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"O Solon, Solon, you Hellenes are never anything but children, and
there is not an old man among you... in mind you are all young; there
is no old opinion handed down among you by ancient tradition, nor any
science which is hoary with age. And I will tell you why. There have
been, and will be again, many destructions of mankind arising out of
many causes; the greatest have been brought about by the agencies of
fire and water..." -- unknown Egyptian priest, instructing Solon on
how the Hellenes had lost knowledge of their ancient past, from
Plato's Timaeus

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By 1935 sterilization laws had been enacted in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland and Germany. (159)

From 1935 to 1941 68,688 people are subjected to shock treatment in the U.S.  Between 1941 and 1977 there are at least 384 published reports of shock-related deaths. (116)

In 1935, 1936 Otto Warburg and Hans von Euler-Chelpin isolated pyrimidine nucleotides and determined their structure and action. (105)

In 1935 General Smedley D. Butler wrote in the November issue of Common Sense of his Marine career: "I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914.  I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in…I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Bros. in 1909-12.  In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went its way unmolested.  In 1899 J.P. Morgan floated the first important foreign loan on behalf of the Mexican Government.  In 1901 he lent $50 million to the British Government to fight the Boer War.  But it was mainly into the countries of Spanish America that American capital found its way."…Butler continued his revelations in the Dec. 1935 issue, "In 1910, six months after the Nicaraguan Revolution which ousted President Zelaya, his successor, Dr. Madris, grew cold towards the Nicaraguan investments of Brown Bros. and Seligman Co.  Another revolution immediately 'occurred'." (130)

By 1935 "Lucky" Luciano had forced many small-time pimps out of business as he found that addicting his prostitute labor force to heroin kept them quiescent, steady workers, with a habit to support and only one way to gain enough money to support it. This combination of organized prostitution and drug addiction, which later became so commonplace, was Luciano's trademark in the 1930s. (44)

In 1935 French-American Nobel Prize winner Dr. Alexis Carrel, of the Rockefeller Institute in New York, publishes Man, the Unknown, in which he advocates the abolition of prisons and the disposal of criminals and the mentally ill through euthanasia institutions or alteration through surgical procedures. (6) In his book he advocates killing the "mentally ill and criminals" in "euthanasia" institutions.  He writes, "Those who have murdered, robbed while armed…kidnapped children, despoiled the poor of their savings, misled the public in important matters, should be humanely and economically disposed of in small euthanasia institutions supplied with proper gases.  A similar treatment could be advantageously applied to the insane, guilty of criminal acts." (116) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1935 the Statistical Manual for the Use of Institutions for the Insane by the American Medico-Psychological Association is incorporated into the American Medical Association's Standard Classified Nomenclature of Disease. (116)

In 1935 the International Congress for Population Science takes place in Berlin. (116), (128)  Clarence G. Campbell, senior member of the American contingent praised Hitler's race policies in glowing terms, referring to them as "epochal in racial history", and as setting a pattern "which other nations and racial groups must follow." (154)

In 1935 Henrik Dam showed that the unknown antihemorrhagic factor missing from the diet of the animals in his experiments from 1929 to 1934 was a fat-soluble vitamin which he named vitamin K (Koagulations-Vitamin). (1) [See vitamin K]

In 1935 A.G. Tansley formulates the concept of the ecosystem. (105)

In 1935 threonine was discovered as an essential dietary amino acid. (82)  It was discovered by William Cumming Rose and was the last essential amino acid to have been recognized. (105)

In 1935 vitamin B6 was differentiated from anti-blacktongue and P-P factors. (82)

In 1935 an active tobacco mosaic virus was obtained in pure crystalline form and shown to be a protein. (82)

In 1935 nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (called coenzyme I, cozymase, DPN, then NAD) was first coenzyme to be identified. (82)

In 1935 the League of Nations Assembly established a Mixed Committee on the Problem of Nutrition. (82)

In 1935 Nazis institute the Law for the Protection of the Genetic Health of the German People, which required couples to have a medical examination before marriage; the law forbade marriage if a person was considered "genetically defective", and did not permit marriage between Aryans and Jew, Gypsies, Slavs and others deemed inferior. (6) [See (Related Laws 1934, 1922)]

In 1935 George G. Klumpp, who had married into the J.P. Morgan family, became chief of the drug division of the Food and Drug Administration in Washington. He held this post until 1941. (48)

In 1935 Prontosil, (sulfa drug) was discovered by the German, Gerhard Domagk. The discovery of sulfa drugs, along with antibiotics, rapidly accelerated the progress against infectious diseases. (1)

In 1935 the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation, (created in 1924) transferred its know-how [manufacture of tetraethyl lead] to Germany for use in the Nazi rearmament program over the protests of the U.S. government. … The directors of the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation at the time of this transfer were E.W. Webb, president and director; C.F. Kettering; R.P. Russell; W.C. Teagle, Standard Oil of New Jersey and trustee of FDR's Georgia Warm Springs Foundation; F.A. Howard; E.M. Clark, Standard Oil of New Jersey; A.P. Sloan, Jr.; D. Brown; J.T. Smith; and W.S. Farish of Standard Oil of New Jersey. (33) [See note 38, 1938]

By 1935 sterilization laws had been passed in Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Most of these laws provided for the voluntary or compulsory sterilization of certain classes of people thought to be insane, idiotic, imbecilic, feebleminded, and epileptic; some applied equally to habitual criminals, moral perverts, or the feebleminded. In most cases the purpose was clearly eugenic, though some laws permitted sterilization for social rather than genetic reasons. (1)

In 1935 the U.S. Public Health Service establishes a [drug] treatment and research centre at Lexington, Ky. (1) A narcotic "farm" at Lexington, Ky., was completed and opened on May 29. (80) The newly completed Federal Narcotic Farm was dedicated on May 25 by Dr. Hugh S. Cumming, Surgeon General of the Federal Public Health Service "to instinctive demands" of the American people "that the sick and afflicted shall be set in the way of strength and hope."  The institution cost 4,000,000 and covered eleven acres. (55)  [See Note 136, 1929, 1938 (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1935 the International College of Surgeons is founded in Chicago. (1)

In 1935 riboflavin, (vitamin B2 , once known as vitamin G) was synthesized by Kuhn and P. Karrer. (1) Paul Karrer and Richard Kuhn identified lactoflavin (riboflavin, or vitamin B2) as the prosthetic group of Otto Warburg and W. Christian's yellow enzyme. (105)

In 1935 Albert von Szent-Györgyi showed the catalytic effect of dicarboxylic acids on respiration. (105)

In 1935 only one percent of U.S. corn came from hybrid seed. (87)

In 1935 the Rural Electrification Administration was established. (94)

In 1935 biotin (called, for a time, vitamin H) was isolated in pure form by F. Kögl and B. Tönnis. (1)

In 1935 George Wald suggested that vitamin A is a precursor of visual purple. (105)

In 1935 Rudolf Schoenheimer and David Rittenberg first used isotopes as tracers in the study of intermediate metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. (105) [See note 135, (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1935 H. Davson and James Frederic Danielli proposed a "protein-lipid sandwich" model for the structure of cell membranes. (105) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1935 N.W. Timofeeff-Ressovsky formulated a "target theory" of gene mutation which says that a mutation can be induced if a single electron is detached by high energy radiation. (105)

As early as April 13, 1935 Stephen Gibbons had overruled Anslinger and threw the Treasury Department's support behind early draft versions of bills by Senator Hatch and Congressman Dempsey of New Mexico to prohibit the shipment and transportation of cannabis in interstate or foreign commerce. (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1935 The Rockefeller Trust begins the process of pouring $90 million dollars into research in molecular biology, the basis of genetic engineering, through 1959. (6)

In 1935 the AES [American Eugenics Society] board of directors "consisted of Guy Irving Burch, Population Reference Bureau; Henry P. Fairchild, New York University; Irving I. Fisher, Yale University; Willystine Goodsell, Columbia University; C.C. Little, American Society for the Control of Cancer; Frederick Osborn, Secretary of the AES; H.F. Perkins, University of Vermont, Paul Popenoe, Human Betterment Foundation; and Milton Wintermitz, Yale University.  Among the advisory council were some of America's most liberal and highly respected religious, political, medical, and academic names.  They included Robert L. Dickinson, probably the most highly respected gynecologist in America at the time, the Reverend Harry Fosdick, whose Riverside Church in New York had over 3000 members, and his brother Raymond Fosdick, at the time the newly, appointed president of the Rockefeller Foundation and the General Education Board.  Among the biologists were E.M. East, William Wheeler, and Sewall Wright.  Among the psychologists were E.L. Thorndike, Lewis Terman, and Robert Yerkes.  The list includes an all-star cast from other fields as well, the majority of whom were quite active in the society. (188:8:n23)

In 1935 (unconfirmed) an important development in margarine processing occurred. Before that time, most vegetable fat margarine was made from imported oils, such as coconut, palm and palm kernel oils. While these oils were perfectly wholesome, the anti-margarine groups used this situation to support the continued restrictions on margarine and even to advocate additional ones on the basis that such use of foreign oils was inimical to the best interest of the U.S. farmer. After considerable research, manufacturers of margarine in the U.S. finally found in the mid-1930s how to make a satisfactory margarine from domestic vegetable oils. The resultant increase in the use of cottonseed and soybean oils stimulated the interest of cottonseed and soybean farmers and processing groups in the elimination of discriminatory restrictions on margarine; in the 1940s consumer groups in the U.S. also became interested in the elimination of this legislation. (1) [See note 6]

In 1935, The Wilderness Society was founded. Its founding took place at the Cosmos Club. (193) 

In 1936, the University of Heidelberg awarded an honorary degree to Harry Laughlin for his great contribution to the field of eugenics. (75) It was in recognition of the critical role he played, (the Nazis used a model he had devised as the basis for their own sterilization law in 1933) that he was given an honorary doctorate of medicine degree, which he enthusiastically accepted at the time of the university's 550th anniversary celebration. (76) [See note 19]

In 1936 the Ford Foundation was created which, by 1959 was considered the largest foundation ever created in the U.S. (1)

In 1936 the movie, Reefer Madness was released. (88) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On April 6, 1936 Dr. Thomas Parran was appointed Public Health Service, (PHS) Surgeon General. (80)

In 1936 vitamin E was obtained in pure form by Evans and O.H. and G.A. Emerson. (1) Pure vitamin E was isolated from unsaponifiable fraction of wheat germ oil and named tocopherol. (82)

In 1936 the first Household Food Consumption Survey was made by the USDA. (82)

In 1936 thiamine, (vitamin B1) was shown to be required for growth of bacteria (P. pentosaceum). (82)

In 1936 the structure of thiamine, (vitamin B1) was fully elucidated and the vitamin is synthesized by R.R. Williams and associates. (1), (105) Thiamine was synthesized by Williams and Cline. (82) Robert R. Williams and Kline synthesized thiamin.

In March 1936 Anslinger proposed a way around the constitutional objections of including marijuana in the Harrison Act. He proposed to his superiors in the Treasury Department that a treaty be enacted among the United States, Canada and Mexico. Basing this suggestion on the doctrine of Missouri v. Holland, the famous migratory bird case, the Commissioner felt that a cannabis treaty between these countries would enable Congress to enact legislation to enforce the treaty's terms, even if in so doing it would touch on matters ordinarily regarded as within the legislative province of the states. The Missouri v. Holland case of 1920 stated that treaties have precedence over local police powers. On March 13 Herman Oliphant, a counsel for the Treasury Department, wrote a memo to Stephen Gibbons, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, stating that "both the time and the subject appear to be appropriate from the Government's point of view to test the treaty power." Anslinger then entered into negotiations with Mexico and Canada, but in a few months the negotiations had broken down. (45) In Geneva at the Conference for the Suppression of Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs, Anslinger urged that cannabis be included in any treaty they adopted. The other delegates refused to agree to such a request since a subcommittee charged with looking into the cannabis question indicated that not enough was known about the physiological, psychological, or psychopathic effects, addictive properties, or cannabis's relation to crime, to warrant any such proposal. (106) In 1936 the narcotics convention (with less than a score of adherents), called for direct criminal sanctions to punish international trafficking. (1) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On October 5, 1936 after returning to Washington following a trip to Europe, Stephen Gibbons, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, fired off a memo to Herman Oliphant. In it he recounted his meeting with the Dean of the Medical School of the University of Texas while en route to Europe who was very perturbed that the Bureau of Narcotics was dragging its feet on federal legislation of marijuana. In the memo he states that Anslinger and "nearly everyone having anything to do with the Harrison Narcotics Act are continually fighting shy of making any move which might bring any feature of this Act before the United States Supreme Court. As you will recall, the law was upheld by a five to four decision. However, be that as it may, steps should be taken legally or otherwise that will definitely control this product, for if we are to believe a small fraction of what is written it is frightfully devastating." (45) [See note 44, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1936 the National Association of Margarine Manufacturers, (NAMM) which is a non-profit trade association, was formed. (9) [See note 2]

In 1936 Avery Rockefeller (S&B 1900) set up a new investment firm which was called Schroder-Rockefeller Company.  It combined operations of the Schroder Bank, Hitler's personal bank and the Rockefeller interests. Baron Kurt von Schroder was one of Hitler's closest confidantes, and a leading officer of the SS. He was head of the Keppler Associates, which funnelled money to the SS for leading German Corporations. Keppler was the official in charge of Industrial Fats during Goering's Four Year Plan, which was launched in 1936. (48) The announcement of this new holding company was announced in the New York Times. (6)

In 1936 the Irish Medical Association, Dublin is founded. (1)

In 1936 Theodosius Dobzhansky publishes Genetics and the Origin of Species. (105)

In 1936 the Washington Post is taken over by Eugene Meyer. (6)

In 1936 I.G. Farben produces Zyklon-B gas for use in Nazi extermination camps. (6)

In 1936 I.G. Farben's sulfanilamide drug, discovered in 1908, is finally released. (6)

In 1936 the discovery of the mammary tumour agent by Bittner was a result of studies in genetics. Through inbreeding with selection over many years, geneticists had developed strains of mice with high, predictable rates of cancer and others in which tumours were uncommon. Bittner found that mice of a strain with a high rate of mammary cancer frequently developed few tumours if nursed by mice of a low-tumour strain, indicating that a tumour agent in mice is transmitted by the milk. (1) [See note 7]

In 1936 the existence of a vitamin distinct from thiamine and riboflavin that appeared to be an organic base was established by T. W. Birch and P. György in experiments with rats. This substance was termed vitamin B6; deficiencies of it led to a disease characterized by severe reddening and erosion of the skin on the ears, nose, and paws. (1) [See note 17]

In 1936 A. Szent-Györgyi and co-workers announced that an extract of red peppers or lemon juice was efficacious in the treatment of bleeding due to abnormal capillary permeability in scurvy; administration of vitamin C alone, they found, did not remedy this aspect of the disease.  They called the helpful factor vitamin P (for permeability) and identified it as a flavanone. (1)

In 1936 John J. McCloy, an intimate collaborator of the Harriman / Bush bank, had sat in Adolf Hitler's box at the Olympic games in Berlin at the invitation of Nazi chieftains Rudolf Hess and Hermann Göring. (3) McCloy would later serve on the Warren Commission investigating, [whitewashing] the assassination of President Kennedy. (6) [See 1951]

In 1937, 1938 Otto Warburg showed how formation of ATP is coupled to the dehydrogenation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. (105)

On February 1st, 1937 Dr. Lewis Thompson was appointed director of the National Institute of Health. (80), (81)

On February 21, 1937, an article appearing in the New York Times, World Group to Push Fight on Marijuana, reported that the World Narcotic Defense Association would observe this week the eleventh annual Narcotic Education Week, appealing to the public through the press and radio as well as through religious, fraternal and educational institutions.…Members of the association who will speak over the radio are Admiral Richmond P. Hobson, president; Dr. Perry M. Lichtenstein, Representative Hamilton Fish, Charles H. Tuttle and Major J.G. Phelps-Stokes. (135)

In 1937 K. Lohmann and P. Schuster isolated the prosthetic group from cocarboxylase and showed that it is the diphosphate of thiamin (vitamin B1). (105)

On July 23rd 1937 the National Cancer Institute Act was signed. (80)

By 1937 all neuro-psychiatric hospitals in Germany would use Insulin Coma Treatment, (ICT). (6)

In 1937 the German edition of Madison Grant's book, Conquest of a Continent is released in Berlin. Dr. Eugen Fischer of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, in his praise for the book, notes "the racial idea has become one of the chief foundations of the National Socialist State's population policies." (6)

In 1937 Morris Fishbein gains control as editor of the American Medical Association, along with Dr. Olin West. (6)

In 1937 the Eugenics Record Office and the Eugenics Research Association send a flyer to 3,000 U.S. highschools, encouraging the screening of an English version of the Nazi propaganda film, Erbkrank, (meaning "hereditary defective").  The film plays 28 times in 1937, 1938. (116)

In 1937 William Donovan renews his association with the Rothschilds, who ask him to salvage their interests in Bohemia, (Czechoslovakia) left over from the Nazi occupation. (6)

In 1937 American professor Earnest Hooten, a Harvard University anthropologist, was described in the New York Times as one of the leading authorities on human evolution. Says Hooten, "I think that a biological purge is the essential prerequisite for social and spiritual salvation. It is very difficult to enforce such a measure in a democracy, unless it has been preceded by an educational campaign…" (6)

In 1937 Adolf Hitler orders the film The Inheritance shown in 5,300 theatres in Germany as a beginning indoctrination in racial theory. (6)

On January 14th 1937, with an eye toward preparing a satisfactory legal definition of marijuana, a conference on Cannabis sativa was called at the Treasury Department in Washington. It was attended by Dr. Munch, a Professor of Pharmacology from Princeton [with ten years experience with the Food and Drug Administration], Dr. Wollner, the Treasury Department chemist, Anslinger and his right-hand man, Alfred Tennyson, a Dr. Fuller, (chemist), Valaer of the Alcohol Tax Unit, Sievers, a Department of Agriculture pharmacologist, Tipton and Pierce from the General Counsel's office of the Treasury Department, the drafters of the bill and five other conferees. Dr. Munch …"made things worse by implicating the seed in the nefarious drug syndrome." … "There is a case on record"—Anslinger delved deep into his case-file memory bank—"I believe, of a prisoner who had a canary bird in the cell, and the warden found that he was taking the seed they brought in for the bird." … Wollner suggested that the bill's definition of marijuana include the resin, the leaves, and the flowering tops of the plant. The seeds would be excluded from the bill. Anslinger demurred again. "The reason I'm after the seed is the preventive measure. Getting the seed out will make our trouble disappear." … When Wollner asks whether the tax on growing marijuana for personal use would be prohibitive, Tipton, one of the drafters of the bill replied, "No; by paying twenty-five dollars, I think you can grow and smoke all the marihuana you like". … Anslinger said absolutely nothing in opposition to the notion that possession of marijuana would be allowed!!! (45) [See note 45, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1937 Clarence Gamble was financing a program which supplied "birth control information to the natives of the densely populated little island of Bocagrande, off the Florida Everglades." The nurse in charge of the program, Miss Frances Pratt, homesick for her native North Carolina, interested Gamble in that state as a good location for testing and proving his contraceptive methods. Gamble approached the North Carolina State Board of Health with an offer it found too good to refuse: he would personally fund for one year a project to provide contraception, under state auspices, to indigent citizens, paying for both the contraceptives and the salary of a "consultant nurse," Miss Pratt. Miss Pratt thus made her way back to North Carolina and Gamble had the entire state as a laboratory in which to test his ideas when North Carolina, on 15 March 1937, became the first of the forty-eight states to sponsor a health department birth control program. When the North Carolina plan was launched, there were just three (private) birth control clinics in the state; by the end of 1938, with Gamble's backing, the state had created 56. (24)

In 1937 William Stamps Farish is president and chief executive of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey. (3)

In 1937 a new patent for hydrogenation was filed by a Dr. Ellis working for a major oil company. (43) [See note 36]

In 1937 the Puerto Rican legislature, under heavy pressure from the United States, passed a population control law legalizing both contraception and sterilization. Puerto Rico, with its homogeneous, stable population of poor and illiterate women, provided [Clarence] Gamble and American drug companies with an "ideal" environment for mass clinical testing of contraceptives. (24), (23)

In 1937 A. Szent-Györgyi earned the Nobel prize in medicine by showing that linoleic acid, in combination with sulfur-rich proteins, stimulated the vital oxygenation processes of the body. (42) The Nobel prize was awarded to Albert Szent-Györgyi, the first person to isolate vitamin C. He extracted it from paprika. (87) [See note 105, note 21, (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1937 Sir Walter Haworth shared the Nobel prize in chemistry for research on carbohydrates and vitamin C. Paul Karrer also received the Nobel prize in chemistry for research on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins. (1)

In 1937 C.A. Elvehjem, R.J. Madden, F.M. Strong, and D.W. Woolley identified nicotinic acid, (niacin) as the vitamin that was lacking in patients having Pellagra. (1) Nicotinic acid was identified by Elvehjem and co-workers as the curative factor for blacktongue in dogs. (82) [See note 4]

In 1937 riboflavin was adopted as the official name for lactoflavin, hepatoflavin and ovoflavin by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association. (82)

In 1937 phosphorylated thiamin was identified as a coenzyme for carboxylase. (82)

In 1937 the Lilly Endowment is created and by 1959 it is considered to be the eighth largest U.S. foundation ever created. (1)

In 1937 all German "colored" children are ordered sterilized. (116)

On February 24, 1937 the Conference on Eugenics in Relation to Nursing was held. (153)

In 1937 Harry H. Laughlin and Frederick Osborn, American scientists who played leading roles in the American eugenics movement and supported Nazi racial policies, establish the Pioneer Fund, the primary beneficiary of which is textile magnate Wickliffe Draper.  The fund's purposes include encouraging, among other things, increased reproduction on the part of "white persons who settled in the original thirteen colonies" and research on "race betterment". (116), (141), (153)  As one of the Pioneer Fund's first "accomplishments," it imported two copies of a Nazi propaganda film, Applied Eugenics in Present-Day Germany, adding English subtitles for American consumption.  The film portrayed severely impaired people as freaks living in the splendor of a palatial sanitarium, while genetically-sound Aryan children lived in squalor.  The message was clear: too much money is wasted on "life unworthy of living." (153)  Frederick Osborn was President of the Pioneer Fund from 1947 to 1956.  Harry H. Laughlin also served as President of the organization. (159) [See note 146]

In 1937 (unconfirmed) the National Firearms Act was passed. (45)

On March 14, 1937 Herman Oliphant introduced the Marijuana Tax Act bill directly to the House Ways and Means Committee, (rather than more appropriate committees such as Food and Drug, Agriculture, Textiles, Commerce etc. … His reason may have been that "Ways and Means" is the only committee that can send it's bills directly to the House floor without being subject to debate by other committees. Ways and Means Chairman Robert L. Doughton, [of North Carolina] a key Du Pont ally, quickly rubber-stamped the secret Treasury bill and sent it sailing through Congress to the President. … The American Medical Association doctors had just realized "two days before" these spring 1937 hearings, that the plant Congress intended to outlaw was known medically as cannabis, the benign substance used in America with perfect safety in scores of illnesses for over one hundred years. (2) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On March 29, 1937 the Supreme Court upheld the prohibition of machine guns through taxation. (2)

In 1937 the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act (commonly referred to as the "Pittman-Robertson Act") is passed by Congress to provide funding for the selection and improvement of wildlife habitat, improving wildlife management research and distributing information. (139)

On April 14, 1937 Rep. Robert L. Doughton of North Carolina introduced the Marijuana Tax Act in Congress to criminalize the recreational use of marijuana through prohibitive taxation. (2) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1937 Harry S. Anslinger testified before Congress: "Marijuana is the most violence-causing drug in the history of mankind." (88) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On April 27th, 1937 hearings on H.R. 6385, representative Doughton's House version of the Treasury Department's Marihuana Tax Act began. Clinton Hester, Herman Oliphant's assistant gave a background of the bill and provided a brief glimpse into the department's strategy wherein he indicates his committee's conclusion that "the legitimate uses of marihuana are so negligible as compared to the injurious effect it has upon the public health and morals of the people of this country, that the committee will conclude to impose a prohibitive tax upon the production, manufacture, and sale of marihuana, and thus discourage its use in any form in this country." Later, during the hearings, Mr. Hester argued in favor of the taxation of farmers claiming that such a tax "is the only way the government could get any information as to where this [marijuana] is growing wild." Dr. William C. Woodward stated before the committee that "during the past two years I have visited the Bureau of Narcotics probably ten or more times. Unfortunately, I had no knowledge that such a bill as this was proposed until after it had been introduced." He went on to say that "there is in the Treasury Department itself, the Public Health Service, with its Division of Mental Hygiene. The Division of Mental Hygiene was, in the first place, the Division of Narcotics. It was converted into the Division of Mental Hygiene, I think, about 1930. That particular Bureau has control at the present time of the narcotics farms that were created about 1929 or 1930 and came into operation a few years later…" (45) [See note 47, 1929, 1930, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On June 14th 1937, H.R. 6385 was voted on and the [Marijuana Tax] Act passed without a roll call after less than two pages of debate. (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1937 Clarence Gamble is appointed "Medical Field Director" of Sanger's Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau and at the same time becomes a member of the editorial advisory board of the Bureau's Journal of Contraception, a propaganda vehicle for Sanger's birth control and eugenics agenda. (24)

In 1937 Henry Coffin (S&B 1897) and John Foster Dulles led the U.S. delegation to England to found the World Council of Churches, as a "peace movement" guided by the pro-Hitler faction in England. (3)

In 1937 the International Education Board founded by John D. Rockefeller Jr. in 1923, is terminated. (1)

In 1937 the U.S. National Cancer Institute was founded by Henry Phipps. (1)

In December 1937 the Marijuana Tax Act bill became law. (2) It amended the Harrison Drug Control Act of 1914, placing marijuana in the controlled category. (???) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1937, the American Medical Association approved an extremely poisonous preparation of sulfanilamide in a solution of diethylene glucol [glycol?]; this mixture caused a number of fatalities. It caused white blood cell loss, even though it was advertised that it would "help" heart disease. (48)

In 1937 Sasman listed twenty-eight pharmaceuticals containing cannabis. (104) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

By 1938 Virginia has sterilized 1,000 feeble-minded. (117)

From 1938 to 1944 the New York Academy of Medicine established a committee, (LaGuardia Committee) consisting of eight physicians, a psychiatrist, and four New York City health officials. After five years of study they concluded that the medical harm, along with psychological and social problems attributed to marijuana use, had been greatly exaggerated. They said that, at worst, marijuana was a relatively harmless intoxicant and the smoking of it did not lead to an increase in violent crimes, use of other drugs, or other anti-social acts. The report included insight into the 500 "tea-pads" that operated in New York during the 1920s and early 1930s. It said the tea-pad took on the atmosphere of a very congenial social club. When the desired effect from smoking pot had been obtained, the tea-pads that had rooftops found that patrons emerged into the open and engaged in the discussion of their admiration of the stars and beauties of nature. Recommendation: No criminal penalties for marijuana use. (88) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1938 vitamin E was identified chemically by Paul Karrer, H. Salomon, B. Ringier, and H. Fritzsche. (1)

In 1938 the existence of a factor (folic acid) necessary for the prevention of anemia in monkeys and chicks and for the growth of various bacteria was first demonstrated by P.L. Day. (1) [See note 20]

In 1938 a substance was isolated almost simultaneously in five independent laboratories which prevented or cured the symptoms witnessed by the deficiency of vitamin B6 mentioned earlier. (1) Vitamin B6 was obtained in crystalline form. (82)

In 1938 the absorption of iron was shown to be dependent on need and iron stores regulated by intake, (McCance and Widdowson). (82)

In 1938 Harry H. Laughlin distributes numerous copies of the Nazi propaganda movie, The Genetically Diseased to American schools, churches and clubs.  In one scene preceding the image of a man facing the camera, the text reads, "55-year old Jew—cunning agitator." (116)

In 1938 Samuel Holmes, (Zoology, University of California) became president of the American Eugenics Society until 1940. (23)

In 1938 the classification of amino acids as essential and nonessential was made by W.C. Rose. (82)

In 1938 the first description of riboflavin deficiency in man was made by Dr. W. Henry Sebrell. (82)

In 1938 tryptophan was found to be effective in preventing pellagra in swine. (82)

In 1938 radioactive iron was used in hemoglobin regeneration studies by Whipple. (82)

In 1938 the curative factor for nutritional anemia of monkeys is designated as vitamin M by Day et al. (82)

In 1938 the U.S. Public Health Service, (PHS) establishes a [drug] treatment and research centre at Fort Worth, Texas. Drug users sentenced for federal offences are traditionally confined in centres such as this instead of in the regular prison system. (1) The "narcotics hospital" was dedicated on October 28. (80) [See 1929, 1935 (Prisons Previous, Next)]

On January 3rd, 1938 the National Advisory Cancer Council recommended approval of the first awards for fellowships in cancer research. (80)

In 1938 the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was passed. During congressional debate, Senator Royal S. Copeland, a Rockefeller loyalist, came under criticism from congresswoman Leonor Sullivan, who charged that Senator Copeland, a physician who handled the bill on the Senate floor, frankly acknowledged during the debate that soap was exempted from the law, because the soap manufacturers, who were the nation's largest advertisers, would otherwise join with other big industries to fight the bill. Congresswoman Sullivan complained that "Soap was officially declared in the law not to be a cosmetic… The hair dye manufacturers were given a license to market known dangerous products, just so long as they placed a special warning on the label—but what woman in a beauty parlor ever sees the label on the bulk container in which hair dye is shipped?" … The act certified nineteen dyes for use in foods. (48)

In 1938, just before the outbreak of war in Europe, the German Luftwaffe had an urgent requirement for 500 tons of tetraethyl lead. Ethyl [Gasoline Corporation] was advised by an official of Du Pont that such quantities of ethyl would be used by Germany for military purposes. This 500 tons was loaned by the Ethyl Export Corporation of New York to Ethyl G.m.b.H. of Germany, in a transaction arranged by the Reich Air Ministry with I.G. Farben director Mueller-Cunradi. The collateral security was arranged in a letter dated September 21, 1938 through Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. of New York. (33) [See 1935]

In 1938 the purity of illicit heroin packets had dropped to 28% as a result of the fact that the Italian Mafia adulterated the heroin far more than their Jewish predecessors had. At this purity, heroin "sniffing" was no longer effective and addicts were forced to use hypodermic injection. In just three years that purity would drop to 3% as America's narcotics use fell to it's lowest level in half a century. (44)

In 1938 the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which regularly held meetings concerning general science and annually held meetings on medical subject matters, stopped publication of such medical proceedings. (1)

In 1938 the North American Council on Fishery Investigation set up in 1920 by Canada, Newfoundland and the United States, was discontinued. (66)

In 1938 ITT purchases 28% interest in Focke-Wulf Aircraft Co. in Germany. (6)

In 1938 the Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Sydney is founded. They publish the Australasian Annals of Medicine.

In 1938 the German biochemist, Richard Kuhn was awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry for work on carotenoids and the vitamins, but was forbidden by the German government to accept. (1)

In 1938 Orson Welles was engaged to do the War of the Worlds broadcast. (6)

In 1938 New York's Mayor, Fiorello LaGuardia appointed a committee of scientists to study the medical, sociological, and psychological aspects of marihuana use in New York City.  Two internists, three psychiatrists, two pharmacologists, a public health expert, the commissioners of Correction, Health, and Hospitals, and the director of the Division of Psychiatry of the Department of Hospitals made up the committee.  They began their investigations in 1940 and presented detailed findings in 1944. (123)

After 1938 cannabis [hemp] could no longer be legally grown in Canada without a permit. It was still dispensed in pharmacies as an over-the-counter medicinal until 1939 and was used in prescriptions until 1954. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

From 1939 to 1946 Albert von Szent-Györgyi discovered actin and actomyosin and explicated the role of ATP in muscle contraction. (105)

From 1939 to 1940 methyl groups in utilizable forms, methionine and choline, were considered essential in the diet. (82) [See note 134]

In 1939 the vitamin present in green leaves, (vitamin K) was isolated and analyzed structurally by Henrik Dam and his co-workers and, independently, by E.A. Doisy and his co-workers. (1) [Elsewhere in the encyclopedia it states that in 1939] the isolation of vitamin K in an almost pure state was reported by Henrik Dam and, independently, by R.W. McKee and his co-workers in the United States. … Dam also contributed to other aspects of vitamin research and to the biochemistry of fats and sterols. (1) 

In 1939 choline was shown to be a lipotropic factor. (82) According to Websters Dictionary, lipotropic is defined as having an affinity for lipids and thus preventing or correcting excess accumulation of fat in the liver. (112)

In 1939 Nazi government gives permission to doctors to give "mercy death" to the deformed and mentally ill. (6)

In 1939 Swiss scientists find DDT to be lethal to potato bugs.  Later, in 1942 it was found to be surprisingly effective against lice and samples are brought to the U.S.  In addition to lice, the FDA proved DDT to be effective against mosquitoes, flies and fleas. (1)

In 1939 Dr. Weston Price, a research dentist, publishes Nutrition and Physical Degeneration: A Comparison of Primative and Modern Diets and Their Effects, which proved that refined foods and sugar causes physical degeneration and disease as opposed to natural unrefined foods. (6)

In 1939 Dr. Josephson [who resigned from the American Medical Association in 1932] submitted the important record of his ground breaking research to Science Magazine, "Vitamin E Therapy of Myasthenia Gravis," which they refused to print. Dr. Josephson later pointed out that the American Medical Association had deliberately concealed the benefits of vitamin E therapy for more than twenty-five years. … As Dr. Josephson testified, he had tried for years to get the New York chapter of the American Medical Association to investigate his findings, but they always refused. (48)

In 1939 the Fourth International Congress for Racial Hygiene and Eugenics takes place in Vienna. (116)

In 1939 Frank Howard, a vice-president of Standard Oil, visited Germany. He later testified, "We did our best to work out complete plans for a modus vivendi which would operate throughout the term of the war, whether we came in or not." (48)

In 1939 the diptheria rate in Germany increased astronomically to 150,000 cases. Norway, which never instituted compulsory vaccination, had only fifty cases during the same period. (48)

In 1939 the process of murdering "mental patients" at Brandenburg begins using gas chambers. (6)

In 1939 Germany invades western Poland and Russia invades eastern Poland. Both Germany and Russia commit atrocities and mass murder. (6)

In 1939 Frank Howard, a vice-president of Standard Oil, had persuaded both Alfred Sloan and Charles Kettering of General Motors to give their fortunes to the Cancer center, which then took on their names. (48)

In 1939 R. Kuhn and co-workers in Germany and S.A. Harris and K. Folkers in the United States synthesized vitamin B6; a derivative of pyridine, it was named pyridoxine. (1) The chemical structure of vitamin B6 was determined and named pyridoxine. (82)

In 1939 quantitative estimation of vitamins by bacterial growth was introduced by Snell and Strong using Lactobacillus casei for riboflavin determinations. (82)

In 1939 pantothenic acid was identified as antidermatitis factor for the chick and isolated from liver. (82)

In 1939 pantothenic acid was found necessary for growth of yeast cells. (82)

In 1939 vitamin H, coenzyme R and biotin were proven to be the same substance. (82)

In 1939, Margaret Sanger's new Birth Control Federation of America, a merger of her American Birth Control League and her research arm, the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau, designed a "Negro Project" which sought to bring about a major birth-rate reduction among American Negroes. Such a result, according to the goals of the project, would help solve the problem of Southern Negro poverty. According to the project proposal, widely believed to have been written by [Clarence] Gamble, "The mass of Negroes, particularly in the South, still breed carelessly and disastrously, with the result that the [population] increase among Negroes…is from that portion...least intelligent and fit, and least able to rear children properly." … The project was to hire three or four "colored Ministers, preferably with social-service backgrounds, and with engaging personalities" to travel through the South and propagandize for birth control. As the project proposal stated, "The most successful educational approach to the Negro is through a religious appeal." … In a remarkably frank letter to Gamble, Sanger wrote that "We do not want word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population and the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members." … Gamble in turn proposed that the ministers enlist the aid of black physicians and attempt to organize a "Negro Birth Control Committee" in each community. In a private memo concerning the "Colored Steering Committee," Gamble wrote that "There is great danger that [the project] will fail because the Negroes think it a plan for extermination. Hence let's appear to let the colored run it."  Despite Gamble's professed concern for the health and well-being of the indigent Negroes he was targeting, he clashed with South Carolina's Public Health Director who wanted to provide general health services along with the contraceptive agenda being pushed by Sanger and Gamble. Gamble wrote Sanger that he did not want his funds to be "diluted with a lot of general health work." (24)

In 1939 Margaret Sanger and Clarence Gamble made an infamous proposal called the Birth Control and the Negro which asserted that "the poorer areas, particularly in the South … are producing alarmingly more than their share of future generations." Her "religion of birth control" would, she wrote, "… ease the financial load of caring for with public funds … children destined to become a burden to themselves, to their family, and ultimately to the nation."

In 1939, while lunching with Wild Bill Donovan at the "21 Club" who was soon to become head of the wartime OSS, later the CIA, Albert Lasker was introduced to an attractive divorcee, an art dealer named Mary Woodard. The daughter of a Wisconsin banker, she had started a dress company, Hollywood Patterns, designing inexpensive dresses for working girls, and then had gone into the art business. A few days later, while he was lunching with publisher Richard Simon, he met her a second time, and decided to marry her. (48)

In 1939, under Reorganization Plan No. II, the Bureau of Fisheries is transferred to the U.S. Department of the Interior. (20), (63), (139)  It is transferred over from the Department of Commerce. (136)  The Bureau of Biological Survey is also moved to the U.S. Department of the Interior at this time. (139)  [See note 77]

In 1939 jurisdiction over agricultural attaches was shifted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to the State Department. (94)

On May 3, 1939 Congress authorized a program to lend agricultural experts and scientists to Central and South American republics. (94)

On April 3, 1939 under a reorganization act, the U.S. Public Health Service, (PHS) was transferred from the Treasury Department to the Federal Security Agency. (80)

In 1939 Gregory Goodwin Pincus was able to induce parthenogenesis in a mammalian egg. (105)

In 1939 Ernest Everett Just published The Biology of the Cell Surface. (105)

In 1939 the Bureau of Fisheries and Biological Survey are moved to the Department of the Interior and the following year combined to create the Fish and Wildlife Service.

In 1939 Adolf Hitler sets up the Reich Committee for Scientific Research of Heredity and Severe Constitutional Diseases, leading to the extermination of mentally ill and physically deformed children in Germany. Karl Brandt heads the division responsible for adults, which would claim over 300,000 by 1945. (6)

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