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"Those who fail to understand history are condemned to repeat it." --
George Santayana

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By the 1930s Rockefeller's General Education Board had spent nearly $30,000,000 on Negro education. It worked with southern educational officials to establish and improve rural schools and public high schools It helped establish normal schools for Negro teachers and public schools for Negro children. (1)

During the 1930s Frank Howard, a vice-president of Standard Oil, is chairman of the research committee at Sloan Kettering Institute.  His appointee at Sloan Kettering, Dusty Rhoads, headed the experimentation in the development of chemotherapy. Frank Howard was for many years a key figure in Standard Oil operations as director of its research and its international agreements. He was the key official in maintaining relations between Standard Oil and I.G. Farben. (48)

During the 1930s thousands of workers are employed by the Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration to improve habitat and build the infrastructure of over 50 national wildlife refuges and fish hatcheries. (139)

In the 1930s the hydrogenation process is introduced on a large scale. (15)

In the 1930s Cannabidiol was isolated and found to be an inactive ingredient in cannabis. (106)

In the 1930s, "reefer" songs became the rage of jazz: Louis Armstrong's Muggles; Cab Calloway's That Funny Reefer Man; Fats Waller's Viper's Drag; others, by lesser-known artists, include Viper's Moan, Texas Tea Party, Smokin' Reefers, Mary Jane, and the Mary Jane Polka. Even Benny Goodman got into the act with Sweet Marihuana Brown. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In early 1930 Harry J. Anslinger, in his position as Secretary of the Federal Narcotics Control Board (under the Prohibition Unit), instituted a survey of sorts into the cannabis problem. The survey was prompted by proposed legislation that sought to bring cannabis under the purview of the Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act. One of the people to whom Anslinger addressed a series of fundamental questions about cannabis was William Woodward, the Director of the Bureau of Legal Medicine and Legislation of the American Medical Association. The American Medical Association, who by 1930 was a potent political force in medical matters, had had uneasy relations with the Treasury Department, especially since the Harrison Act had set the stage for a large number of cases where doctors were arrested and prosecuted for treating drug addicts by maintaining their habit. 29 out of the 30 pharmaceutical manufacturers that Woodward quoted objected strongly to including cannabis under the Narcotic Drugs Act. (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1930 Madison Grant, along with Lothrop Stoddard, Harry Laughlin, Charles Davenport, Paul Popenoe, and Henry Fairfield Osborn, and others, contributed to The Alien in Our Midst—Selling Our Birthright for a Mess of Pottage. Madison Grant came up with the idea for this book, which—like The Conquest of a Continent, written a few years later—was written to defend the 1924 immigration act. (38)

In 1930 the conversion of carotene to vitamin A in vivo was demonstrated by T. Moore. (82)

In 1930 E. Lundsgaard proved that muscles could contract without lactic acid formation. (105)

In 1930 Sewell Wright's studies on the mathematics of evolutionary changes in populations were published. (105)

In 1930, Harvey M. Watkin's questionnaire of 317 members of the American Association on Mental Deficiency finds that 80% favor sterilizations. (117)

In 1930 Helen Garnsey Having's article Deficient appears in the Atlantic Monthly. (117)

In 1930 was published Ronald Aylmer Fisher's The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. (105)

In 1930 the Food, Drug and Insecticide Administration became the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), remaining under the USDA. (85)

In 1930 vitamin B2 was shown to be at least two vitamins, one destroyed by heat and alkali and the second stable to heat. (82)

In 1930, in response to a letter from District Judge John Killit of Ohio, James Doran, the Commissioner of the Department of Prohibition Enforcement and Anslinger's immediate superior, replied that his office has resisted subsuming marijuana under the Harrison Act "on the ground that the constitutionality of the Harrison Law may thereby be imperiled since the drug can be produced from a plant grown domestically and is not included within the terms of the International Opium Convention of 1912…" Doran instead suggested that the states "reduce or even restrict absolutely the growth of marijuana and a Federal Law might be drawn regulating the interstate commerce in the drug." (45) [See note 40, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1930, reacting to the scandal in 1929 involving the Treasury Department's Narcotics Division, Congress created the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN). (44) On June 14, Public law 357 authorized creation of a separate Bureau of Narcotics in the Treasury Department and changed the Public Health Service, (PHS) Narcotics Division to the Division of Mental Hygiene. The law gave the Surgeon General authority to investigate the causes, treatment and prevention of mental and nervous diseases. (80) [See note 47, 1929, 1937]

In 1930 ITT begins to invest in Nazi pre-war economy. (6)

In 1930 the U.S. government sponsors the Siler Commission study on the effects of off-duty smoking of "marijuana" (hemp buds & leaves) by American servicemen in Panama. The report concludes that such recreational smoking is NOT a problem and recommends that no criminal penalties apply to its use. (28) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1930 the death rates in the U.S. revealed a tuberculosis death rate for unskilled laborers seven times as high as that among professional men according to a study by J.S. Whitney. (1)

By 1930 there were 850 active cottonseed processing mills in the U.S. (1)

In 1930 a 2nd amendment made to the Oleomargarine Act of 1886 is passed. This placed the federal tax on naturally colored (darkened with the use of palm oil) as well as artificially-colored margarine. During the depression dairy interests again prevailed upon the states to enact legislation equalizing butter and margarine prices. Consumers reacted and consumption of margarine dropped to an annual per capita level of 1.6 pounds. (1), (9)

In 1930 Cleveland E. Dodge becomes president of the Near East Foundation, a post he holds until 1953. (23)

In 1930 W. Averell Harriman (S&B 1913) is married to Marie Norton Whitney. (26)

In 1930 William Wirt, who pioneered Carnegie's German Wundt school system in Gary, Indiana and tried it in New York, is committed to an insane asylum in Washington, D.C. where he died in 1932. Wirt was committed because he began to make public speeches saying that he had been part of a world wide conspiracy to bring about a controlled state in the hands of certain people—the same people, no doubt, who committed him. (6)

In 1930 the International Institute of Agriculture's first attempt to make a worldwide agricultural census was begun. A second attempt is later made in 1940. (1)

In 1930 the W. K. Kellogg Foundation is created and by 1959 it is considered to be the sixth largest U.S. foundation ever created. (1)

In 1930 Walter S. Carpenter, Jr. becomes chairman of the finance committee of the Du Pont Corporation, a position he holds until 1940. (3)

On May 26, 1930 George Walter McCoy is appointed director of the National Institutes of Health, where he served until January 31, 1937. (81)

In June 1930 Harry J. Anslinger asked some of his field agents in the Prohibition Unit to investigate the cannabis situation. What they found was that most of the marijuana sold in New York was sold by Spaniards and East Indians to trade [to groups] consisting mostly of members of those races. One of the agents concluded that "marijuana is used for smoking by Indians, Mexicans, Philipinos [sic], Spaniards, and East Indians. … In Texas, Oklahoma, and Southern California it is used to a great extent in cities surrounding the oil fields where there is a large population of Mexicans and Indians(45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In June 1930 Harry J. Anslinger was appointed head of the FBNDD, (Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs) by Andrew Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury under Herbert Hoover. (2), (45) Anslinger was a tough bureaucratic infighter whose survival skills rivaled those of J. Edgar Hoover at the FBI. (44) He maintained close ties to the intelligence community and was himself a specialist in counterintelligence. During World War II, he had lent his bureau's key personnel to form the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), forerunner of the CIA, thereby setting a postwar pattern of cross-fertilization between the two agencies. (44) Anslinger's rise to Commissioner of the Bureau of Narcotics seemed meteoric, since he had spent only three years in the Prohibition Unit. However, some commentators have pointed out the fact that his wife Martha came from the well-connected Denniston family who made a fortune in steel, and was also a niece of Andrew Mellon, who, as Secretary of Treasury, was Anslinger's immediate superior. (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1930 Ernst Rüdin, professor of psychiatry at Munich and director or the Dept. of Heredity at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute visits the U.S. and was praised by the leaders of the Carnegie Foundation. (6)

In December 1930, the department commander ordered that since "the smoking of marihuana impairs the efficiency of the soldiers [it] is forbidden. Soldiers smoking marihuana or using it in any way will be brought to trial for each and every offense." (106) [See (Panama 1929, 1931), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On May 26, 1930 the Ransdell Act redesignated the Hygienic Laboratory as the National Institute of Health, authorizing $750,000 for construction of two buildings for NIH, and creating a system of fellowships. (80)

In 1930, 1931 a pure vitamin D was first isolated from irradiated ergosterol by large groups of workers in England and in Germany. (1)

In 1930, 1931 only seven years after heroin was legally banned, a war erupted in the Mafia ranks. Out of the violence that left more than sixty gangsters dead came a new generation of leaders with little respect for the traditional code of honor prohibiting involvement in narcotics. The leader of this mafioso youth movement was the legendary Salvatore C. Lucania, known to the world as Charles "Lucky" Luciano. Charming and handsome, Luciano must rank as one of the leading criminal executives of the modern age. For, at a series of meetings after the killings that eliminated the old guard, Luciano outlined his plans for a modern, nationwide crime cartel. His modernization scheme quickly won support from the leaders of America's twenty-four Mafia "families," and within a few months the National Commission was functioning smoothly. … Luciano also forged an alliance between the Mafia and Meyer Lansky's Jewish gangs that survived for almost 40 years and became a key characteristic of organized crime in the United States. (44) [See note 29]

In the early 1930s the newly-proposed Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act was being drafted by the National Conference of Commissioners. The drug proposals went through five drafts and, in the final proposal, the cannabis section was withdrawn. However, any state could optionally add cannabis to their definition of "Narcotic Drugs." In the final draft, the bill passed the commissioners on October 8, 1932 by a vote of 26 to 3, meaning nineteen state commissioners did not even bother to show up for the roll call. Clearly, the drug issue was not paramount in the midst of the Depression. From 1932 to 1936 Anslinger strongly supported the Uniform State Laws, urging that the cannabis section be included by each state. … By April 1933, only two states had enacted the Uniform Act in full, and by March 1935, only eight more had acted. (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1930 the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution was created. (64)  [See National Academy of Sciences 1927]

In 1930 the American Academy of Pediatrics is founded by physicians at Harper Hospital in Detroit, Michigan as an offshoot of the AMA's pediatric section. Charter members included 304 pediatricians. (391)  Isaac A. Abt, M.D. (AES), was elected as it first president; John L. Morse, M.D., was chosen as the first vice-president; and Clifford G. Grulee, M.D., served as the first secretary-treasurer. (392)  In 1932 the Journal of Pediatrics, owned and published by the C.V. Mosby Co., was established as the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and it will be replaced in the early 1940s by a new journal called Pediatrics. (391)  Also a founder was C. Anderson Aldrich. (393) 

In January 1930, the American Committee for International Wild Life Protection was organized at the annual meeting of the Boone and Crockett Club.  Members of the first Executive Committee represented the Boone and Crockett Club, the New York Zoological Society, the American Museum of Natural History; representatives of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Field Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, California Academy of Sciences, American Society of Mammalogists, Camp Fire Club of America, and Wilderness Club were added later. (352)

In June of 1930 Harry Anslinger took over as acting Commisioner of an autonomous Federal Bureau of Narcotics. (45)

By 1931 thirty states had passed sterilization laws and tens of thousands of American citizens had been surgically "fixed". (75)  By 1931, 27 states had passed sterilization laws. (1), (159) 

By 1931, the hysteria surrounding marijuana was largely confined to New Orleans. Anslinger urged state laws to regulate marijuana use, and this remained the position of the Bureau over the next few years. All inquiries to the Bureau with respect to marijuana got the standard reply that it was a matter for the states and their localities to deal with. It was clear that marijuana was not a priority of the Bureau. (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1931 manganese and magnesium were both shown to be essential nutrients for the rat. (82)

In 1931 Eleanor Rowland Wembridge publishes Life Among the Lowbrows. (117)

In 1931 Henry F. Perkins, (Zoology, University of Vermont) became president of the American Eugenics Society until 1934. (23)

In 1931 Vermont passes its sterilization law.  The law resulted in the sterilization of several hundred poor, rural Vermonters, Abenaki Indians and others deemed unfit to procreate. (126) [See note 141]

In 1931 Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews began publication. (82)

In 1931 high fluorine content of drinking water was identified as the cause of mottled enamel of teeth. (82)

In 1931 V.A. Engelhardt discovered that phosphorylation of ATP is coupled to respiration. (105)

In 1931 Sewall Wright presented the first unified picture of evolution in terms of Mendelism illustrating the relations between selection pressure, mutation rates, inbreeding, isolation and the like. (105)

In 1931 anemia factor was postulated by Willis when megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy responded to liver or yeast extracts. (82)

In 1931 the Mexican Eugenics Society was founded. (129)

In March 1931 Harry J. Anslinger replied to a letter from Carl Murphy, the president of the Afro-American, again noting the "grave question" as to the constitutionality of placing marijuana under the Harrison Act. Instead, he borrowed from Cummings' ideas and raised the possibility of placing interstate commerce controls on its distribution and/or preventing its growth within the country. (45) [See note 40, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1931 the League of Nation's Limitation Convention extended the limitations on manufacture and distribution of drugs, and created an international drug supervisory body to police them. (1) The controls on the export of heroin put in-place in 1925 were reinforced at this time. It was stipulated that drug manufacturers could produce enough heroin only to meet legitimate "medical and scientific needs." (44)

In 1931 Cornelius Rhoads, a North American pathologist at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations in Puerto Rico, carries out an experiment on Puerto Ricans deliberately infecting them with cancer. Thirteen die. In a letter leaked to the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, Rhoads wrote, "the Porto Ricans (sic) are lazy and degenerate. What the island needs is something to exterminate the entire population. I have done my best to further the extermination." The president of the PRNP brought the case to the press, and a legal investigation is initiated. The prosecutor exonerates Rhoads. (6)

In 1931 the Bangkok Agreement reached at the Bangkok Opium Conference called for government monopolies of the retail sale of opium in Asiatic countries. (1)

In 1931 the world's legal heroin production had dropped from 20,000 pounds in 1926 to just 2,200 pounds. (44)

In 1931 Warburg proved that the essential fatty acids were required in order for the body to heal itself of the fatty degeneration of cells. (42) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In June 1931, a third Panama Canal Zone investigation into marihuana use was started. Once again the committee found no evidence to link marihuana with problems of morale or delinquency. "The evidence obtained," the committee said, "suggests that organization Commanders in estimating the efficiency and soldierly quality of delinquents in their commands have unduly emphasized the effects of marijuana, disregarding the fact that a large proportion of the delinquents are morons or psychopaths, which conditions themselves would serve to account for delinquency." (106) [See note 117, (Panama 1930), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1931 Otto Warburg received the Nobel prize for discovery of the nature and mode of respiratory enzyme. (46)  The enzyme is triphosphopyridine, Co-enzyme 1, considered essential in all tissues for respiration. (152)

In 1931 Raymond Fuller and Mary Johnson conduct a study of New York mental hospitals covering three periods, 1909-11, 1914-16, 1919-21.  For every 100 patients, 35 were discharged, (reported as improved); 7 remained unchanged; 42 died in the hospital; 16 remained in the hospital for the duration of the 16-year study. (116)

In 1931 Brown Brothers merges with the W. A. Harriman & Co. in 1931 to become Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (3)

In 1931 Joseph V. Reed and his wife Permelia Pryor Reed buy the entirety of Jupiter Island, Florida and sell property only to those who "fit in" including Prescott Bush (S&B 1917), Paul Mellon, [Andrew Mellon's son] Robert A. Lovett (S&B 1918), Walter S. Carpenter, Jr., Albert L. Cole, [Reader's Digest General Manager] et al. (3)  Others included George W. Merck, Chairman of Merck & Co., the German firm famous for its manufacture of morphine, and later,  pure cocaine. (3)

In 1931 Margaret Sanger founded the Population Association of America with Fairchild as its head. (98)

From 1932 to 1960 M. B. Lurie showed that inbred strains of rabbits of different genetic constitution varied considerably in their resistance to tuberculosis and in the character assumed by the disease. This showed that heredity is a vital factor in resistance. (1)

From 1932 to 1933 Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. was the tenth Civil Governor of the Philippines. (149)

In 1932 the U.S. Public Health Service initiates a study in Tuskegee, Alabama where black men are given syphilis. Four hundred men were unwittingly given the disease. No medical care was offered. The study ended when it was discovered in 1972, after 40 years. The office supervising this study was the predecessor of the Center for Disease Control unit now in charge of the AIDS program. (6) [See 1918]

In 1932 the Bureau of Fisheries' long-sought experimental station for fish disease research is set up at Leetown, West Virginia. (20)

On January 2, 1932 Dr. Josephson officially resigned from the American Medical Association's New York City Medical Society. The American Medical Association chose to ignore his letter of resignation until 1938, when Fishbein released a letter claiming that the AMA "had severed connections with him." (48)

In 1932 the Journal of Biological Chemistry, (96:143 and 93:157) contained two reports by Evans and Lepkovsky which provided additional support showing the essential nature of linoleic and linolenic acids. The reports indicated that growth would not take place unless unsaturated fatty acids with two or more double bonds were present in the diet. (99) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1932 K. Lohmann discovered the ATP-phosphocreatinine reaction. (105)

In 1932 Otto Warburg and W. Christian isolated a yellow conjugated flavoprotein from yeast: the yellow enzyme of respiration. (105)  This was the first flavoprotein discovered. (82)

In 1932 Sewall Wright stressed the importance of "genetic drift" due to chance in small populations. (105)

In 1932 besides federal taxes and licenses, 27 states prohibited the manufacture or sale of colored margarine, 24 imposed some kind of consumer tax and 26 required licenses or otherwise restricted margarine sales. (9)

On January 21, 1932, W. Averell Harriman wrote to Dr. Charles Davenport, President, The International Congress of Eugenics, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, N.Y.: "Dear Mr. Davenport: I will be only too glad to put you in touch with the Hamburg-American Line…they may be able to co-operate in making suggestions which will keep the expenses to a minimum. I have referred your letter to Mr. Emil Lederer [of the Hamburg-Amerika executive board in New York] with the request that he communicate with you." Mr. Davenport responded on January 23, 1932: "Dear Mr. Harriman: Thank you very much for your kind letter of January 21st and the action you took which has resulted at once in a letter from Mr. Emil Lederer. This letter will serve as a starting point for correspondence, which I hope will enable more of our German colleagues to come to America on the occasion of the congresses of eugenics and genetics, than otherwise." (3)

In May 1932 Dr. C.O. McCormick delivered an address on the topic of charity and genetic selection before the Indiana State Medical Association. McCormick's speech, called Fewer and Better Babies, was reprinted in the October 1932 issue of the Birth Control Review. In the speech McCormick states that "We of the [medical] profession with our improving skill, assisted by increasing state and charity, are more and more enabling the weaklings to survive and propagate their kind, and therefore are prominently instrumental in the production of a weaker race. Certainly not a credible or patriotic achievement… The great philosopher was correct in his assertion that, a nation which fosters and cares for its good-for-nothings will sooner or later find itself a good-for-nothing nation. If we are to fulfill our obligation to society, we will first of all establish the doctrine that social betterment must work hand in hand with race betterment…" (103)

In 1932 The proceedings of the Third International Congress on Eugenics were dedicated to W. Averell Harriman's mother. The congress took up the stubborn persistence of African-Americans and other allegedly "inferior" and "socially inadequate" groups in reproducing, expanding their numbers, and amalgamating with others. It was recommended that these "dangers" to the "better" ethnic groups and to the "well-born," could be dealt with by sterilization or "cutting off the bad stock" of the "unfit." (3) The congress was held at New York's American Museum of Natural History August 21-23. (3) Madison Grant served as the treasurer. The event included as sponsors Mrs. E.H. Harriman, Mrs. H.B. DuPont, Dr. J. Harvey Kellogg and Leonard Darwin. (38) The event was financed by the Harrimans and hosted by Averell's mother [Mary A. Harriman] and sister, [Mary Rumsey Harriman]. … The president of the British Eugenics Association, Bernard Mallet, was an honored guest; he had been Arthur Balfour's private secretary in the 1890s. (49) The Congress unanimously elected Ernst Rüdin as President of the International Federation of Eugenics Societies. (3) Dr. Theodore Russell Roble of the Essex County Mental Hygiene Clinic in New Jersey presents Selective Sterilization for Race Culture, in which he called for the sterilization of at least 14 million Americans who had received low IQ scores since World War I. Said Roble, "there are those who believe that our population has already attained a greater number than is necessary for the efficient running of the whole…" (6), (78)  "The Third International Eugenics Congress was held in 1932, again at New York's American Museum of Natural History.  It was also financed by the Harrimans and hosted by Averell's mother and sister." (49:552)  The wife of William J. McGee (AES member, Anita Newcomb McGee) presented a paper before the congress. (300)  [See note 79, note 159, (Eugenics Meetings Previous)]

In 1932 C.G. King and W.A. Waugh identified the curative agent for scurvy known as ascorbic acid (vitamin C). (1) Crystalline vitamin C was prepared from lemon juice by King and Waugh. (82)

In 1932 crystalline vitamin D, calciferol, was prepared. (82)

In 1932 the Bureau of Narcotics' budget was $1,708,528. (106)

In 1932 vitamin C is synthesized in the laboratory by W.N. Haworth and others. It is considered the first vitamin to have been synthesized in a laboratory. (1)

In 1932 Onassis works a deal with Joseph Kennedy, Eugene Meyer and Meyer Lansky for liquor shipment to Boston and a heroin deal with Franklin and Elliott Roosevelt. (6)

In 1932, Smokin' Reefers, a musical, opened on Broadway, starring "Mr. Belvedere, Clifton Webb." Lyrics included "the stuff that dreams are made of" and "the thing that white folks are afraid of." (106)

On August 15, 1932 Alfred P. Sloan, President of General Motors, again reiterated his opposition to the installation of safety glass in General Motors' automobiles. "It is not my responsibility to sell safety glass," he complained. "I would very much rather spend the same amount of money on improving our car in other ways because I think, from the standpoint of selfish business, it would be a very much better investment." (48)

After 1932 A. Szent-Györgyi and others did much to elucidate vitamin C's behavior. (1)

From 1933 to 1935 Frank Murphy is the eleventh Civil Governor of the Philippines. (149)

About 1933 thousands of European "undesirables", fleeing the Nazi eugenic death machine, attempt to find asylum in the United States.  They are denied entry and returned to Germany because of U.S. laws based on the same principles in-use by the Nazis. (116)

In 1933 the Council on Medical Education calls a meeting between psychiatrists and neurologists to work out their differences.  The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology is established. (116)

In 1933 with the passage of the Volstead Act, alcohol prohibition came to an end. (44)

In 1933 Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Socialist (Nazi) Party came to power in Germany. (78)  Ernst Rudin, professor of psychiatry, praises Hitler, saying it is thanks to him that "the dream we have cherished for more than thirty years of seeing racial hygiene converted into action has become reality." (116)

In 1933 N.W. Timofeeff-Ressovsky experimentally measured the viability of strains of Drosophila funebris of different geographical origin. (105)

In 1933 R. Collander and H. Bärlund made quantitative measurements of cell membrane permeability to non-electrolytes of varying molecular size and lipid solubility. Their results contributed enormously to our understanding of membrane structure. (105)

In 1933 George Wald discovered vitamin A in the retina. (105)

In 1933 M. Goldblatt and Ulf Svante von Euler discovered prostaglandins. (105)

In 1933 kwashiorkor was identified as a nutritional disease by Cicely Williams. (82)

In 1933 Madison Grant wrote his second major work in historical anthropology, The Conquest of a Continent: a Racial History of the United States, written in part to answer critics of the 1924 Johnson Act. (38) He sent copies to Dr. Alfred Rosenberg, Hitler's chief scientific advisor and to Dr. Fritz Lenz at the University of Munich. (6), (78) Copies were also sent to Mussolini and to Nazi Professor, Dr. Eugen Fischer at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for the Study of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin. (78)

In 1933 an assistant psychiatrist at Bellevue Hospital in New York, Walter Bromberg, reported a clinical study of cannabis sativa in the September issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry in which he reported that not a single case of confirmed marijuana addiction was found in a group of 2,216 criminals convicted of felonies in the Court of General Sessions in New York City. "None of the assault crimes could be said to have been committed under the drug's influence. No crimes were committed in this group at a time during or after the intoxication." (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1933 F. Trubee Davison (S&B 1918) resigned his government post as Assistant U.S. Secretary of War for Air to become the American Museum of Natural History's president just one year after the Hitlerite Third International Congress on Eugenics was held at the American Museum of Natural History. (3) [See note 79]

In 1933 Walter S. Carpenter, Jr. oversees Du Pont's purchase of Remington Arms from Sam Pryor and the Rockefellers and leads Du Pont into partnership with the Nazi I.G. Farben Company for the manufacture of explosives [among other things]. (3)

In 1933, during the height of the World's Fair observance in Chicago, Dr. Fishbein, head of the American Medical Association, moved to hush up a dangerous outbreak of amoebic dysentery in Chicago which was traced to faulty plumbing at the Congress Hotel. Fishbein met with a group of Chicago business leaders and pledged the cooperation of the American Medical Association in holding back any warnings until the Fair had ended its season. Hundreds of unsuspecting tourists who visited the World's Fair returned to their home towns infected with the terrible illness, which often lingers for years, and is very difficult to treat or to cure. (48)

In 1933 a cooperative project between the Bureau of Fisheries, Cornell University and the State of New York results in an experimental laboratory for fish nutrition research at Cortland, New York. (20)

In 1933 the chemical nature of vitamin A was established by Paul Karrer and his associates. (1)

In 1933 (unconfirmed) Walter S. Carpenter Jr. and Prescott Bush (S&B 1917) are fellow activists in the Mental Hygiene Society which originated at Yale University in 1908. Prescott Bush is a director of the society in Connecticut and Carpenter is a director in Delaware. (3)

In 1933 the vitamin, Pantothenic Acid was discovered as a growth-promoting substance for yeast by R.J. Williams and collaborators; it was subsequently discovered independently by others as a growth factor for lactic acid bacteria and as a vitamin for animals. (1) [See note 20]

In 1933 a paper was presented by Joslyn, Dublin and Marks in the American Journal of Medicine called Studies on Diabetes Mellitus which discussed a major epidemic of a disease that looked very much like the diabetes of the early 1920s only it did not respond to the wonder drug, insulin. Even worse, sometimes insulin treatment killed the patient. This disease became known as insulin resistant diabetes because it had the symptoms of diabetes, but did not respond well to insulin therapy. Treatment of this disease by diet was started during this period. (51)

In 1933 William Stamps Farish was appointed the chairman of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (3)

In 1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) won the Nobel Prize in medicine for studies on the role of chromosomes in heredity. He had studied gene action in embryonic development at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole. (74) [See note 42]

In 1933 the dynamic state of body fats was demonstrated by use of deuterium incorporated into fatty acids and fed to mice, (Schoenheimer). (82) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1933 titration with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol was developed by Tillmans for quantitative determination of vitamin C. (82)

In 1933 the American Institute of Nutrition was organized as a national society. (82)

In 1933 Clarence Gamble is elected president of the Pennsylvania Birth Control Federation, a state affiliate of Margaret Sanger's American Birth Control League. (24)

In 1933 riboflavin was recognized as a vitamin B2 by R. Kuhn, P. György, and J. Wagner von Jauregg. Deficiency of riboflavin was found to lead to lesions of the skin and tongue. The eyes frequently were involved. The vitamin is known to function as part of enzyme systems that are concerned with oxidation of carbohydrates and of amino acids. (1) Riboflavin was identified as part of vitamin B2 and isolated as pure yellow crystals from milk. (82)

In 1933 Doris Duke, the daughter of the American Tobacco founder James Buchanan Duke, was said to be the richest girl in the world since she inherited her father's tobacco fortune. She married James H.R. Cromwell, son of Mrs. E.T. Stotesbury (wife of the senior Morgan partner in Philadelphia). (23)

In June 1933, Hitler's interior minister Wilhelm Frick spoke to a eugenics meeting in the new Third Reich. Frick called the Germans a "degenerate" race, denouncing one-fifth of Germany's parents for producing "feeble-minded" and "defective" children. The following month, on a commission by Frick, Dr. Ernst Rüdin wrote the Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseases in Posterity, the sterilization law modeled on previous U.S. statutes in Virginia and other states. (3) The law called for involuntary sterilization of all those identified as bearers of hereditary disease. These "diseases" included not only clinically definable conditions, such as Huntington's disease, hereditary blindness, deafness, and epilepsy, but also more nebulous social and behavioral traits such as "feeblemindedness," "pauperism," and alcoholism. (76) This sterilization law was directly based on H.H. Laughlin's Model Eugenical Sterilization Law of 1922. (78) [See (Related Laws 1922, 1934)]

In 1934 Ellsworth Huntington, (Geography, Yale University) became president of the American Eugenics Society until 1938. (23)

In 1934 global opium production had fallen from a peak of 41,600 tons in 1906 to just 7,600 tons. (44)

In 1934 Denmark sugar consumption is 113 pounds per person annually. The death rate for diabetes in Denmark is 19 per 100,000. (6)

In 1934 a substance in gastric juice termed "intrinsic factor" is discovered by W.P. Castle that is later used to aid in the use of vitamin B12. (1)

In 1934 phenylketonuria was discovered by Asbjorn Folling of Oslo. (82)

In 1934 rat acrodynia factor was named vitamin B6. (82)

In 1934 zinc was found to be an essential nutrient for rats. (82)

In 1934 the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act, popularly known as the "Duck Stamp Act", is passed by Congress.  The Act requires the purchase of a stamp by waterfowl hunters.  Revenue generated by the stamp is used to acquire important wetlands.  Since its inception, the program has resulted in the protection of approximately 4.5 million acres of waterfowl habitat. (139)  [see note 144]

In 1934 Jay Norwood ("Ding") Darling is appointed Chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey.  Darling's brief tenure results in a new ambitious course for the agency to acquire and protect vital wetlands and other habitat throughout the country. (139)

In 1934 L'Héritier and Teissier devised the "population cage" method for the experimental study of natural selection. (105)

In 1934 Robert Russell Bensley and N.L. Hoerr isolated and analyzed mitochondria. (105) According to Webster's Dictionary, a mitochondrion is an organelle in the cell cytoplasm that … produces enzymes essential for energy metabolism.

In 1934 a series of three papers by Evans, Lepkovsky and Murphy appeared in which the name vitamin F was officially given to linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids. There followed a short period of comical exploitation of vitamin F by sharp businessmen seeing an opportunity for some dollars to be made. Patients began telling their doctors about this new "miracle nutrient" they had begun taking called Vitamin F. A number of alarmed physicians wrote to the American Medical Association complaining of this new health fad and demanded an investigation into the matter. After a cursory examination of things had been made in haste, the American Medical Association soundly denounced this nutrient as nothing better than another form of "nutritional quackery." Hence, for many years vitamin F was discredited and no longer mentioned in books on nutrition. (99)  Essential fatty acids used to be known as "vitamin F". (27) [See note 1, (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1934 Rockefeller interests in the United States create the National Planning Board (NPB), an attempted resource grab. The National Planning Board was cooked up by economists at the London School of Economics. The NPB was created by the Rockefeller Foundation and staffed with people from the University of Chicago. (6)

In 1934 Leon F. Whitney (executive secretary for the American Eugenics Society) publishes The Case for Sterilization. (117)

In 1934 H. Dam showed that when chickens were fed a modified [deficient] ration they developed spontaneous hemorrhages. This condition subsequently was found to be caused by the lack of a naphthoquinone now known as vitamin K. … Lack of vitamin K leads to increased clotting time of the blood because of a reduction in the amount of prothrombin. (1) Vitamin K was discovered by H. Dam of Copenhagen. (82) Henrik Dam and Edward Adelbert Doisy isolated and identified vitamin K. (105)

In 1934 Ernst Rüdin [Germany] wrote the law "For the Protection of German Blood and German Honor," implemented by the Nazi regime to remove citizenship from Jews. (49) [See (Related Laws 1933, 1935)]

In 1934 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation is created and by 1959 it is considered to be the seventh largest U.S. foundation ever created. (1) It and the C.F. Kettering Foundation are the two largest benefactors of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, formerly, the Memorial Hospital. (48) [see note 55]

In 1934 W. Averell Harriman (S&B 1913) is special assistant administrator of Roosevelt's National Recovery Act. (26)

In 1934 American eugenics doctors tour the German Hygiene Museum in Dresden. (116)

In late 1934 Harry J. Anslinger came under serious attack. A slew of letters descended on the White House, criticizing the running of the Bureau of Narcotics. In one letter, addressed to Roosevelt intimate James Farley, the writer asserts that "drug addicts are the most harmless class of people in the country" and indicates his disgust that Anslinger "conveys to society the impression that drug addicts are desperate criminals." (45) [See note 41] Senator Joseph Guffey of Pennsylvania called for Anslinger's dismissal in a letter where he complains that he has been "deluged with complaints from our colored population because Mr. Anslinger has been so indiscreet as to refer to one of their race as a 'ginger-colored nigger' ". (45) [See note 43]

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