seed oil, long the most popular lighting oil in the world, falls to second place in popularity as whale oil becomes widely accessible. The use of hemp extracts as a recreational stimulant spreads through Western culture and romantic writers expound on individual freedom and human dignity, extolling cannabis use. Their works include: The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Alice in Wonderland, and Through the Looking Glass.

1812 America goes to war with Great Britain over free-trade access to Russian hemp.

1837 - 1901 Queen Victoria uses cannabis resins to treat menstrual cramps, sparking enormous interest in the uses of cannabis as a medicine in the English-speaking world.

1840 Abraham Lincoln uses hemp-seed oil to fuel his household lamps and writes: "Prohibition... goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control a man’s appetite by legislation and makes a crime out of things that are not crimes... A prohibition law strikes a blow at the very principles upon which our government was founded."

1842 - 1890 Extracts and derivatives of the hemp plant are the second and third most prescribed medicines in the U.S.A. Eli Lilly, Parke-Davis, Squibb, Brothers Smith and other firms produce these medicines through 1930. During this time, not one death or severe side-effect is attributed to use.

1850 U.S. census records 8,327 hemp plantations of 2000 acres or more and an uncalculated number of small hemp farms.

1859 Kerosene is introduced as lighting oil.

1860’s to 1900 World Fairs and International Expositions feature highly popular Turkish Hashish smoking concessions. Hashish, a derivative of cannabis, is entirely new to Americans and finds great favor as a way to ‘enhance’ their enjoyment of the fair.

1860 The Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the Ohio State Medical Society Committee on Cannabis Indica records that noted Biblical scholars of the day believe ‘The gall and vinegar, or myrrhed wine, offered to our Savior immediately before his crucifixion was, in all probability, a preparation of Indian hemp.’

1860 ‘Ganjah Wallah Hasheesh Candy Company’ produces one of the most popular candies in the U.S. It is made from cannabis derivatives and maple sugar, sold over-the-counter, and in Sears-Roebuck catalogs. It retains its popularity as a totally harmless and fun candy for over 40 years.

1865 Alice in wonderland is published on hemp paper.

1870’s The popularity of smoking female cannabis tops, to ease the back-breaking labor of working sugar cane fields and tolerate the hot sun as well as to relax recreationally with no alcohol ‘hang-over’, begins to spread in the West Indies with the immigration of Hindus who are imported to provide cheap labor. Gradually, this popularity makes its way into the United States through St. Louis.

1883 Hashish smoking parlors have opened in every major American city, including and estimated 500 such establishments in New York City alone.

1890’s Popular American ‘marriage guides’ recommend cannabis extracts for heightened marital pleasures. Women’s temperance groups, lobbying for alcohol prohibition, suggest cannabis as a suitable substitute for the ‘demon drink’.

1893 British governor of India commissions a report on the effects of smoking "bhang" (hemp buds and leaves) on heavy users in the subcontinent. The ‘Report of the Indian Hemp Drug Commission 1893-1894’ concludes that use is NOT a problem and that no criminal penalties should apply to recreational indulgence.

1898 Hearst newspapers denounce Spaniards, Mexican-Americans, and Latinos after the seizure of 800,000 acres of Hearst-owned prime Mexican timber land by the ‘marijuana smoking army of Pancho Villa.’ Vigorous slander of the Mexican people continues in Hearst and other publications for three decades. Because of Hearst’s personal prejudices against African-Americans and Hispanics and Hearst’s covert motivations to link them with the proliferation of an ‘evil drug’, the term ‘marijuana’ --- a word totally unfamiliar to the average hemp-using American --- is used exclusively to identify throughout this public disinformation campaign.

1901 - 1937 U.S. Department of Agriculture repeatedly predicts that once machinery capable of harvesting, stripping and separating the hemp fiber from the pulp is invented, hemp will again be America’s "Number One" crop.

1910 - 1920 Southern "officials" are alarmed because "pot smoking darkie jazz musicians" are beginning to "think that they are as good as whites." (For example, the Jim Crow segregation laws prohibited Black entertainer s from performing in white clubs. Because these performers were so very talented however, white club owners found a way to circumvent the law by requiring Black performers to wear "black face". In other words, a Black entertainer who was willing to pretend to be a white person pretending to be Black was permitted to perform. When Blacks objected to this lunacy they were accused, by whites, of being ‘no-good marijuana-smoking niggers.’)

1910 South Africa begins outlawing marijuana (for the same "Jim Crow" reasons cited by U.S. bigots: to stop the insolence of Blacks) and lobbies the League of Nations to have cannabis outlawed world-wide.

Many Southern U.S. states are influenced by South Africa and follow suit with prohibitions. (Note, however, that Black mine workers in South Africa were permitted to continue smoking the herb because it increased their productivity.)

1915 As a result of Hearst incited hysteria over "disrespectful darkies" and "lazy Chicanos" California and Utah pass state laws outlawing the recreational use of marijuana.

1916 U.S.D.A. publishes Bulletin No. 404, "Hemp Hurds As Paper-Making Material," extolling and demonstrating the outstanding qualities of paper manufactured from hemp-pulp, a new process. The document was printed on hemp-pulp paper and explained the new technology. Previously most all paper was made with the hemp fiber content of ‘rag’ (worn-out clothing).

1916 - 1935 The Hearst newspapers initiate and build a campaign to outlaw "marijuana." Reporting is slanted to generate reader bias. (For example, the reader was never told that "hemp" and "marijuana" are exactly the same plant. Nor was the reader told that the active ingredients of the tonic they gave their baby to ease colic came from the marijuana/hemp plant, nor that the smoke they inhaled in their ever popular hashish parlors was a derivative of marijuana. Furthermore, news stories were manipulated to aggrandize and exaggerate the supposed "horrors" of recreational marijuana use. The story of an auto accident where one marijuana cigarette was found would dominate front page headlines for weeks while alcohol related accidents --- which outnumbered marijuana 1000 to 1 --- were briefly mentioned and buried in the back pages. Also, the rape of white women by ‘Negros,’ previously attributed by Hearst publications to cocaine use was, by these same publications, suddenly attributed to the use of marijuana.)

1920 U.S. Government papers have been, by law, written on "hempen rag paper" until this time.

1924 The U.S. Supreme Court rules, as a result of the 1914 Harrison Act, that drug addicts are not ‘sick people’ deserving of treatment, they are criminals and must be punished.

1929 Henry Ford begins extensive research into the production of methanol (as a fuel) and the manufacturer of plastics from renewable vegetable crops, including hemp.

1930’s Mechanical hemp-fiber stripping and pulp conserving machines are invented and developed to state-of-the-art. Timber-based paper manufacturing industries (Hearst, Kimberly Clark, St. Regis) recognize combined technological advances (re: hemp) as a potential threat to their prosperity. During this same time frame, DuPont patents two new (chemically intense) processes. One to make plastics from (fossil-fuel) oil and coal and another to make paper from wood-pulp.

1930 U.S. government sponsors the Siler Commission study on the effects of off-duty smoking of "marijuana" (hemp buds & leaves) by American servicemen in Panama. The report concludes that such recreational smoking is NOT a problem and recommends that no criminal penalties apply to its use.

1930 Louis Armstrong is arrested and jailed for 10 days for smoking marijuana cigarettes.

1931 Andrew Mellon (of the powerful Mellon Bank of Pittsburgh, financier of many DuPont projects, and long-time supporter of Hearst), serving as President Hoover’s Secretary of the Treasury, appoints his future nephew-in-law, Harry J. Anslinger to be head of the newly re-organized Federal Narcotics Bureau. Anslinger begins to compile a dossier of tabloid articles which sensationalize disinformation about marijuana use and the crimes committed while supposedly under the influence of the drug. This collection of newspaper clippings (most from Hearst newspapers) becomes known as the Gore Files.

1935 116 million pounds of hemp seed are used commercially in America to manufacture paint and varnish.

1935 - 1937 DuPont assures Congress (through secret testimony) that synthetic petro-chemical oils can replace hemp seed oil in paints, varnishes, and other products.

1935 - 1937 U.S. Department of Treasury conducts "secret" meetings to consider the development of "prohibitive" transfer tax laws and occupational registrations on hemp which would, in effect, extinguish all legal trade in hemp and its by-products.

1936 - 1938 Hearst newspapers step-up the anti-marijuana campaign and newsreel clips at the local movies banner headlines like ‘Reefer Madness’ and ‘Marijuana--- Assassin of Youth.’

1937 Walter Treadway, Assistant U.S. Surgeon General, tells the Cannabis Advisory Subcommittee of the League of Nations that extended use of cannabis derivatives is benign, both socially and emotionally, and that marijuana is habit forming... in the same sense... as sugar or coffee.’

The DuPont Company issues its Annual Report to stockholders which anticipates "radical changes" and the conversion of the Federal government’s revenue raising power ‘into an instrument for forcing acceptance of sudden new ideas of industrial and social reorganization.’ In other words, government would no longer tax citizens solely to raise money but to enforce the adoption (or extinction) of select social ‘norms.’

February issue of Mechanical Engineering features a story "The Most Profitable and Desirable Crop That Can Be Grown" which tells about the new machines being used to harvest hemp.

4 million pounds of hemp seed are sold retail as song-bird food in the U.S.A.

April 14, 1937, Marijuana Tax Law is introduced to the House Ways and Means Committee of Congress, chaired by Robert L. Doughton, a key DuPont ally. In subsequent committee hearings Dr. James Woodward, speaking for the American Medical Association (AMA), testifies against the proposed legislation stating that the plant Congress intends to outlaw is a perfectly safe substance used to treat scores of illnesses for over 100 years in America and that the ignorance of the proposed prohibition will deny the world access to potential medical breakthroughs.

Dr. Woodward is denounced by Anslinger and the congressional committee, then curtly excused. Ralph Lorenz, general counsel of the National Oil Seeds Institute (which represents the interests of high quality machine lubrication producers and paint manufacturers) also lobbies against the proposed legislation, eloquently citing the key importance of the hemp plant to American industry and reviewing the thousands of years of benign use of hemp by millions of people world-wide.

After receiving testimony from Anslinger who cites marijuana as "the most violence causing drug in the history of mankind," reviewing Anslinger’s marijuana "Gore Files" (which were later debunked by evidentiary scholars), and hearing a false, dishonest, and intentionally misleading report from the Ways and Means Committee that the AMA is in "complete agreement" with the proposed marijuana legislation, the Marijuana Tax Act is adopted as law by Congress. The legislation is carefully worded so that the great majority of American people, including many of those congress people who pass the law, have no idea that the agricultural hemp industry is being legislated into extinction. Popularity of DuPont’s "plastic fibers’ (like nylon) begins to dramatically increase.

An estimated 10 million acres of hemp grows wild in the U.S.A., providing an important and favorite food source for hundreds of millions of birds.

1938 The February issue of Popular Mechanics Magazine runs a story, (prepared before the 1937 legislation was enacted) titled: "New Billion Dollar Crop." It tells about the new machine for harvesting hemp which "solves a problem more than 6,000 years old." It further states that increased hemp production "will displace imports of raw material and manufactured products" and calls hemp the "standard fiber of the world." Popular Mechanics goes on to say hemp can "produce more than 25,000 products, ranging from dynamite to Cellophane." This is the first time ever in U.S. history the term ‘billion-dollar’ is applied to the potential for an agricultural harvest.

1941 December issue of Popular Mechanics features a story on Henry Ford, showing a picture of the car he "grew from the soil." The automobile’s "plastic panels with impact strength 10 times greater than steel were made from flax, wheat, hemp, spruce pulp." The auto weighs 1/3 less than its 100% steel contemporaries.

1942 U.S. government overrides it’s own ban on hemp and distributes 400,000 pounds of hemp seed to U.S. farmers who produce 42,000 ton of hemp fiber annually to support the war effort until 1946.

U.S. farmers, including youthful 4-H Club members, are inundated by "Uncle Sam" with incentives to grow hemp. The U.S.D.A. makes it mandatory for farmers to attend showings of its "Hemp For Victory" film. Farmers and their sons who agree to grow hemp are exempt from military service, even though America is at war.

1944 The "LaGuardia Marijuana Report," compiled between 1938 and 1944 by the New York Academy of Medicine at the request of Mayor Fiorella LaGuardia, is released to refute Anslinger’s negative claims about marijuana. It reports that marijuana use has caused no violence at all and cites numerous instances of beneficial effects. Anslinger denounces the Mayor, the report, and the Academy, proclaiming that the involved doctors will never again do marijuana research without his personal permission, or they will be sent to jail.

1945 With Anslinger’s’ coercive manipulation the AMA conducted what has since been labeled a "gutter science" study to refute the LaGuardia Report. Using biasing techniques which predetermine the outcome of research findings this prejudicial study, conducted with enlisted Army men, concludes that 34 Negro males who smoked marijuana were "disrespectful" of white soldiers and officers.

1948 - 1950 Anslinger has a sudden change of heart about the violence inducing properties of marijuana and, in a complete about-face from his previous position, testifies before a strongly anti-Communist Congress that marijuana causes users to become so peaceful and pacifistic that use of the herb by soldiers will weaken their will to fight ‘The Great Red Communist Plague.’

1950’s - 1960’s The U.S. Army sponsors numerous tests to determine the effects of cannabis smoking on soldiers. The first study showed no loss of motivation or performance after two years of continual "heavy" smoking. This study is replicated six more times by the U.S. military and dozens of times by independent universities, always with the same basic findings.

1961 - 1962 Anslinger is forced to retire as the head of the Federal Narcotics Bureau (now the DEA) by President Kennedy after trying to censor the publications and blackmail and harass the publishers of Professor Alfred Lindsmith of Indiana University who wrote, among other works, "The Addict and the Law" (Washington Post, 1961). U.S. Medical research into the beneficial properties of cannabis resumes after nearly 3 decades of Anslinger’s prohibition.

Credible sources report that President Kennedy routinely uses marijuana to relieve his back pain and plans to have the drug legalized. These plans are terminated by his assassination.

1964 The Himalayan region of Bangladesh (from "bhang" cannabis, "la" land, and "desh" people) signs an anti-drug pact with the U.S. not to grow hemp. (Note: since that time there has been only light moss covering the steep slopes of this flash-flood region which once were lush with hardy hemp. Millions of acres of topsoil have been washed away and native peoples of the country have suffered disease, starvation, and decimation due to unrestrained flooding.

1966 - 1976 Millions of Americans illegally use marijuana daily and new Federal research (conducted by independent university scholars) indicates a wide array of beneficial uses. Numerous and sometimes weekly reports in medical journals tell of the positive therapeutic benefits of using cannabis for treating epilepsy, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, dystrophy and tumors, asthma, glaucoma, and nausea. These studies conclude that crude "natural" cannabis is ‘the best an safest medicine of choice’ for many serious health problems.

1972 U.S.D.A. finds that hemp seed oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil (including soybean and canola). Other studies note that until this century hemp-cake (the by-product of pressing the seed for oil) was one of the world’s principle animal feeds. Also that hemp seed, like soybeans, can produce a tofu-like curd and be spiced to taste like chicken, steak or pork; can be sprouted for salads, ground into meal, and also made into margarine. Hemp seed is recommended as a nutritionally balanced food for domestic pets and farm animals.

1975 Researchers at the Medical College of Virginia discover that cannabis is incredibly successful for reducing the size of many types of tumors, both benign and cancerous.

1975 The findings of the Jamaican Studies (1968-74, 1975), cited as the most extensive empirical study of hemp smoking ever conducted and sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, concludes that in a population where use of cannabis was pervasive, highly frequent, continued over long periods, in heavy quantities with greater THC potency than commonly available in the U.S., there are NO negative social or psychological effects. They find no relationship between the use of marijuana and the commission of crime (like theft or rape) and no impairment of motor skills.

The study goes on to identify numerous positive effects which include lively, merry, more responsible attitudes, a general sense of well-being and healthy self-esteem, and greater work motivation. The test subjects had smoked extensively for 6 to 31 years. Their average age for first time use was 12 years, 6 months. And in a "matched pair" study where tobacco/marijuana smokers were matched with tobacco-only smokers, the tobacco/marijuana smokers consistently evidenced better overall health than their tobacco-only smoking counterparts. In addition the study concludes that the supposed "stepping stone" effect (which alleges that marijuana use acts as a gateway to the abuse of "hard" drugs) is invalid since none of the long-time marijuana-smoker test subjects had ever taken any narcotic type drugs.

1975 The National Institute of Drug Abuse convenes a conference among America’s leading researchers on marijuana at which practically all participants conclude that the federal government should be rushing to invest tax money into large scale cannabis research. Many of these scientists predict that cannabis will be one of the world’s major medicines by the mid-1980’s.

1976 Dr. Gabriel Nahas is discredited by Colombia University and forbidden to receive any government funding for marijuana research after it is discovered by the National Institute of Health that Nahas’ allegations about the "horrible" effects of smoking marijuana are scientifically unfounded and totally fraudulent.

The Ford Administration, with George Bush as the head of the CIA, is lobbied extensively by pharmaceutical companies to obtain total jurisdiction over all medical (marijuana) research. A "surprise" policy issued by the government forbids federally funded research by universities into the therapeutic benefits of marijuana. The research findings of 10 years worth of federally funded marijuana research is turned over to corporate (for-profit) drug companies who promise to "synthesize" (chemically compound) the beneficial properties of the natural herb. (NOTE: Only synthesized compounds can be patented, hence there is little profit motivation to research and develop the natural properties of the herb.)

1977 George Bush leaves his post as Director of the CIA and is appointed as a director of Eli Lilly by Dan Quale’s father and family who, along with Bush, are major shareholders in Lilly.

President Jimmy Carter addresses Congress on drug abuse and states: "Penalties against possession of a drug should not be more damaging to an individual than the use of the drug itself. Therefore," Carter continues, "I support legalization, amending federal law to eliminate all federal criminal penalties for the possession of up to one ounce of marijuana."

1979 Andrew Young, former U.N. Ambassador, announces to the world that due to its irrational drug laws the United States has more political prisoners than any other nation.

1980 Through the Freedom of Information Act the research procedures of the Heath/Tulane University "Monkey Study" (which concluded that marijuana caused brain damage and was bannered by the Federal government as "conclusive proof" of the harmful effects of marijuana) were, after a six year legal battle, delivered to the hands of independent researchers.

Time after time these independent researchers find that Heath’s research is erroneous and fraudulent.

The Costa Rican Study largely confirm the findings of the dramatically favorable 1975 Jamaican Study and additionally concludes that socially approved use of cannabis largely replaces the use of alcohol.

1981 Petitions are circulated among "War on Drugs" groups calling for immediate Presidential clemency and aggrandizement as a "national hero" of Mark Chapman for his murder of John Lennon of the Beatles (because Lennon was an "evil man" who had "turned-on" the world to "illicit drugs"). Other "War on Drugs" campaign propaganda calls for the jailing of people who listen to or play any type of music that is no on an ‘approved’ list.

1981 A covert censorship of television and radio programs begins, keeping pro-marijuana commentary, including sit-com jokes, off the public air-waves.

Drs. Ungerlieder and Shaeffer of UCLA study 10 of America’s "heaviest" pot smokers who have each been inhaling huge amounts of highly potent cannabis smoke daily for over 10 years. They conclude that there are absolutely no brain differences between the study subjects and non-cannabis smokers.

1982 Vice-President George Bush is ordered by the Supreme court to stop (illegally) lobbying the IRS on behalf of drug companies.

Noted authorities attest that if marijuana were legalized it would immediately replace 10% to 20% of all (chemical compound) prescription medicines.

Omni magazine and other sources report that Eli Lilly, Abbott Labs, Pfizer, Smith, Kline & French and other drug companies would lose hundreds of millions to billions of dollars annually if marijuana were legal in the U.S. Omni states that the drug companies have been "totally unsuccessful" in their attempt to synthesize the active ingredients of cannabis. Omni and concurring sources allege that the reason the Reagan/Bush Administration refuses to allow federal funding of university research into cannabis is that governmental permission to develop the simple crude "natural" cannabis extracts prevents the pharmaceutical companies from making monopolized windfall profits on the patented synthetic compound drugs they endeavor to produce.

1983 The World Health Organization conservatively estimates that 500,000 people are poisoned each year in Third World Countries by drugs and chemicals manufactured by U.S. companies which are banned in America.

The Reagan/Bush Administration "softly" requests that every American university destroy all 1966-76 cannabis research work, including compendiums in libraries. The Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program initiates a national program aimed at school children which dangerously disseminates a mix of factual and disinformation about drug use. In addition to encouraging young people to become "police informants" against their family and friends, instructors repeatedly make fraudulent innuendoes about marijuana use, linking it with the negative health effects associated with cocaine and other ‘hard’ drugs.

Through the Freedom of Information Act it is learned that in 1943 Anslinger was appointed to a "top secret" committee (which evolved to become the CIA), charged with the discovery/creation of a "truth serum" and conducted covert experimentation with "honey oil" (a potent derivative of marijuana). Fifteen months after inception all experiments with marijuana extracts were discontinued because the people being interrogated giggled and laughed at their captors and got ravenously hungry.

Paraquat is illegally sprayed from airplanes by the federal government on marijuana fields in Georgia, Kentucky and Tennessee. Carlton Turner, Drug Czar under Reagan, states that kids deserve to die as punishment from smoking paraquat poisoned pot in order to teach them a lesson.

1985 The Supreme Court rules that the CIA has the authority to exempt itself from the provisions of the Freedom of Information n Act. High school children in Milton Wisconsin are ordered to have weekly urine tests to discover if they smoke marijuana.

Carlton Turner calls for the death penalty for all drug users.

1987 Fifteenth Edition of Merick Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (the U.S. Military’s Official Field Manual) says about cannabis (in part): ‘Chronic or periodic (use) of cannabis... produces... no physical dependence... (or) social... dysfunction... there is little evidence of biologic damage even among relatively heavy users... the chief opposition to the drug rests on a moral and political... foundation.’

Harvard Medical School’s Mental Health Letter (November) describes the intoxicating psychological ‘high’ of marijuana as a ‘calm, mildly euphoric state in which time slows and sensitivity to sights, sounds, and touch is enhanced.’

1988 The DEA’s administrative law judge, Francis Young, takes medical testimony for 15 days and reviews hundreds of documents to conclude that ‘marijuana is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man.’

1989 DEA Director John Lawn decides (contrary to Young’s findings) that cannabis has "no known medical use" and that it remain on the Schedule One narcotic list.

"Crimestoppers" billboards and TV ads in Ventura, California, encourage citizens in Orwellian (some would say Nazis-like) neighbor-against-neighbor fashion to "help a friend, send him to jail" and "earn a thousand dollars" for enforcing drug laws that make felonies of a victim-less crime.

September 5, President Bush promises to double the federal prison population (it had already doubled under the Reagan Administration) as part of his tough drug enforcement policy.

When asked why the Smithsonian (U.S.A. national archives) exhibits of early life in America and at sea identifies by name all the ‘minor’ fibers used during the period to make fabric, cordage and paper while making no mention of the significant role played by the ‘major’ use of hemp, the Smithsonian replies that it is NOT a fiber museum and that mention of hemp would only confuse young children.

1989 The California Advisory Panel, a committee made up of university professors and researchers which counsels state legislators and the attorney general on scientific issues calls for the re-legalization of cannabis.

November (1989), Dr. Donald Blum, researcher from the UCLA neurological studies center, vehemently complains that the Partnership for a Drug Free America (PFDA) television commercials are false and misleading. Citing years of research which document the effects of cannabis on the brain, Dr. Blum points out that the brain waves identified as those of someone "high on pot" in a PDFA spot actually identify someone in a deep sleep or coma. Another PDFA spot blaming marijuana smoking for a train wreck is challenged by the sworn testimony of the engineer who himself caused the disaster. Under oath the engineer states that the wreck was NOT caused by smoking marijuana, it was caused by his own negligence, drinking, snacking, watching TV, and generally failing to pay adequate attention to his job. Although eventually both ads were pulled from TV, no public apology or correction of the misleading information has yet to be forthcoming.

1989 The Iran-Contra scandal morally (if not legally) convicts the U.S. government of participation with and orchestration of a drug smuggling ring that traded "hard drugs’ for military weapons.

1989 - 1990 Omni magazine, the Washington Post and the New York Times each publish articles announcing that new scientific studies prove that the human brain has unique receptor sites for THC and its natural cannabis cousins which no other known compound will bind to.

Garments containing hemp fiber are available to the American public for the first time in over 50 years, however this clothing must be imported to the U .S. from China (via Hong Kong) and carries a huge protective tariff.

18 states have established "Special Alternative Incarceration" boot camps for non-violent, first time drug offenders and 17 more states are considering the program. The inmates confined to these camps, most of whom are marijuana users or distributors, are verbally abused and "brain washed" to break down their ‘dissident attitudes.

1990 Los Angeles Police Chief Daryl Gates testifies before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee that cannabis smokers should be "taken out and shot." Gates holds this position for a week until public outcry calling for his dismissal forces him to modify his attitude. A few months later Rodney King is savagely beaten by officers of the L.A.P.D.

WHERE WE ARE NOW

Experts conservatively estimate that the legalization of hemp as a food, fiber, cellulose and biomass crop has the potential to be the world’s largest industry, generating 500 billion to one trillion dollars annually. This industry would be agriculturally based, breathing new life into small-scale farms, and would be much more environmentally friendly than petro-chemical based resource exploitation.

Also, as ozone depletion threatens the cultivation of many food crops (soy bean production, for example, could be reduced by 30% to 50% due to higher ultra-violet radiation), hemp is the one known crop that is ultra-violet light tolerant and actually thrives with higher levels of this radiation.

Modern day science has conducted over 10,000 studies into the effects of cannabis. Over 4,000 of these were done in the U.S.A. Of all these studies only about a dozen showed any negative effects of cannabis use and other scientists, endeavoring to replicate these studies, have been unable to draw the same negative conclusions.

Documented therapeutic use of cannabis has shown benefit to 80% of asthmatics, 90% of glaucoma patients, 60% of epileptics, and could safely substitute for 50% of all sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, headache treatments and stress reducing medication. Cannabis is a complex, highly evolved plant. There are some 400 compounds in its smoke. Of these 60 are known to have therapeutic value.

In all of history there has never been one death attributed to cannabis overdose, nor (as of December 1990) to any form of lung cancer from cannabis smoking.

Cannabis smoke, as with any smoke, does contain carcinogens, virtually all of which are removed when smoke is inhaled through a water pipe (water pipes are currently illegal in the U.S.A.

Hemp has the highest cellulose content (77%) of any known plant. This f act, combined with hemp’s natural drought and disease tolerance, makes it ideal as an environmental stabilization and enhancement crop. It reclaims agricultural lands that have been infested with thistle. It’s deep, fast growing roots stabilize erodible topsoil. It can be grown productively in soil where other food crops fail (without chemical inputs), consequently it increases land values.

Hemp has the ability to feed, clothe and shelter people inexpensively, an essential consideration in the face of world population growth. It is capable to produce environmentally compatible fuel (non-sulfur biomass for charcoal & methane) and paper products in abundance.

Chemical companies are the major owners of seed companies and have saturated agriculture with strains of food crops (like wheat) which grow only with (increasingly heavy) applications of their "patented" petro-chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. Also, 50% of all agri-chemicals used today are applied to cotton production.

Fossil fuel use is responsible for approximately 80% of all airborne pollution. Petro-chemicals (for paper production, synthetic fibers, plastics, etc.) contribute dramatically to environmental decay. Hemp-pulp paper uses no trees and is 75% to 85% less polluting than wood-pulp paper production due to lower chemical inputs. The methane fuel resulting from biomass conversion of hemp is also environmentally compatible because, like all photosynthesizing plants, hemp ‘harvests’ CO2 from the atmosphere as it grows and then releases this same amount of CO2 when it is burned.

Fossil fuels also release CO2 when burned, however since fossil fuel use has accelerated dramatically during the same period of time when huge tracts of forest have been cleared, this coupling has resulted in climbing levels of atmospheric CO2. In other words, for the last 100 years we have been putting tremendously more CO2 into the atmosphere than nature has been able to take out.