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"There isn't one grain of anything in the world that is sold in a free
market. Not one! The only place you see a free market is in the
speeches of politicians. People who are not in the Midwest do not
understand that this is a socialist country." -- Dwayne Andreas, CEO
Archer Daniels Midland, 1970-97



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By 1940 more than 30 states had enacted compulsory sterilization laws. From 1907 to 1941, more than 60,000 eugenical sterilizations were performed in the United States. (76)

By the early 1940s, ranking members of the American Medical Association had come to the conclusion that much of their problems with their membership lay with the abrasive Morris Fishbein. Most doctors were ultraconservative in their thinking, and they found Fishbein's antics repulsive. Nevertheless, he had spun his web at the American Medical Association so fine that it involved everyone in the headquarters. His power was built on censorship, intimidation, and exercise of his powers to the limit. It took his rivals almost a decade to get rid of him. Their opportunity came when Fishbein's able lieutenant, Dr. Olin West, became ill, and was no longer able to maintain iron control of the American Medical Association headquarters for the Fishbein regime. Apparently ignorant of the cabal against him, Fishbein continued his merry life of travel and recreation, continuing to garner many awards and prizes for his medical public relations work. He had been named an Officer of the Cross in the exclusive order of Orange-Nassau, a very secretive organization which commemorated the invasion and takeover of England by William of Orange, and the subsequent establishment of the Bank of England. (48)

During the 1940s a fisheries utilization laboratory operates for a few years in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. (20)

On June 30, 1940, under Reorganization Plan No. III, the Bureau of Fisheries is consolidated with the Bureau of Biological Survey into a new agency to be known as the Fish and Wildlife Service, still beneath the U.S. Department of the Interior. An organizational status quo was maintained for about 16 years. (63), (139) [See note 77]

On January 20, 1940 a United Press dispatch revealed that the American Medical Association had a well-defined newspaper policy "never to call anything a cure, or in fact give publicity to any remedy of any description, without a thorough investigation." The organization usually recommended that any report of a remedy should be referred to the New York branch of the American Medical Association for investigation. (48)

In 1940 Walter S. Carpenter, Jr. became president of Du Pont. (3)

In 1940 steroids discovered in yam (Dioscorea) proved useful for the manufacture of cortisone and sexual hormones. Consequently, the cost of hormones dropped from $80 to $2 per gram. This was amplified through the work of Russell Marker, who while assigned to study steroids during a research fellowship at Pennsylvania State University discovered he could manufacture progesterone from steroids in the yam. Unable to receive support to further this work, he moved to Mexico City and formed a joint venture named Syntex. Though Marker abandoned his research, Syntex continued work with other chemists. Eventually Syntex manufactured testosterone and 19-norprogesterone, an analog of progesterone that was even more effective at inhibiting ovulation. Administered in an oral version, this became "the pill." (87)

In 1940 the International College of Surgeons in Chicago is incorporated at Washington. (1)

In 1940 the Weather Bureau transferred to the Department of Commerce (136)

In 1940 inositol was identified as mouse anti-alopecia factor. (82)  D.W. Woolley reported that rats and mice require inositol. (1)

In 1940 Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888) Secretary of War. (26)

In 1940 Maurice Bigelow, (Sex Education, Columbia University) became president of the American Eugenics Society until 1945. (23)

In 1940 p-aminobenzoic acid was identified as a member of the vitamin B complex. (82)

In 1940 classic experiment on development of scurvy in man on a vitamin C free diet was performed by Crandon and Lund. (82)

In 1940 the American Institute of Nutrition was admitted to the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (82)

In 1940 the existence of a factor (folic acid) necessary for the prevention of anemia in monkeys and chicks and for the growth of various bacteria again was demonstrated independently by A.G. Hogan and E.M. Parrott and by E.E. Snell and W.H. Peterson. (1) [See note 20]

In 1940 collaborative studies by Williams and K. Folkers and their co-workers led to the synthesis of the vitamin, pantothenic acid. (1)

In 1940 William Stamps Farish was the principal manager of a worldwide cartel between Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey and the I.G. Farben concern. The merged enterprise had opened the Auschwitz slave labor camp on June 14, 1940, to produce artificial rubber and gasoline from coal. The Hitler government supplied political opponents and Jews as the slaves, who were worked to near death and then murdered. (3)

On June 18th 1940, John Rawlings Rees, M.D. made the following statement in his address to the annual meeting of the National Council for Mental Hygiene: "Especially since the last world war we have done much to infiltrate the various social organizations throughout the country, and in their work and in their point of view one can see clearly how the principles for which this society and others stood in the past have become accepted as part of the ordinary working plan of these various bodies. That is as it should be, and while we can take heart from this we must be healthily discontented and realize that there is still more work to be done along this line. Similarly we have made a useful attack upon a number of professions. The two easiest of them naturally are the teaching profession and the Church: the two most difficult are law and medicine… If we are to infiltrate the professional and social activities of other people I think we must imitate the Totalitarians and organize some kind of fifth column activity!" (30) [See note 130]

In 1940 the Cold Spring Harbor Eugenics Records Office (ERO) closed. (181:3)

In 1940, William E. Castle publishes Mammalian Genetics, which he dedicates to "an ever-faithful friend and inspiring teacher, Dr. C. B. Davenport". (208)

From 1941 to 1987 the regime of Josip Tito in Yugoslavia murders 1,172,000 people. (6)

On January 25, 1941 Morris Fishbein of the American Medical Association announced that Winthrop Drug Company's Sulfathiazole "has been accepted by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry for inclusion in its official volume of new and non-official remedies." … Sulfathiazole had prior been approved by Dr. J.J. Durrett, the Food and Drug Administration official in charge of new drugs. Durrett was a Rockefeller-approved appointee to this vital position. … Winthrop was a subsidiary of the international drug cartel, I.G. Farben. … By December 1940, 400,000 tablets of Winthrop Drug Company's Sulfathiazole had been sold, which contained as much as 5 grains each of Luminal. The safe dosage was 1 grain of Luminal. Many persons who took the Winthrop dosage never woke up. (48)

In 1941 Viktor Brack, one of the heads of the German euthanasia program, sent a Report on Experiments in X-ray Castration to Himmler. According to Brack, "a two-tube installation could sterilize 200 persons a day." (6)

In 1941 Anslinger urged and got cannabis removed from the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. (45) He succeeded in driving marijuana out of legitimate medical practice, despite the pro-marijuana stand of the American Medical Association. He convinced Dr. Ernest Fullerton Cook, chairman of the Committee on Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia, (USP) to have marijuana deleted from that official compendium. (88) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1941 the U.S. conducts refrigeration therapy studies on inmates at Longview Hospital in Cincinnati Ohio. (6)

In 1941 Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori worked out the lactic acid metabolic cycle. (105)

In 1941 Gustaffson and coworkers produced agriculturally superior new strains of cereals by selection from mutants produced by x-rays. (105)

In 1941 consumption of margarine regains lost ground. A federal standard was established recognizing margarine as a spread of it's own kind. The National Nutrition Conference is held which raises consumer awareness of the restrictions on margarine that were keeping the product from them and artificially inflating the price.

In 1941 the purity of illicit heroin packets drops from 28% in 1938 to 3% as America's narcotics use falls to it's lowest level in half a century. (44)

In 1941 the British Medical Students' Association, London was founded. (1)

In 1941 gassing begins at Auschwitz with 250 mental patients, 600 Russian POWs and assorted Jews, Gypsies and outcasts of Nazi tyranny. (6)

In 1941 the Nutrition Society (Great Britain) was founded. (1), (82)

In 1941 folic acid was proposed as a term for a growth factor for bacteria by Mitchell, Snell and R.J. Williams. (82)

In 1941 p-aminobenzoic acid was identified as a growth promoting factor for chicks and chromotrichia factor for the rat. (82)

In 1941 evidence was provided for the influence of prenatal diet on the health of the newborn infant. (82)

In 1941 the first standards for the enrichment of wheat flour were established in the USA. (82) [See 1943]

On March 11, 1941 the Lend Lease Act was signed, under which U.S. Department of Agriculture made agricultural commodities available to Great Britain and other allies during World War II. (94)

In 1941 the first table of Recommended Dietary Allowances was prepared by the Food and Nutrition Committee of the National Research Council. (82)

In 1941 the National Nutrition Conference for Defense met in Washington, D.C. (82)

In 1941 the Nutrition Foundation was chartered in New York. (82)  It is supported mainly by food manufacturers. (1)

From 1942 to 1944 E.E. Snell and co-workers demonstrated the existence of two additional forms of vitamin B6 and named these pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. The latter two compounds are more widely distributed than pyridoxine and are responsible for most of the vitamin B6 activity of natural materials. The vitamin functions as a phosphorylated derivative of pyridoxal and pyridoxamine in the formation and breakdown of amino acids, and hence indirectly of protein, in living tissues. It is also involved, directly or indirectly, in certain essential processes of fat and carbohydrate metabolism. (1)

In 1942 the John A. Hartford Foundation is created and by 1959 it is considered to be the fourth largest U.S. foundation ever created. (1)

In 1942 the Central Analysis Center was created.  It was the forerunner of the National Meteorological Center (1950), and now the National Center for Environmental Research. (136)

About 1942, Dr. W. Henry Sebrell made strategic recommendations for the diets of civilian workers and rationing for civilian survivors in Western Europe. He had also advised the League of Nations and the United Nations as a nutrition expert. It was largely through his efforts as a public health official, (U.S. Public Health Service and the Institutes of Health) that white flour and bread became enriched with niacin, thiamine and riboflavin. (99)

In 1942 the Moody Foundation was created. (1)

In 1942 Margaret Sanger's American Birth Control Federation of America is renamed to Planned Parenthood Federation of America. (159)

In 1942 Nutrition Reviews began publication. (82)

In 1942 Samuel F. Hildegrand moves to Smithsonian Institution's National Museum to continue his fish systematics and taxonomy work for the agency. This is the beginning of today's National Marine Fisheries Service National Systematics Laboratory, part of the NEFSC until 1995. (20) [See note 79, note 42]

In 1942 "Fish for war is the present aim of the Fishery biological investigations of the [Fish and Wildlife] Service," states the Department's Annual Report. (20)

In 1942 the Department of Agriculture produced a film entitled Hemp For Victory created as an instructional film intended to draft farmers into growing hemp for the war effort. (2) Some 300,000 acres of hemp were to be harvested by 1943. Farmers and their sons were exempt from serving time in the military if they grew hemp. (88) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1942 Dr. William E. Koch is prosecuted for his stimulation of cell oxidation treatment. (48) [See Koch]

In 1942 the second Household Food Consumption Survey was made by the USDA. (82)

In 1942 the structure of Biotin, was established by V. du Vigneaud and his collaborators after they had shown that it is required by animals. This finding developed from evidence (W.G. Bateman, 1916, and M.A. Boas, 1927) that the addition of uncooked egg white to a diet that is otherwise adequate produces toxicity and disease. This malady is caused by the presence in egg white of a specific protein, avidin, which combines with biotin and thus effectively prevents its utilization. Biotin functions in living organisms in processes leading to the formation of fats and the utilization of carbon dioxide. (1), (82)

In 1942 William Stamps Farish signed the Justice Department's consent decree and pleaded "no contest" to charges of criminal conspiracy with the Nazis. (3)

On February 1, 1942 Dr. Rolla Eugene Dyer was appointed director of the National Institute of Health. (80), (81)

In 1942 the Opium Poppy Act was enacted in an effort to regulate poppy production. As had the Harrison Act and the Marijuana Tax Act, it used licensing and taxation as the basis of the regulation. (93)

In 1942 United States psychiatrist Foster Kennedy writes an article in the July issue of the chief journal of the American Psychiatric Association, advocating the killing of retarded children. (6)  He writes that retarded and "utterly unfit" children should be killed to save money and emotional trauma for the parents. (116)

In 1942 the U.S. government ordered seizure of Nazi German banking operations in New York City being conducted by Prescott Bush (S&B 1917). Under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the government took over the Union Banking Corporation in which Prescott Bush was a director. The U.S. Alien Property Custodian seized Union Banking Corporation's stock shares, all of which were owned by Prescott Bush (S&B 1917), E. Roland Harriman (S&B 1917), Ray Morris (S&B 1901), Cornelis Lievense, Harold D. Pennington and three Nazi executives … all of the shares are held for the benefit of Bank voor Handel en Scheepvaart, N.V., Rotterdam, The Netherlands, which bank is owned or controlled by members of the Thyssen family, nationals of Germany and / or Hungary… (3)

On December 5, 1942, through Executive Order 9280, President Franklin Roosevelt delegated increased responsibility over food to the Secretary of Agriculture. (94)

On February 19, 1942 President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which ordered the arrest and transportation of all 112,000 Japanese in America to concentration camps in the Midwest. (160)

In 1942 Pelican Island and other early Federal wildlife reservations are re-designated as "national wildlife refuges". (139)

In 1942 through a report released in 1983 under the Freedom of Information Act, it was discovered (after 40 years of secrecy) that [Harry J.] Anslinger was appointed to a top-secret committee to create a truth serum for the Office of Strategic Service (OSS), which evolved into the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). (2), (17) [See note 26, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In September 1942 the American Journal of Psychiatry published The Psychiatric Aspects of Marihuana Intoxication, by two of the [LaGuardia] study's investigators, Samuel Allentuck and Karl M. Bowman.  Among other things, Allentuck and Bowman wrote that habituation to cannabis is not as strong as habituation to tobacco or alcohol.  Three months later, in December, an editorial in the Journal of the American Medical Association described Allentuck and Bowman's article as "a careful study" and mentioned potential therapeutic uses of cannabis in the treatment of depression, appetite loss, and opiate addiction.  But in the next few years that journal's editors were induced to change their minds under government pressure.  They received and published letters denouncing the LaGuardia report from Bureau of Narcotics Director Harry Anslinger in January 1943 and from R.J. Bouquet, an expert working for the Narcotics Commission of the League of Nations, in April 1944.  Finally, the American Medical Association expressed its agreement with the Federal Bureau of Narcotics in a "scolding" editorial published in 1945.…For more than forty years after that editorial, the American Medical Association steadfastly maintained a position on marihuana closely allied to that of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and its successor agencies. (123)

From 1943 to 1947 L.F. Leloir and J.M. Munoz demonstrated fatty acid oxidation in cell-free liver systems; Albert Lester Lehninger showed the requirement of ATP and the stoichiometry of fatty acid oxidation. (105) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1943 the Food and Agriculture Organization, (FAO) of the League of Nations is started. (1)

In 1943 conflicts over housing and jobs develop between black and white workers, breaking out into open racial conflict in Detroit, resulting in the deaths of 25 blacks and 9 whites before federal troops restore order. (160)

In 1943, during World War II, the agency's Ketchikan Laboratory is asked to investigate potential emergency sources of marine foods in case military activities in Alaska cause food shortages. It studies various sharks and the Steller sea lion as well as groundfish and shellfish. (20)

In 1943 Clarence D. Little [Clarence C. Little?] admitted that the American Cancer Society spent nothing on research. (48)

In 1943 the Hot Springs Conference on Food and Agriculture met in Hot Springs, Virginia. It was attended by representatives of 44 governments. (82)

In 1943 the standards for the enrichment of wheat flour established in 1941 were modified. (82)

In 1943 state taxes on margarine were repealed in Oklahoma. The courts removed color barriers in other states shortly after World War II. (9)

In 1943 Henrik Dam was Nobel laureate in medicine, jointly with E.A. Doisy for his discovery of vitamin K. (1)

In August 1943, at the height of the second World War, Dr. Albert Hoffmann, working for Sandoz Laboratories in Switzerland, (Sandoz was then controlled by the Warburg family), was experimenting with a substance known as LSD, or lysergic acid. He accidentally absorbed a small quantity of rye fungus, the base for the drug while he was working and thus discovered the drug's amazing psychotropic effects. … At the time of this discovery, Allen Dulles was posted in Switzerland, as though by precognition. It was under his leadership that the CIA became transformed into the foremost operation of Dope Inc. As director of the newly-formed CIA, Dulles ordered 10 kg of LSD from Sandoz, the stated purpose being "for use in drug experiments with animals and human beings. As there are some 10,000 doses per gram, this meant that Dulles ordered one hundred million doses of LSD. (48), (116)

From 1944 to 1946 Ancel Keys and co-workers performed classic studies on the effects on young men of experimentally induced semi-starvation and methods of dietary rehabilitation. (82)

From 1944 to 1945 W.H. Feldman and H.C. Hinshaw demonstrated streptomycin's specific effect in inhibiting tuberculosis. (1)

Since 1944, a sizeable faction at the American Medical Association was resolved to get [Morris] Fishbein out at any cost. (48)

In 1944 Anslinger threatens doctors who carry out cannabis research with imprisonment. (89) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1944 the La Guardia Report stresses the relative triviality of marijuana's effects. (86)  The findings were published under the title, The Marihuana Problem in the City of New York.  This largely disregarded study dispelled many of the myths that had spurred passage of the tax act.  The committee found no proof that major crime was associated with marihuana or that it caused aggressive or antisocial behavior; marihuana was not sexually over stimulating and did not change personality; there was no evidence of acquired tolerance. (123) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1944 streptomycin, (a tuberculosis drug) was discovered by Selman A. Waksman and his associates of the U.S. (1)

In 1944 German chemists develop a substitute for morphine, called dolophine, (now known as methadone). (116)

In 1944 Congress passes the Public Health Service Act. It covers a broad spectrum of health concerns including regulation of biological products and control of communicable diseases. (85)

In 1944 the War Food Administration frees sperm whale oil from restricted civilian use, allowing it to be used for grinding oils, carbon paper, mimeograph inks, typewriter ribbon, etc. (20) [See note 90]

In 1944 the dogfish shark, once considered a pest, becomes the nation's chief source of vitamin A. (20)

In 1944 Norman Borlaug is sent to Mexico by the Rockefellers to develop new grain types. (6)

In 1944 the American Society for the Control of Cancer changed its name to the American Cancer Society; it was then placed into the hands of two of the most notorious patent medicine hucksters in the United States, Albert Lasker and Elmer Bobst. (48) [See Bobst]

On June 23, 1944, under Bobst's leadership, the American Cancer Society had obtained a new charter and underwent a complete reorganization. The staff was expanded to 300, and the two hucksters launched a national campaign to enlist two and a half million "volunteers" to patrol every foot of the nation in gathering funds to "fight cancer." … The new Bobst-Lasker board of the American Cancer Society featured the usual array of Rockefeller cohorts, Anna Rosenberg, Eric Johnston, longtime head of the Chamber of Commerce and now head of the Motion Picture Association, a public relations spokesman for the Hollywood moguls; John Adams, a partner of Lazard Freres and head of Standard Brands; General William (Wild Bill) Donovan, the Wall Street lawyer who was selected by the British Intelligence Service to head the new Office of Strategic Services, the nation's spy network; … Emerson Foote, Lasker's advertising protégé; Ralph Reed, the president of American Express Company; Harry von Elm, the super banker who was president of Manufacturers Trust; and Florence Mahoney, the multi-million dollar heiress of the Cox newspaper fortune, and a longtime crony of Mary Lasker. (48)

From 1945 to 1946 CARE (Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere) was founded. The first food package was delivered to Europe on May 11, 1946. (82)

From 1945 to 1952 I.G. Farben is split into BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. (6)

In 1945 W. A. Krehl, L. J. Teply, and C. A. Elvehjem found that an amino acid, tryptophan, could be substituted for nicotinic acid, (niacin). This is because part of the former is converted to the latter in the animal body. (1) [See 1989, note 3, note 5]

In 1945 Lionel Walford becomes Director of research and reorganizes the entire fisheries research program. (20) [See note 77]

In 1945 the "doctors" trial begins at Nuremberg. During the trial, it would be revealed that many of the experiments done on prisoners in the concentration camps were done following experiments previously done by the U.S. on the civilian population in the early 1940s. (6) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1945 Lancet, the official journal of the British Medical Association, features an article, Sterilization of the Insane in the USA. According to the article, based on information in the Journal of the American Medical Association, over 42,000 people were sterilized in the U.S. between 1941 and 1943. California led the pack with over 10,000. (6)  Among the victims were 20,600 "Insane" and 20,453 "Feeble Minded". (116)

In 1945 psychiatrist G. Brock Chisholm, co-founder of the World Federation of Mental Health says "The reinterpretation and eventually eradication of the concept of right and wrong…these are the belated objectives of practically all effective psychotherapy."…"If the race is to be freed from its crippling burden of good and evil, it must be psychiatrists who take the original responsibility."…"Psychiatry must now decide what is to be the immediate future of the human race.  No one else can …" (116)

In 1945 Pteroylglutamic acid was synthesized. (82)

In 1945 Truman's Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888) recommended the atomic bomb drops on Japan. (26) During World War II Stimson's special assistant, Harvey Hollister Bundy (S&B 1909) was the key Pentagon man on the Manhattan Project and was Stimson's constant companion to conferences in North Africa, Italy and Germany. While Stimson was still Secretary of War he brought Harvey Hollister Bundy's son, McGeorge Bundy (S&B 1940), into the Pentagon to work on a book manuscript, On Active Service in Peace and War published in 1948. (26)

In 1945 the Food and Agriculture Organization, (FAO) of the U.N. was founded. J. Boyd Orr was the first Director General. (82) [See note 100]

In 1945 the Food and Drug Administration promulgates regulations for standards for the fortification and mandatory wartime enrichment of bread and other foods after World War II. (85)

From 1946 to 1947 at the University of Rochester, six patients who had good kidneys were injected with uranium salts "to determine the concentration that might produce kidney injury". (48)

In 1946 para-aminosalicylic acid, (a tuberculosis drug) was discovered. (1)

In 1946 the International Institute of Agriculture is disbanded and it's activities are transferred to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, which had superceded it. (1)

In 1946 a factor was identified by Lederle Laboratories as xanthopterylmethyl-para-aminobenzoyl glutamic acid, commonly known as folic, or pteroylglutamic acid. (1)

In 1946 the National School Lunch Act passed. (82)

On July 3, 1946 the National Mental Health Act was passed. (80), (116)

In 1946 Operation Crossroads, the nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll begins and Woods Hole Laboratory oyster expert Paul S. Galtsoff is an invited scientist on the project. (20)  Naval Commander Roger Revelle of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography leads the oceanographic and geophysical components of Operation Crossroads. (120) [See also 1971]

In 1946 the Gray family plays host to the eugenics experiment in North Carolina supervised by Alice Shelton Gray in which all children enrolled in the school district of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, were given a special "intelligence test". Those children who scored below a certain arbitrary low mark were then cut open and surgically sterilized. … Working under Miss Gray was Dr. Claude Nash Herndon, whom Gordon Gray had made assistant professor of "medical genetics" at Bowman Gray Medical School.…Dr. Clarence Gamble, heir to the Procter & Gamble soap fortune, was the sterilizers' national field operations chief." (3)

In 1946 the International Society of Haematology is founded in Boston. (1)

In 1946 the Doctor's Trial begins at Nuremberg. (78)

In 1946 the Rockefeller Foundation allotted $139,000 for an official history of World War II. This to avoid a repeat of debunking history books which embarrassed the Establishment after World War One. (26)

In 1946 the World Federation on Mental Health is created. The term eugenics, because of its association with Nazi Germany, is dropped. (6)

In 1946 Dr. Gerson demonstrated medical proof of complete remissions of cancer in over 33% of his patients before the Pepper-Neeley Congressional Sub-Committee for Hearings on S1875, a bill to authorize the president to wage war on cancer. Lobbying forces for surgery, radiation and chemotherapy defeated the bill by four votes. The bill supported research into dietary means for preventing and reversing cancer. Gerson's publications were black-listed and he lost his license to practice medicine in New York. (6)

In 1946 all prior narcotics agreements were brought under the supervision of the United Nations and the Opium Advisory Committee of the League of Nations was replaced with the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs. (???)

In 1946 the International Union for Child Welfare is formed in Geneva by merging the Save the Children International Union and the International Association for Child Welfare. (1)

In 1946 the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, which also supports foreign aid programs, especially in Latin-America, creates the American International Association for Economic and Social Development. And the two have since founded the Association for Credit and Rural Assistance (providing supervised credit and technical assistance to farmers), International Basic Economy Corporation (investing in developmental enterprises in Latin America), and IBEC Research Institute, (Studying agricultural problems). (1)

In 1946 Dr. William E. Koch is prosecuted a 2nd time for his stimulation of cell oxidation treatment. (48) [See Koch]

In 1946 Frederick Osborn, (Osborn-Dodge-Harriman RR connection) became president of the American Eugenics Society until 1952. (23)

In 1946 the British Society of Endocrinology is founded. (1)

In 1946 the World Health Organization, (WHO) was formed as a result of an international health conference for the establishment of an international health organization, convened by the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations, New York. The constitution was originally signed by 64 states. (1)

In 1946 the First International Congress of Nutrition was held in London with a proposal for International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS). (82)

On August, 14, 1946, anticipating possible surpluses, Congress approved the Research and Marketing Act, authorizing the U.S. Department of Agriculture to undertake large-scale marketing research. (94)

In 1946 in response to amendments to the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, the Fish and Wildlife Service establishes a River Basins Study program to help minimize and prevent damage to fish and wildlife resulting from Federal water projects. (139)

From 1947 to 1949 evidence is found for conversion of tryptophan to niacin in man. (82) [See 1945]

From 1947—1950 the nature of the bound forms (the vitamin does not occur free in tissues) of the vitamin pantothenic acid was clarified through the discovery and synthesis (E.E Snell and co-workers) of the compound pantetheine, which contains pantothenic acid combined with thioethanolamine. (1) [See note 18]

From 1947 to 1955, 52% of the draftees during the Korean War were rejected for physical and mental defects. … Of some 200 Americans killed in Korea, and autopsied, 80% were found to have advanced stages of heart disease. (48)

In 1947 the Fish and Wildlife Service officially establishes a program recognizing North America's four migratory bird flyways in an effort to improve the management of migratory waterfowl hunting. (139)

In Sept. 1947 the first meeting of the general assembly of the World Medical Association was held in Paris; among its objectives are the promotion of closer ties among the national medical organizations and the establishment of relations with WHO and UNESCO. (1)

In 1947 the American Academy of General Practice is founded with about 26,000 members in 50 state chapters. (1)

In 1947 the Sid W. Richardson Foundation was created. (1)

In 1947 vitamin A was synthesized by O. Isler. (1)

In 1947 fish promotion and "home extension" type work by the Bureau of Fisheries creates thousands of new fish recipes, puts on countless fish cookery demonstrations which taught America how to use fish. (20) [See note 88]

In 1947 the National Security Council is founded under CIA charter. (6)

In 1947 Residual war shortages of butter sent it to a dollar a pound and Margarine Act repeal legislation was offered from many politicians. (9)

In 1947 vitamin B12 was identified. (82)

In 1947 the British Journal of Nutrition began publication. (82)

In 1948 to 1950 Eugene Patrick Kennedy and Albert Lester Lehninger discovered that the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation take place in mitochondria. (105) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1948 - 1949, a crystalline substance that controlled pernicious anemia when extremely small amounts were administered by injection was isolated by pharmaceutical workers in the U.S. and England. The substance was called vitamin B12 and was shown to be the same as a substance, previously called animal protein factor, required for growth of animals on diets of all-vegetable origin. (1) Crystalline vitamin B12 was isolated from liver concentrates and shown to contain cobalt. (82)

In 1948—1949 Oleomargarine Tax Repeal hearings are brought before the house Agricultural committee, 80th congress 1st session and 81st congress 1st session; before the senate finance committee, 80th congress, 2nd session, and 81st congress, 1st session. (1)

From 1948 to 1950, during the height of the communist scare, we were told that marijuana caused its users to become pacifistic. The communists could use it to weaken our military personnel so they would become passive and lose their will to fight. This idea was the total reverse of what we had been told before. (88) [See note 107, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1948 the Vincent Astor Foundation was created. (1)

In 1948 Paul Hermann Müller won the Nobel prize for devising DDT as an insecticide. (152)

In 1948 Fairfield Osborn authored Our Plundered Planet, an early expose of the effects of DDT on wildlife. (97) [See 1962, Note 115]

In 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (117)

In 1948 Sidney Farber in the U.S. found that chemical antagonists to folic acid, a B vitamin, could alleviate acute leukemia in children. (1)

In 1948 the World Health Organization, (WHO) became functionary when the remaining 26 states completed ratification of its constitution. It took over the functions of the League of Nations Health Organization, certain activities of UNRRA and the duties of the Office International d'Hygiène Publique, Paris. The work of WHO is carried out by the World Health Assembly, the executive board and the secretariat, and its functions include acting as a directing and coordinating body on international health problems, collaborating with appropriate organizations and governments in strengthening health services, promoting and conducting research and providing information, assistance and guidance. (1)

In 1948 an international protocol is agreed to in which allowance is made for the addition of new drugs to the [narcotics] control categories by action of the World Health Organization. (1)

In 1948 the Scottish Society for the History of Medicine, Edinburgh is organized as a historical medical society. (1)

In 1948 the International Society of Internal Medicine is founded in Basel. (1)

In 1948 the Persian Gulf Medical Society was founded. (1)

In 1948 the third Household Food Consumption Survey was made by the USDA, (urban areas only). (82)

In 1948 the World Council of Churches is founded in Amsterdam, Holland. (6)

In 1948 fluoridation of some community water supplies began in the U.S. (82)

In 1948 several crystalline proteolytic enzymes were isolated by Northrop et al. (82)

In 1948 a Dr. Sandler, who was then serving as nutritional expert at the U.S. Veterans Administration Hospital in Oteen, North Carolina, became alarmed at the enormous amounts of heavily sugared drinks, candy and other sweets which were being consumed by children during the hot summer months, at the same time that the polio became epidemic each year. He conducted tests which led him to the conclusion that the children's consumption of sugar had a direct relation to the virulence of the polio outbreaks. He then issued an urgent warning to parents to ban consumption of any refined sugar product, particularly candy, soft drinks and ice cream during the summer months. The result of Dr. Sandler's campaign was that the number of polio cases dropped in North Carolina 90% in a single year, from 2,498 in 1948 to only 229 in 1949. Aroused by the effect that Dr. Sandler's warning campaign had had on their summer sales in North Carolina, the soft drink distributors and the candy manufacturers came in the following year with a statewide promotional campaign, featuring free samples and other promotions. By 1950, the polio toll had risen once more to its 1948 level. What happened to Dr. Sandler? A study of North Carolina publications shows no further mention of him or his program. (48) Dr. Benjamin P. Sandler also revealed that soda pop contained phosphoric acid which absorbs phosphorus and sulfates in food before natural metabolism can get it to the nervous system, causing the nerve trunks to fail to function properly. (6)

In 1948 Dr. Franz J. Kallmann founded the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG).  He became a member of the American Eugenics Society.  The ASHG developed hundreds of prenatal tests but did not look for cures, although every test was hyped as a potential lead towards a cure.  Over the next years, at least 124 people were members of both Kallmann's ASHG and the American Eugenics Society.  The overwhelming evidence of a commitment to eugenics at the ASHG is expecially troubling when you note that members of this society promoted, developed and now lead the billion-dollar Human Genome Project. (159)

In 1948 England finally banned the smallpox vaccine, despite the fact that it was one of the most widely heralded "contributions" which that country had made to modern medicine. This action came after many years of compulsory vaccination, during which period those who refused to submit to its dangers were hurried off to jail. (48)

In 1948 the World Federation for Mental Health is founded in London. (1) The World Federation for Mental Health was organized by Montagu Norman from the Mental Hygiene Society—the movement which originated at Yale in 1908. Montague Norman appointed John Rawlings Rees as chairman of the federation. (3)  Psychiatrist G. Brock Chisholm is a co-founder. (116)

in 1948, while Japan was under U.S. occupation, General Douglas MacArthur's administration amended the Japanese constitution to include the Taima Torishimari Ho or Cannabis Control Law that "in a mere half century, ... managed to totally wipe away even the memories of hemp culture, which endured for several thousand years after its beginnings in the Jomon Period." (172)

From 1949 to 1952 John J. McCloy is U.S. Military Governor and High Commissioner of Germany. (6)

In early 1949 Morris Fishbein had been exposed on a national radio program, Town Meeting of the Air, as a habitual liar. He claimed that he had been touring England, visiting the offices of general practitioners every day. The radio program revealed that he had actually been attending the Olympics, that he had dined with several members of the British aristocracy and attended a number of plays in London, and then had traveled to Paris for a round of the night clubs, all in the name of promoting medicine. The program, aired by Nelson Cruikshank, demolished Fishbein's reputation, noting that Fishbein had not gone near any doctor's office in England during his stay. As for Fishbein's report about his trip, Cruikshank branded it a lie, calling it "a libel on a profession which is proud of its tradition of service to its patients. Fishbein's life was described as "a constant round of visits to New York plays, the Stork Club, and night clubs in London and Paris." As a result of this publicity, the American Medical Association, at its 1949 convention passed a unanimous resolution that Dr. Morris Fishbein be removed from all posts in which he did any writing and speaking. This resolution provided that it be implemented "as soon as possible," which turned out to be that very afternoon. By evening, Fishbein was gone from American Medical Association headquarters, never to return. (48)

In 1949 the American Medical Association Council of Pharmacy and Chemistry goes on record to deny that dietary changes could have anything to do with prevention or treatment of cancer. (6)

In 1949, faced by what appeared to be an uncontrollable epidemic of the so called insulin resistant diabetes, the medical community reorganized itself into the competing medical specialties that we see today. Thus the "heart specialist", "endocrinologist", "allergist", "intestinal disease specialist", the "cancer specialist" and many others started. (51)

In 1949 there were 16.4 diagnosed cases per 100,000 of diabetes and its associated diseases—a 585% increase in 50 years. (43)

In 1949 the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is formed. (116)



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