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"The twentieth century has been characterized by three developments of
great political importance: the growth of democracy, the growth of
corporate power, and the growth of corporate propaganda as a means of
protecting corporate power against democracy." -- Alex Carey,
Taking the Risk Out of Democracy



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In the 1920s Dr. Otto Warburg, a Nobel prize-winning researcher, discovered that by depriving tissues of oxygen (35% less than normal), he could induce cancer in tissues almost at will. (13) [See note 30]

From 1920 to 1944 Montagu Norman serves as governor of the Bank of England. (1)

From 1920 to 1968 every increase in the severity of U.S. drug laws has been preceded by public alarms about the "growing" problem, and usually by fearful pronouncements that young people are being increasingly involved as well. (1) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In January 1920 Weimar legislators pass a "marriage advising law," requiring government licensing offices in Germany to distribute a pamphlet to all couples seeking marriage licenses, advising them of hereditary aspects of tuberculosis, feeblemindedness and mental illness. (116)

In 1920 Karl Binding (jurist) and Alfred Hoche, (psychiatrist) publish The Permission to Destroy Life Unworthy of Life.  The killing of large numbers of people who are determined to be physically and or mentally unfit is portrayed as a healing act. (116)

In 1920 margarine consumption is at an annual per capita level of 3.5 pounds. (9)

In 1920 Clarence Gamble receives a medical degree from Harvard. (24)

In 1920 Jules Bordet received the Nobel prize for discoveries relating to immunity. (46)

In 1920 the term, "vitamine" was changed to "vitamin" on the recommendation of Drummond. (82)

In 1920 Whipple demonstrated hemoglobin regeneration in dogs fed raw liver. (82)

In 1920 the vitamin A activity of carotenoids was demonstrated by Steenbock. (82)

In 1920 the Food and Drug Administration started to harass Dr. William E. Koch, the professor of physiology who began oxidation studies in 1915 using Glyoxylide. (48) [See Koch]

In 1920 an attempt was made to establish a North American organization similar to ICES, with the formation of a North American Council on Fishery Investigation by Canada, Newfoundland and the United States. This council was discontinued in 1938. (66)

In 1920 Meyerhof (winner of the Nobel prize for Physiology and Medicine) showed that linoleic acid and sulfurated proteins formed an essential partnership in the internal workings of the body. (42) In particular, he found that linoleic acid and sulfur-rich proteins work together to help fatigued muscle recover rapidly from exercise and exertion.  (13) [See note 21, (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1920 the Medical Research Committee of Great Britain, founded in 1913, became the Medical Research Council. (82)

On March 3, 1920 Dr. Hugh Smith Cumming was appointed Surgeon General of the Public Health Service, (PHS). (80)

In 1920 the alarm was first sounded regarding marihuana use in New Orleans. Dr. Oscar Dowling, president of Louisiana's State Board of Health, wrote to governor John M. Parker, urging that something be done about the threat to the city. He dashed off a plea to the surgeon general of the United States, Dr. Hugh Cummings, who agreed with him and took no further action. Governor Parker then wrote Prohibition Commissioner John F. Kramer, who, "while sympathetic" was "far too busy enforcing the ban on morphine to think about widening the sphere of proscribed drugs." (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1920 U.S. Government papers have been, by law, written on "hempen rag paper" until this time. (28) [See note 83, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1920 Alcohol Prohibition in the U.S. brings narcotics trafficking and large scale organized crime into the U.S. (6) Waxey Gordon and other Jewish criminals—Benjamin "Bugs" Siegel, Arthur "Dutch" Schultz and Meyer Lansky—soon dominated much of New York's bootleg liquor trade. … Although Arnold Rothstein was shot at the Park Central Hotel in 1928, Waxey Gordon was jailed for tax evasion in 1933, and Lepke was electrocuted for murder in 1944, other Jewish gangsters, notably Lansky, survived the tumult of these decades to play a leading role in syndicate crime for the next thirty years. (44) Whereas during Prohibition the possession of alcohol for personal use is never made illegal, during the same period criminal sanctions are effectively extended against all users of "narcotics." The view grows that whereas alcohol can be used safely and in moderation, narcotic use inevitably results in dependence, insanity, death, and a criminal, immoral lifestyle. Public opinion abandons the 19th century view of opiate dependency as simply a misfortune as fear of the "dope fiend" spreads. (86)

In 1920 I.G. Farben had signed working agreements with the important drug firms of Switzerland, Sandoz and Ciba-Geigy in Switzerland. (48)

In 1920 Theodore Marburg founded the American Society for the Judicial Settlement of International Disputes.  The first chairman was William Howard Taft (S&B 1878).  The Society was the forerunner of the League to Enforce the Peace, which developed into the League of Nations and ultimately into the United Nations. (26)

In 1920, with cooperation of the Naval Aviation Service and Chesapeake Bay fishermen, the Bureau of Fisheries inaugurates use of aeroplanes to locate menhaden. (20)

In 1920 the League of Nations came into being. (1) Elihu Root was a leading Republican supporter of that organization, advocating that the treaty be accepted with minor reservations. (1)

In 1920 Dr. Bergius discovers the hydrogenation process. (6) [See note 128]

In 1920 the Macmillan Company of New York published what was to become a widely used textbook on the social aspects of genetics. It was called Applied Eugenics and its authors were Paul Popenoe, editor of the Journal of Heredity in Washington, D.C., and Roswell Hill Johnson, a professor at the University of Pittsburgh. The writers concluded without ambivalence that "the Negro race in Africa has never, by its own inheritance, risen much above barbarism," and that the black race, in America as in Africa, "is in the large eugenically inferior to the white." (103)

In 1920 the International Society of the History of Medicine was founded. (1)

In 1920 the Save the Children International Union is formed. (1)

From 1921 to 1924 blindness in children was shown to be a result of lack of vitamin A. (82)

From 1921 to 1932 Andrew Mellon was Secretary of the Treasury. (???)

From 1921 to 1927 Leonard Wood is the seventh Civil Governor of the Philippines. (149)

In 1921 the International Association for Child Welfare is formed. (1)

In 1921 the Council on Foreign Relations, (CFR) is created as a front organization for J.P. Morgan and Company. (29) Bernard Flexner is a founding member. (48)  Elihu Root, lawyer for J.P. Morgan and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. was honorary chairman. (130)

In 1921 Hopkins isolated pure glutathione. (82), (105)

In 1921 the Second International Congress of Eugenics is held in New York City. The sponsoring committee includes Herbert Hoover and the presidents of Clark University, Smith College and the Carnegie Institute of Washington (Rockefeller). (6) Madison Grant is the treasurer. The event was held at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. More than 300 delegates came from Europe, Latin America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Among the notables in attendance were future President Herbert Hoover, Alexander Graham Bell, (the Congress's honorary president), conservationist and future Governor of Pennsylvania, Gifford Pinchot (S&B 1889) and Leonard Darwin, son of Charles Darwin. Henry Fairfield Osborn, director of the museum, was president [of the congress] and Harry Laughlin was in charge of exhibits, and Lothrop Stoddard handled publicity. One hundred eight papers were presented on topics ranging from plant and animal genetics to anthropology and political science. (38) Averell Harriman (S&B 1913), a member of the Museum's board since 1918, gave $1,000 of his own money and served on the Museum Executive Committee hosting the conference; his mother, [Mary A. Harriman] and sister, [Mary Rumsey Harriman] were the primary hostesses. Members of a congressional Committee on Immigration were transported from Washington to view the racialist eugenics exhibits, and to hear tirades against allowing continued immigration of "inferior" ethnic groups such as Italians and Jews. … Mrs. Harriman paid for a good deal of the Congress with money delivered to the chairman of the finance committee, Madison Grant. (49)  "The American Eugenics Society was initially organized as the Eugenics Committee of the United States by the Executive Committee of the Second International Congress of Eugenics. The energy, momentum, and emotional tone of the Congress were instrumental in the creation of the Society, and the Society's original orientation and program reflected the concerns expressed by the international leaders at the conference. Two men epitomized this leadership. Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936) and Jon Alfred Mjøen (1860-1939). Mjøen introduced the resolution which called for the formation of the Eugenics Committee (later to become the AES) and Lapouge, more than any other speaker at the conference, articulated the concerns of the early AES founders. Thus, it is important to examine the Second International Congress of Eugenics and the role played by Lapouge and Mjøen in the creation of the AES." (173:1) The Executive Committee [of the Second International Congress] consisted of Henry Fairfield Osborn, President of the Congress; L. Darwin, Chairman of the International Eugenics Commission; Lucien March; Charles Davenport; Jon Alfred Mjøen; Raymond Pearl; C.C. Little, Sec-Gen of the Congress; Madison Grant, Treasurer; H.H. Laughlin, Chairman, Exhibits Committee; H.E. Crampton, Executive Committee; H.J. Banker, Sec. Section 2; Helen Dean King, Sec. Section 1; Clark Wissler, Sec. Section 3; Irving Fisher (S&B 1888); Judge Harry Olson, General Committee; Dr. George Bech, delegate, Government of Denmark; Phya Medra, delegate of the Government of Siam; Dr. Santa Naccarati, delegate from the Italian Society of Genetics and Eugenics; Dr. F. Ramos, delegate from Cuba and Dr. Arturo Scroggie, delegate from Chile. (173:7:23)  It was Mjøen's proposal [for the establishment of central eugenics organizations in each country…] which prompted Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) to present a motion to form an "American Ad Interim Committee" to prepare a report on a plan for securing widespread international cooperation. The motion was seconded from the floor and passed unanimously. … Osborn appointed Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) chairman of the Ad Interim Committee and himself, Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, C.C. Little (1888-1971), and Harry Olson, Chief Justice of the Chicago municipal court, as members. Thus was born the International Commission on Eugenics Ad Interim Committee of the United States of America later to be known simply as the American Eugenics Society.] (173:4)  Henry Fairfield Osborn was President of the Congress, which appointed the "Ad Interim Committee". (23)  "Averell Harriman, a member of the Museum's board since 1918, gave $1,000 of his own money and served on the Museum Executive Committee hosting the conference; his mother and sister were the primary hostesses;…" (49:551)  Mjøen's interest in eugenics had been stimulated in Germany where, in 1897, he met and became acquainted with Alfred Ploetz, the father of German eugenics. (173:3)  Madison Grant is a trustee of the American Museum of Natural History. (183:236) Mrs. Harriman donated an extra $2,500 to fund the more than 120 exhibits erected throughout the museum. … Other wealthy eugenicists contributed significant sums and were named patrons of the gathering.  They included sanitarium owner John Kellogg, working through his Race Betterment Foundation, and YMCA benefactor and prominent political contributor Cleveland H. Dodge. (183:238)  Dr. Hilda Herrick Noyes and George Wallingford Noyes presented a paper on the human breeding experiment at Oneida Community (founded in 1848 by John Humphrey Noyes), called stirpiculture and based on the eugenic ideas of Francis Galton. (203) [See note 54, note 79, (Eugenics Meetings Previous, Next)]

In 1921 the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was incorporated by Frederic A. Delano, Robert S. Brookings, Elihu Root, who became its first president, John W. Davis, Dwight Morrow and James T. Shotwell. (130)

In 1921, the American Consultative Committee, formed in 1912 during the First International Congress of Eugenics, was renamed to the International Commission on Eugenics Ad Interim Committee of the United States of America or "American Ad Interim Committee". (23)

In 1921 the BCG tuberculosis vaccine is developed. (6)

In 1921, in June, a serious race riot occurs in Tulsa, Oklahoma, involving whites and blacks: 21 whites and 60 blacks are killed. (160)

In 1921 the Emergency Quota Act was passed to restrict immigration. (117)

In 1921Alfred Hess treated rickets by exposure to sunlight. (82)

In 1921 Albert Johnson, head of the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, began a series of hearings on immigration. He appointed Harry Laughlin as an expert witness on eugenics. (38)

On October 29th 1921 the Bureau of Fisheries research vessel, Albatross is decommissioned and retired from service but the scientific research into as well as the naming and cataloging of the many hundreds of thousands of specimens it has collected will continue for decades. (20)

In 1921 for the first time, Bureau of Fisheries scientists begin research to determine fat content of fish oils at its Washington D.C., laboratory. (20) [See note 65, (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1921 insulin was isolated by Frederick Banting and Best. (82)

In 1921 Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins made his most fundamental contribution by isolating from living tissues the sulfur-containing dipeptide glutathione and by showing its great importance for oxidation in living cells. … Great interest has centered on the fact that glutathione can affect the activity of a variety of enzymes that are essential for the normal operation of any living cell. (1)

In 1921 the first appointment of a professor of nutrition in an American University is made, (Dr. Mary Swartz Rose is appointed at Teachers College, Columbia University). (82)

In 1921 the American Medico-Psychological Association changes its name to the American Psychiatric Association. (116)

In 1921 Robert Yerkes, professor of psychology at Harvard University and past president of the American Psychological Association, publishes a report on "Relation of Intelligence Ratings to Nativity."  He concludes that, "… in general, the Scandinavian and English speaking countries stand high on the list, while the Slavic and Latin countries are low …" (116)

In 1921 the Briggs law in Massachusetts required a defendant in an insanity defense to be examined by 2 psychiatrists assigned by the State Department of Mental Diseases with results available to the prosecution, the defense and the court.  This is done to avoid a "battle of the experts", i.e., psychiatric testimony on one side canceling-out the opposing side. (116)

In 1921 the Eugenics Record Office and the Station for Experimental Evolution were combined under the administrative title of the Department of Genetics of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. (185:4), (181:3)

In 1921 Margaret Sanger founds the American Birth Control League. (1) [See 1922]

In 1922, 1923 Otto Warburg reported first measurements on the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis. Warburg's manometric apparatus became a standard tool for measuring metabolism in living cells. (105)

By 1922, more than one hundred radiologists had died from X-ray induced cancer. (48)

In 1922 52,472 people are admitted to state mental hospitals for the first time.  3,356 are admitted without any evidence of psychosis but are admitted for epilepsy, alcoholism, drug addiction, "psychopathic personality" or mental deficiency.  16,407 suffer from senility, pellagra, brain tumors or cerebral arteriosclerosis. (116)

In 1922, the Federal response to the illicit drug economy which had emerged in the United States and profited principally from cocaine and heroin distribution was the Jones-Miller Act. This act provided fines of up to $5,000 and prison sentences for up to 10 years for any individual found guilty of being party to the unlawful importation of narcotics. In fact, the legislation had little influence upon the illicit drug marketplace except to increase the price of heroin and cocaine. (93)

In 1922 Willis H. Rich, former student of David Starr Jordan, becomes chief of the Bureau of Fisheries's Division of Scientific Inquiry. He later heads the Pacific Fishery Investigations at the Bureau's Stanford station and is Director of the Montlake Laboratory in Seattle. (20)

In 1922 experiments by E.V. McCollum also indicate the existence of a vitamin responsible for the effects of cod-liver oil (vitamin D). (1) Elmer Verner McCollumn et al. Showed that experimental rickets was caused by lack of a new food factor, vitamin D. (105)

In 1922 Methionine is discovered by Mueller. (82)

On August 1, 1922 a Special Cancer Investigations Laboratory was established by Public Health Service, (PHS) investigators at Harvard Medical School. (80)

In 1922 Dr. M.V. Ball, one of America's few authorities on marihuana, visited the Texas/Mexico border towns as a representative of the American Medical Association to get a firsthand look at the alleged dangers of marihuana to the citizenry. Ball had previously noted that whenever cannabis drugs were mentioned in the old scientific literature, they were invariably mixed with opium, and he was skeptical of the reports he had heard about the drug as far as its criminogenic properties were concerned. During a site visit to a Texas jail, the warden gave an inmate a marihuana cigarette to smoke so that Ball could see for himself what it did to a man. "To the surprise of the American prison physician and the jailer who assured me three wiffs would drive fellows so wild that they become exceptionally difficult to subdue," the smoker remained calm and unperturbed. "There is no evidence whatever that I can discover," Ball subsequently reported, "to warrant the belief that marihuana smoking is on the increase among Americans or that it is prevalent or common, there is no evidence worthy of belief that marihuana is a habit forming weed or drug, or that its use is increasing among Mexicans in Mexico or in America." (106) [See 1926, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1922 Margaret Sanger and co-workers incorporated the American Birth Control League. (159) [See 1921]

In 1922, the provost marshal "became concerned about reports that American soldiers were smoking marihuana and were becoming disobedient as a result." (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1922 the Illinois Medical Journal featured an article which declared that "The American Medical Association has become an autocracy." This was during the heyday of Dr. Simmons' rule in Chicago. The article denounced the dictatorial assumption of power over the entire medical profession. (48)

In 1922, three Canadian nobel prize winners, Banting, Best and Macleod succeeded in saving the life of a fourteen year old diabetic girl in Toronto General Hospital with injectable insulin. Eli Lilly was licensed to manufacture this new wonder drug. (51) Their nobel prizes, (Banting and Macleod) were awarded in 1923. (1)

In 1922 the Nobel prize in chemistry was awarded to Otto Meyerhof for his discovery of the correlation between oxygen consumption and metabolism of lactic acid in muscles. (1)

In 1922 the Nobel prize in chemistry was also awarded to Archibald V. Hill for his discovery relating to heat production in muscles. (1) [See note 104]

In 1922 in the case U.S. v. Behrman the U.S. Supreme Court interpreted the ambiguous exemption referred to in the Harrison Drug Control Act of 1914 to mean that no doctor could lawfully prescribe or administer any narcotic drug to an addict, even in a good-faith attempt to cure the addiction or alleviate the symptoms of withdrawal. (1)

In 1922 Margaret Sanger publishes her book, Pivot of Civilization where she unabashedly calls for the extirpation of "weeds … overrunning the human garden;" for the segregation of "morons, misfits, and the maladjusted;" and for the sterilization of "genetically inferior races." It was later that she singled out the Chinese, writing in her autobiography about "the incessant fertility of [the Chinese] millions spread like a plague." (4)

In 1922 Harry H. Laughlin, expert eugenics agent of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, publishes the Model Eugenic Sterilization Law.  This model forms the basis for many state sterilization laws and also for Nazi Germany's law in 1933.  Included in the list of people who should be subject to mandatory sterilization are the feeble-minded, insane, criminals, (including the "delinquent and wayward"), the blind, ("including those with seriously impaired vision"), the deformed, ("including the crippled") the dependent, including "orphans", "ne'er-do-wells, "the homeless", "tramps" and "paupers". (116)  Those who had tuberculosis were also targeted. (6)  The law added to the earlier candidates for forcible sterilization "orphans, the homeless, ne'er-do-wells, and tramps." (49)  [See 1914, (Related Laws 1934, 1933)]

In 1922 the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America was created. [See note 95]  The committee organized the Eugenics Society of the United States which in 1925 became the American Eugenics Society. The committee was dissolved when the American Eugenics Society was incorporated in 1926. The committee funds were then transferred to the Society. (23) One of the co-founders [of the Society] was Harry Laughlin. (38) Others were Madison Grant, Irving Fisher (S&B 1888), [Henry] Fairfield Osborn, and Henry Crampton. (1)  Charles Davenport was a co-founder. (158)  Launching of the Society (which took place formally in 1923 according to Garland E. Allen) was as a result of a proposal drawn up at the Second International Congress of Eugenics in New York in 1921. … By the end of the decade it would grow to include more than 1,200 members and branch organizations in 29 states. (76) Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) served as the first president of the Society from 1922 until 1926. (23)  (Formally, the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America was distinct from the Eugenics Society of the United States because the Committee was appointed by the Second International Congress.  The only action we know the Committee to have taken is the organization of the Eugenics Society of the United States, which became the American Eugenics Society.  The Committee was dissolved when the American Eugenics Society was incorporated; and the Committee funds were then transferred to the Society.) (23)  The American Eugenics Society was initially organized as the Eugenics Committee of the United States by the Executive Committee of the Second International Congress of Eugenics. The energy, momentum, and emotional tone of the Congress were instrumental in the creation of the Society, and the Society's original orientation and program reflected the concerns expressed by the international leaders at the conference. Two men epitomized this leadership. Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936) and Jon Alfred Mjøen (1860-1939). Mjøen introduced the resolution which called for the formation of the Eugenics Committee (later to become the AES) and Lapouge, more than any other speaker at the conference, articulated the concerns of the early AES founders. Thus, it is important to examine the Second International Congress of Eugenics and the role played by Lapouge and Mjøen in the creation of the AES. (173:1)  [See note 160, 1905, 1923]

In 1922 vitamin E was recognized first by H.M. Evans and K.S. Bishop. (1) [See note 34]

In 1922 the attorney general took over control of drug policy from the surgeon general, (of the U.S. Department of Health). (88)

In 1922 the National Committee on Mental Health forms a division for the prevention of delinquency.  Teams are sent to start clinics in various cities.  The first clinics are adjuncts to juvenile courts, tied to the community through schools / social agencies. (116)

In 1922, the Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act was passed. The bill was sponsored by Sen. Wesley L. Jones (R) of Washington and Rep. John F. Miller (R) of Washington. It established the Federal Narcotics Control Board (FNCB) to tightly oversee the import and export of opiates. (195)

In 1923 Charles B. Davenport retired as director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL).  About this time, the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences was wanting to relinquish control of the laboratory.  Though no longer its director, Charles B. Davenport "planned, solicited memberships and funds, and incorporated the Long Island Biological Association to assume ownership …" (225)

From 1923 to 1938 Clarence Gamble teaches pharmacology and does research at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. (24) [See note 27]

From 1923 to 1930 William H. Welch (S&B 1870) served on the Advisory Council of the American Eugenics Society. (109)

In 1923 Adolf Hitler and General von Lootendorf lead an aborted coup to overthrow the Bavarian government. (116)

In 1923 Fritz Pregl of Austria won the Nobel prize in chemistry for determining the method of microanalysis of organic substances. (1)

By 1923, the Treasury Department's new Narcotics Division, the first federal drug agency, was actively banning all legal narcotics sales and pursuing the criminal drug pushers who had replaced pharmacists. (44)

In 1923 margarine was first fortified with vitamins A and D. (1)

In 1923 Arther H. Estabrook publishes his study, The Tribe of Ishmael, (American gypsies). (117)

In 1923 Congressman Albert Johnson, a confirmed eugenicist, was appointed to the presidency of the Eugenics Research Association, a post held before him by Madison Grant. (140)

In 1923 the Health Organization of the League of Nations was organized at Geneva. (82)

In 1923 the Bureau of Home Economics in the U.S. Department of Agriculture was established with Dr. Louise Stanley as Chief. (82)

In 1923 John D. Rockefeller Jr. founded the International Education Board which operated in the fields of the natural sciences, the humanities and agriculture. He endows it with $20,000,000. (1)

In 1923 the Wayne County Medical Society formed a "Cancer Committee" of doctors who condemned Dr. William E. Koch's treatment. His stimulation of cell oxidation treatment is by carefully planned diet which cleansed the system, yet this proven treatment is still denounced today, (1988) by the cancer profiteers as "quackery". Koch tried to continue his work in Mexico and Brazil, but the Food and Drug Administration refused to abandon their pursuit. (48) [See Koch]

In 1923 Canadian physician Frederick Banting receives the Nobel Prize for discovery of a way to extract the hormone insulin, which permitted control of blood sugar in those with diabetes. This opens a whole new medical market because of the growing sugar addiction in the U.S. public. (6)

In 1923, Madison Grant's close friend, Henry Fairfield Osborn, the famous paleontologist who coined the term "tyrannosaurus rex," spoke enthusiastically about intelligence testing: "We have learned once and for all that the negro is not like us." (38)

In 1923, at a League of Nations Advisory Committee, the South African government urged that cannabis be classified as a habit-forming narcotic, and that international traffic be brought under control of the Hague convention. (106)  The Government of South Africa proposed to the League of Nations Advisory Committee on Traffic in Opium and Dangerous Drugs that Indian hemp, ("the whole or any portion of the plants C. Indica and C. Sativa") should be treated as one of the habit-forming drugs and included in the international convention. (118) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1923, the army prohibited possession of marihuana in the Panama Canal Zone (by American personnel). (106) [See (Panama 1916, 1925), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1923 the Iowa, Nevada, Oregon, Washington and Arkansas state legislatures each prohibited possession of cannabis unless prescribed by a physician. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1923, the American Eugenics Society, which grew to include more than 1,200 members and branch organizations in 29 states by the end of the decade, was formally launched as a result of a proposal drawn up at the International Congress of Eugenics in New York in 1921. (76:3)  "Its board of directors, which included Davenport and Laughlin, also included two men who served on Sanger's organizational and conference boards, University of Michigan president Clarence C. Little and racist author Henry Pratt Fairchild.  Moreover, the American Eugenics Society's advisory council included a number of men who also served in official capacities with Sanger's various organizations, including Harvard sociologist Edward East, psychologist Adolf Meyer, and Rockefeller Foundation medical director William Welch (S&B 1870)." (183:137)  The AES grew out of the Second International Eugenics Congress, held in 1921 in New York City.  The Society went through a number of name changes in the early years—from the Ad Interim Committee of Eugenics of the United States of America (1921) to the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America (1922) to the Eugenics Society of the United States of America (1922) to the American Eugenics Society, Inc. (1926).] (174:5)  "Various efforts—the promoters included Davenport, Alexander Graham Bell, and Luther Burbank—were mounted to organize eugenics on a national basis, along the lines of the British society; they culminated in the formation in 1923 of the American Eugenics Society, which rapidly spawned twenty-eight state committees and a southern California branch." (175:59)  [See note 161, 1922]

In 1924 the Radium Department at Memorial Hospital gave $18,000 radium treatments to patients, for which it charged $70,000 its largest single source of income for that year. (48)

In 1924 Bernardo Alberto Houssay investigated the role of the pituitary gland in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. (105)

In 1924 Louisiana enacted prohibitionist legislation against the non-medical use of marijuana. (45) Other states to do so are Nevada, Oregon and Washington. (89) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1924 the Duke Endowment foundation is created by James Buchanan Duke to establish Duke University and serve other educational, health and religious needs in North and South Carolina. Duke required that 20% of the annual income be reinvested to double his original gift of $40,000,000, thus making it an accumulating fund. The trust indenture allocated the available income among Duke university, nonprofit hospitals, orphanages, three other colleges and universities, and support of certain retired minister and rural churches. Duke bequeathed additional funds to this trust. By 1959 it is considered to be the third largest U.S. foundation ever created. (1)

On March 2, 1924 a gifted physician, Dr. Ernest Codman, of a distinguished New England family, addressed the annual American Medical Association convention as follows: "I have notes on four hundred registered cases of supposed bone sarcoma. All of these four hundred registered cases, with few exceptions, are records of error and failure; I have many of the foremost surgeons and pathologists in the country convicted in their own handwriting of gross errors in these cases. Legs have been amputated when they should not have been, and left on when they should have been amputated." Dr. Codman's speech left his audience dumbfounded. None of them challenged his statements, but his speech was deliberately hushed up by AMA officials. He wryly records that never again during his distinguished professional career was he asked to address any AMA meeting. (48)

In 1924 Morris Fishbein takes over the reins of the American Medical Association. (48)

In 1924 in the case of ??? the U.S. Supreme Court rules, as a result of the Harrison Drug Control Act of 1914, that drug addicts are not "sick people" deserving of treatment, they are criminals and must be punished. (28)

In 1924 Madison Grant is the principle signatory on a report by the Committee on Selective Immigration of the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America.  The report states,…"Had mental tests been in operation (previously)…over 6,000,000 aliens now living in this country…would never have been admitted…"  Also on the committee is Edward L. Thorndike, professor of psychology at Columbia University and the most influential figure in shaping American elementary school education during the first half of the 20th century.  Harry Laughlin delivers a lecture as a member of the committee, describing the desirable American traits of love of truth, inventiveness, common sense, artistic sense, love of beauty, responsibility, etc., as being "of a biological order". (116)

In August 1924 at the 6th Conference of the Advisory Committee on Traffic in Opium and Dangerous Drugs, when the proposal was discussed to treat cannabis as one of the habit-forming drugs and include it in the international convention, (brought up by the South African government in 1923), the British delegate suggested that governments should be asked to furnish the League with information about production, use and traffic in the drug so that the question could be further considered at the Advisory Committee's meeting in 1925.  A general enquiry was circulated by the Secretariat in August 1924. (118)  The British delegate managed to block adoption by urging that more information was needed. England managed to keep cannabis from the agenda for the next meeting.  Egypt, "also concerned about the social impact of cannabis on its people" introduced the subject. The American delegate supported the resolution to ban international traffic in cannabis, in the spirit of reciprocity. He (Steven Porter) was unaware of any cannabis problem in the United States. The Indian delegation pointed out the unique place cannabis held in his society. Sir Malcolm Delevigne, of Britain argued that since cannabis had not been on the agenda, no one was prepared to discuss the issue. Bourgeois, the French delegate, concurred, arguing that it "would be impossible to do so [outlaw cannabis] in the French Congo where there were "several tribes of savages and even cannibals among whom the habit is very prevalent. It would therefore be hypocritical on my part," he told the gathering, "to sign a Convention laying down strict measures in this respect." (106) [See note 139 (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1924 the National Origins Quota Law was passed limiting quota immigrants to about 150,000 annually, with no more than 2% of each nationality according to the number of persons of their national origin in the U.S. as of 1890, and providing that beginning July 1, 1929, the quota of any country shall have the same ratio to 150,000 as the number of persons of that national origin living in the U.S. had to the total population of the U.S., as determined from the 1920 census of population. (1) The act restricted annual immigration from any region to 2 percent of the number of residents from that region already living in the United States as of the 1890 census. Since the vast bulk of the new immigrants had arrived after that date, the Johnson Act, as hoped restricted these groups most heavily. Immigration from Eastern Europe fell from 75 percent of the total immigration in 1914 to 15 percent after 1924. Laughlin and U.S. eugenicists in general considered the passage of the immigration act a great political triumph. (76) 

In 1924 Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf, in which he praises the American Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. (116)

In 1924 Clarence Gamble first meets Dr. Robert Dickinson who urges the young millionaire to "take up the work". As a result of the associations with Sanger and Dickenson, Gamble naturally gravitates into what would become his life's work over a 40-year period: population control, eugenics and contraceptive research. (24) About this time Gamble also meets Mrs. Margaret Sanger. (24)

In 1924 the American Association of the History of Medicine was organized as a section of the International Society of the History of Medicine. (1)

In 1924 Dr. Seale Harris of the University of Alabama discovers that sugar can cause hyperinsulinism and recommends people cut sugar consumption. The medical establishment comes down on Harris and his work is suppressed. Harris would be awarded a medal by the American Medical Association 25 years later as pharmaceuticals to control low blood sugar are developed and put into production. The basic contribution of refined sugar to the problem remains suppressed. (6)

In 1924 Fritz Thyssen sets up his Union Banking Corporation in George Herbert Walker's bank in Manhattan. (6), (3)

In 1924 Heroin, originally created by I.G. Farben, is outlawed as a prescription drug in the United States. (6)

In 1924 America still had some 200,000 addicts. (44) Exploiting the prohibition of both alcohol and narcotics in the 1920s, American organized crime grew from localized gangs into nationwide syndicates with substantial economic and political influence in the cities of the industrial Midwest and Northeast. (44)

In 1924 H. Steenbock, A.F. Hess, and M. Weinstock demonstrated that the curative effects of ultraviolet light resulted from formation of vitamin D by such irradiation. (1)

In 1924 the Ethyl Gasoline Corporation is created to control and utilize U.S. patents for the manufacture and distribution of tetraethyl lead and ethyl fluid in the U.S. and abroad. It is jointly-owned by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and by General Motors Corporation. (33)

In 1924 Szent-Györgyi discovered that the system of sulfur-rich protein and linoleic acid takes up oxygen. (13) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1924 the Dawes Plan is agreed upon to help the reconstruction in Germany. (96)

In 1924 the commercial production of soybeans began in the United States. (97)

In 1924, after two universities refused offers to take over the Cold Spring Harbor facility [the biological laboratory or CSHL], a group of scientists and prominent local citizens formed the Long Island Biological Association (LIBA) to assume administrative responsibility for the Biological Laboratory.… Among LIBA's founders and early patrons were such notable American entrepreneurs as Walter Jennings and George Pratt, founders of the Standard Oil Company; J.P. Morgan, the banker; Marshall Field, III, the Chicago storekeeper; William K. Vanderbilt, whose family built a fortune on the Staten Island Ferry and the New York Central Railroad; and Louis Tiffany, whose stained glass creations were already legendary. (178:2-3)  Charles B. Davenport was one of the "scientists" who founded LIBA. (186:1)

In 1925 although the 1922 case U.S. v. Behrman was reversed in U.S. v. Lindner, the Treasury Department enforcement policies continued to rely on the Behrman interpretation. (1)

In 1925 the hemoglobin-regeneration effect of liver was demonstrated in humans. (82)

In 1925 Mexico officially outlawed cultivation of marihuana. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1925 general vaccine programs against tuberculosis began in the United States. (6)

In 1925 the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation was created. It awards fellowships each year to further the development of scholars and artists. (1)

In 1925 the meeting of the Advisory Committee on Traffic in Opium and Dangerous Drugs is held. (118)

In 1925 the International Opium Conference at Geneva is held. International trade in cannabis is brought under control largely at the insistence of the governments of South Africa and Egypt. Information subsequently collected by the League of Nations Advisory Committee on Illicit Traffic showed that the drug was widely consumed in the Middle East, Africa, and the Indian subcontinent, where certain preparations were traditionally used for religious as well as social purposes. (1) At this conference they also proposed to bind the principle Asiatic producers of opium to establish government monopolies for easier control. (1) Members of the convention attempted to set up a production quota system and create a permanent central opium board to administer it. (1) Drafted under the auspices of the League of Nations the Geneva Convention of 1925 imposed strict regulations on the export of heroin. (44)  At this conference of States members of the League of Nations and signatories to the 1912 Convention—convened primarily to devise administrative measures to end opium production and use in the Far East—the Egyptian delegate, supported by the Turkish delegate, submitted proposals that hashish should be included in the list of narcotics with which the Conference had to deal, and that all other noxious drugs should automatically be brought under the Convention.  A suggestion by the British delegate that the matter should be left over for the Advisory Committee as already arranged, was rejected. (118) The matter of including cannabis in the list of narcotics was referred to a sub-committee consisting of doctors, professors and persons with ministerial or administrative experience in public health, hospital or pharmaceutical service. …Eventually all but 3 members reported in favour of complete prohibition of the production and use of cannabis resin, the delegates of Great Britain, Netherlands and India abstained.…The sub-committee's report was adopted and another sub-committee (consisting of representatives of Belgium, Egypt, France, British Empire, India, Siam, Turkey and Uruguay) was invited to prepare draft provisions for incorporation in the new convention.  This group's proposals were adopted on 14th February 1925 virtually without discussion. (118)  In the end, the recommendations of a subcommittee were "It should … be remembered that all derivatives of hemp are capable of providing, in addition to products injurious to public health, fibers which can be used in industry (cloth, cordage, matting, etc.) and that the oil seeds may also be employed for domestic purposes. That being the case, it would not appear to be any easy matter to limit the amount grown. A recommendation was approved making export of cannabis resin prohibited; however, not all delegate nations signed it, including the United States, nor Egypt, who had brought it up in the first place. (106)  [See note note 119, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1925 Cleveland E. Dodge becomes president of the Greater YMCA of New York City, a post he holds until 1935. (23)

In 1925 the Pan American Medical Association is founded in New York. (1)

In 1925 I.G. Farben is reorganized. (48)  I.G. Farben was organized by the Warburgs as a merger between six giant German chemical companies, Badische Anilin, Bayer, Agfa, Hoechst, Welierter-Meer and GriesheimElektron. (130) [See note 142]

In 1925 Adolf Hitler publishes Mein Kampf. (78)

In 1925 the Panama Canal Zone Report concludes that there is no evidence that cannabis is habit forming or that it has any "appreciably deleterious influence" on users and recommends that no action be taken to prohibit its use by American soldiers in the Zone. (86), (124) A series of military boards, (1916 - 1929) inquired into marijuana smoking by American military personnel stationed in the Canal Zone. The boards published a report that concluded in 1929 there was no evidence marijuana was harmful to health or habit-forming and that delinquencies resulting from the use of marijuana were negligible. Recommendation: No criminal penalties for marijuana use. (88) [See (Panama 1923, 1926), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1925 J. Goldberger demonstrated that pellagra was a deficiency disease [niacin deficiency]. (1) [See note 181]

In 1925 the Eugenics Society of the United States was renamed to the American Eugenics Society. (23), (231)

In 1925 W. Rowan demonstrated the effect of photoperiod on bird's physiological readiness for mating and migration. (105)

On February 25, 1925, the International Opium Convention banned the use of Indian hemp (hashish) except for authorized medical and scientific purposes. (202)

From 1926 to 1929 phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate, (ATP) were identified and purified. (82)

From 1926 to 1945 Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin (S&B 1897) was President of Union Theological Seminary in New York. (126) [See 1904]

From 1926 to 1930, the research begun by the Bureau of Fisheries scientists at its Washington D.C. laboratory in 1921 to determine fat content of fish oils is continued on menhaden oil manufacture at a Reedville Virginia laboratory. Later Bureau of Fisheries research would target the vitamin content of fish oils and other healthful and nutritional attributes of fish oils. (20) [See note 66, note 85, (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1926 Otto Warburg showed that a fatty substance was required to restart oxidation when it was low, as is the case in cancer and other degenerative conditions. He didn't know which substance it was, and tested several different fatty acids including saturated butyric acid and monounsaturated oleic acid. He was surprised and disappointed that the expected increase in oxidation did not take place. For some reason, it did not dawn on him that linoleic acid might do the trick, although he was familiar with this substance. (13) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1926, Dr. W.W. Sotckberger [Stockberger?] said "We have had correspondence with El Paso and other border cities in Texas for a good many years about this situation," [concerning marihuana use by Mexicans] "The reported effects of the drug on Mexicans, making them want to clean up the town, do not jibe very well with the effects of cannabis, which so far as we have reports, simply causes temporary elation, followed by depression and heavy sleep." (106) [See 1922, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1926 Arthur H. Estabrook and Ivan E. McDougle publish Mongrel Virginians: The Win Tribe. (117)

In 1926 American I.G. founded as a holding company controlling I.G. Farben assets in the United States. Some board members were Edsel Ford, Charles Mitchell (President of Rockefeller's National City Bank of New York, [later known as CitiBank]), Walt Teagle (President of Standard Oil), Paul Warburg (Federal Reserve chairman and brother of Max Warburg, financier of Nazi Germany's war effort and Director of American I.G.) and Herman Metz, a director of the Bank of Manhattan, controlled by the Warburgs. Three other members of the Board of Governors for American I.G. were tried and convicted as German war criminals. (6)

In 1926 I.G. Farben merged with Dynamit-Nobel, the German branch of the dynamite firm, while an English firm took over the English division. (48)

In 1926, as a result of the Panama Canal Zone Report, the previous orders forbidding possession of marihuana in the zone by American personnel were rescinded.  Some high-ranking army officers refused to accept the findings and ordered a new investigation in 1929. (106) [See (Panama 1925, 1929), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1926 insulin was obtained as a crystalline protein by Abel. (82)

In 1926 Frank Howard of Standard Oil visits Baldische plant in Ludwigshafen. (6)

In 1926 Prescott Bush (S&B 1917) joins W.A. Harriman & Co. as vice-president. George Herbert Walker would join W. Averell Harriman (S&B 1913) in 1928 … Walker's son, George H. Walker, Jr. (S&B 1927) would become chairman of Walker-Bush Oil Corporation  and Zapata Petroleum, [& later, Zapata Offshore] (owned by George Bush (S&B 1948)). (6), (3)

In 1926 the American Eugenics Society was incorporated.  Roswell H. Johnson became president of the Society until 1927. (23)  The American Eugenics Society was officially incorporated January 30, 1926 by Barnard College evolutionary biologist Henry Crampton, Irving Fisher (S&B 1888), Madison Grant, Harry H. Laughlin and Henry Fairfield Osborn.  Charles Davenport was vice president and Henry P. Fairchild, son-in-law of Alexander Graham Bell, was secretary-treasurer. (231) 

In 1926 thiamine, (vitamin B1) is the first vitamin to be isolated in pure form by B.C.P. Jansen and W.F. Donath. (1), (82)  It was isolated from rice polishings. (105)

In 1926 G.R. Minot and W.P. Murphy found that pernicious anemia could be treated successfully by ingestion of large amounts of whole liver, [leading to discovery of vitamin B12]. Much smaller amounts of appropriately purified liver concentrates administered by injection were similarly effective. During the next two decades, liver concentrates of higher and higher effectiveness were prepared. (1), (82) George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy discovered that feeding raw liver had a pronounced effect in the treatment of pernicious anemia. This discovery led to the eventual isolation of vitamin B12 and the identification of yet another vitamin deficiency disease. (105)

In 1926 the pellagra-preventative factor was recognized as a member of the B-vitamin group. (82)

In 1926 the first crystalline enzyme, urease, was prepared from jack beans by Sumner. (82)

In 1926 the Rolleston Committee, [in Great Britain] made up of eminent doctors appointed by the government, recommended that physicians should be permitted to prescribe morphine or heroin for addicts 1) in cure by gradual withdrawal; 2) when drugs cannot safely be discontinued because of the severity of withdrawal symptoms; and 3) when the patient "while capable of leading a useful and relatively normal life when a certain minimum dose is regularly administered, becomes incapable of this when the drug is entirely discontinued." These standard were accepted and observed in the United Kingdom for 40 years, during which the total known addict population remained consistently below 500. The police function concentrated upon aiding doctors by preventing forged prescriptions and thefts of drugs, rather than on the doctors' own conduct. (1)

In 1926 E.L. Kennaway and others at the University of London extracted from coal tar the potent carcinogen 3,4-benzpyrene. (1)

In 1926 the world's legal heroin production was nearly 20,000 pounds. (44)

In 1926 Harry J. Anslinger is transferred to the Bahamas (Nassau) as consul where he came "face to face" with rum-running, and his prohibitionist instincts were honed. (45)

In 1926 the Indian Medical Association, Delhi is founded. It is affiliated to the British Medical Association and issues several publications. (1)

In 1927 the First World Population Conference was held in Geneva Switzerland. (157)  The conference was organized by Margaret Sanger (and took place in 1926 according to this source). (98)  William H. Welch (S&B 1870) was in attendance at this conference. (109)

In 1927 Madison Grant, Robert DeCourcey Ward and other eugenicists signed a Memorial on Immigration Quotas, urging the President and Congress to extend "the quota system to all countries of North and South America … in which the population is not predominantly of the white race." (38), (140)

In 1927 the Medical Association of South Africa, Cape Town is founded. It publishes the South African Medical Journal and the South African Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. (1)

In 1927 Bishop Charles Henry Brent helped to organize the first World Conference on Faith and Order, which met in Lausanne, Switzerland.…His experiences in the Philippines had aroused in him a strong concern for the cause of visible Christian unity. (121)  Bishop Brent would become world famous for his pioneer efforts to launch the ecumenical movement among Christian churches. (91) [see note 110]

In 1927 New York enacted prohibitionist legislation against the non-medical use of marijuana. (45), (89) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1927 Elmer Higgins, former student of David Starr Jordan, becomes chief of the Bureau of Fisheries's Division of Scientific Inquiry. (20)

In 1927 the Charles F. Kettering Foundation was created. (1) It and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation are the two largest benefactors of the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, formerly, the Memorial Hospital. (48) [see note 55]

In 1927 vitamin B was recognized as a complex of several factors. (82)

In 1927 Harry Laughlin, (Eugenics Record Office) became president of the American Eugenics Society until 1929. (23)

In 1927 Heinrich Wieland won the Nobel prize in chemistry for research into the constitution of bile acids. (1) 

In 1927 Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. writes the U.S. Supreme Court decision in the case Buck v. Bell. In the case, a psychiatric inmate, Carrie Buck, was chosen for sterilization after having a child because she was deemed "feeble-minded"; Oliver Wendell Holmes writes, "It is better if society can prevent our being swamped with incompetence, it is better to prevent those who are manifestly unfit from breeding their kind. The principle that sustains compulsory vaccination is broad enough to cover cutting of the fallopian tubes … three generations of imbeciles is enough". They then sterilized Carrie Buck. The crux of the matter is that Carrie Buck was not retarded, but just a little slow, based on environmental conditions. Her child grew to be an honor student. (???) The Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. "symbolized the arbitrary rule of the racial purity advocates, the usurpers, over American society." (3) Also on the U.S. Supreme Court at the time was William H. Taft (S&B 1878). (23) Carrie Buck was an 11-year old girl committed to the State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded in Virginia, where Bell was superintendent. Carrie's mother was also an inmate at the same institution. (78)

In 1927 M.A. Boas contributed to the evidence leading to the discovery of the vitamin known as Biotin. (1)

In 1927 Indiana passes its second sterilization statute. (117)

In 1927 amphetamine sulphate is synthesized in America.  The patent is sold to the Smith, Kline & French drug company. (116)

In 1927 John Foster Dulles becomes director of GAF Company (American I.G.) until 1934. (6), (48) He was also director of International Nickel, which was part of the network of I.G. Farben firms. (48)

In 1927 Standard Oil agrees to a cooperative program to develop hydrogenation. (6)

In 1927 Austrian psychiatrist Menfred Sakel develops insulin shock (Insulin Coma Treatment, ICT). Patients are overdosed with insulin, which induces a coma. (6) [See note 15]

In 1927 Joseph V. Reed married Samuel Pryor's daughter, Permelia. Reed immediately went to work for Prescott Bush (S&B 1917) and George Walker as an apprentice at W.A. Harriman & Co. (3)

In 1927 A. Szent-Györgyi had isolated ascorbic acid, (vitamin C) without recognizing its vitamin character. (1)

In 1927 the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, Melbourne is founded. (1)

In 1927 the Nebraska state legislature prohibited possession of cannabis unless prescribed by a physician. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1927 the raw eggwhite-factor was identified. (82)

In 1927 ergosterol was identified as provitamin D by Windaus and A. Hess. (82) Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus and others identified ergosterol as the parent substance of vitamin D. (105)

In 1927 artificial transmutation of the gene was reported by L.J. Stadler in plants and Hermann Joseph Muller in Drosophila by means of x-rays. (105)

In 1927 refection in vitamin B deficient rats was described and named by Fridericia. (82)

In 1927 Coolidge appointed Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888) as Governor-General of the Philippine Islands. (26)

In 1927 the Danforth Foundation is created and by 1959 it is considered to be the tenth largest U.S. foundation ever created. (1) It was established by Mr. and Mrs. William H. Danforth along with their daughter and son, Dorothy Danforth Compton and Donald Danforth. (???)

In 1927, the National Academy of Sciences appointed a Committee on Oceanography "to consider the share of the United States of America in a world-wide program of oceanographic research." (336)  This committee resulted from a series of conferences held during the early 1920s between MBL Director Frank Rattray Lillie and Wickliffe Rose, then President of the Rockefeller Foundation's General Education Board. (336)  "The committee, chaired by Lillie, recommended that oceanographic activities on the West coast be strengthened and that a well-equipped oceanographic institution be established on the East coast.  The committee members, including its secretary, Henry Bryant Bigelow of Harvard University, formed the nucleus of a board of trustees for the new institution.  Lillie became president of the board, Bigelow WHOI's first director." (336)  "The Rockefeller Foundation provided $1 million for construction, boats, equipment, and upkeep, $1 million for endowment, and $500,000 for 10 years of summertime operating expenses." (336)  As chairman of a National Academy of Sciences oceanographic committee, Lillie played a role in establishing WHOI in 1930 by securing a $3 million grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. He also served as president of WHOI's board for nine years. (337)  This committee "originally consisted of Frank R. Lillie as Chairman; William Bowie; E. G. Conklin; B. M. Duggar; J. C. Merriam; and T. W. Vaughan." (339)  "As a member of the Committee on Oceanography Vaughan was instrumental in establishing Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.  He provided helpful advice, knowledge and insight into the costs and fundamentals of running an oceanographic institution.  Lillie and Vaughan corresponded frequently on the subject… In a letter to Lillie dated November 15, 1927, Vaughan recommended a list of capable men whom he felt could direct the proposed Institution.  Vaughan highly recommended Henry Bigelow for the directorship and in June 1930 the Committee on Oceanography appointed Bigelow director of Woods Hole [Oceanographic Institution]." (338)  [See WHOI 1930]

From 1928 to 1933 Otto Warburg deduced the iron-porphyrin nature of the respiratory enzyme. (105)

From 1928 to 1929 Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888) is the eighth Civil Governor of the Philippines. (149)  He was appointed in 1927. (26)

By 1928 more than three-fourths of all the colleges and universities in America were teaching eugenics. (75) The American Genetics Association boasted that by 1928 there were 376 college courses devoted exclusively to eugenics. High-school biology textbooks followed suit by the mid-1930s, with most containing material favorable to the idea of eugenical control of reproduction. (76)

By 1928 Rockefeller's General Education Board had made matching endowment gifts of $60,000,000 to nearly 300 colleges and universities and $90,000,000 to various medical schools. (1)

Until 1928 the Rockefeller Foundation emphasized public health and medical education. (1)

In 1928 (unconfirmed) Rockefeller's General Education Board promoted agricultural education in the south by instituting a farm demonstration program in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, (USDA). (1)

In 1928 Adolf Windaus won the Nobel prize in chemistry for determination of the constitution of sterols and their connection with vitamins. (1)

In 1928 the Third National Conference on Race Betterment was held in Battle Creek, Michigan. The event was hosted by John Harvey Kellogg. (62)  The conference is organized by the Race Betterment Foundation created in 1911.  [See (Eugenics Meetings Previous, Next)]

In 1928 the goitrogenic effect of cabbage was demonstrated in rabbits. (82)

In 1928 H. von Euler-Chelpin prepared pure carotene and demonstrated its high vitamin A activity. (105)

In 1928 the synthesis of vitamin B was found in rumen of cow. (82)

In 1928 hexuronic acid, (vitamin C) was isolated from adrenal cortex by A. Szent-Györgyi. (82) Albert von Szent-Györgyi showed that hexuronic acid was identical with vitamin C and proposed the name ascorbic acid. (105)

In 1928 Heinrich Otto Wieland and Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus elucidated the structure of the cholesterol molecule. (105)

In 1928 copper was found to be essential for hemoglobin regeneration in rats. (82)

In 1928 blacktongue was produced experimentally in dogs and shown to be similar to human pellagra. (82)

In 1928 nutrition was included on the program of the Health Committee of the League of Nations. (82)

In 1928 the American Institute of Nutrition was organized with provisional charter. (82)

In 1928 the Journal of Nutrition began publication. (82)

In 1928 following similar work with Drosophila, Stadler used X-rays to produce mutations in corn (Zea mays). (87)

In 1928 as American eugenicists such as Davenport and Harry H. Laughlin, superintendent of the Eugenics Records Office, were already well known to German authorities such as Fritz Lenz, professor of racial hygiene at the University of Munich, Lenz requested permission from Laughlin to reprint his article Eugenical Sterilization in the Archiv für Rassen und Gesellschaftsbiologie, (Archive for Race and Social Biology). Laughlin responded enthusiastically: "I should feel highly honored to have this paper appear in the Archiv. Your many American friends trust that some time in the near future you will be able to visit the centers of eugenical interest in this country." (76)

In 1928 the International Education Board is merged into the Rockefeller Foundation. (1)

In 1928 the Rockefeller Foundation is broadened in scope and thereafter liberally financed pure research. It created divisions of public health, medical sciences, natural sciences, social sciences and humanities, each of which supported fellowship programs, special research projects and independent research agencies. The medical sciences division also supported psychiatry and mental hygiene. The natural sciences division financed costly research tools such as marine biology laboratories, telescope and cyclotrons. The social sciences division continued the work of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, on which the two spent about $100,000,000 in a 25-year period. It helped support university and independent research agencies, including the National Bureau of Economic Research, Brooking Institution, and Social Science Research Council. It also helped finance publication of the Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. The humanities division made special grants to individual universities, museums, and libraries, to the American Council of Learned Societies, and for publication of the Dictionary of American Biography. In its first 35 years the Rockefeller Foundation spent $28,000,000 for 10,000 fellowships in 75 countries and $10,000,000 on research grants-in-aid. (1)

In 1928 Henry Ford merges assets with I.G. Farben. (6)

In 1928 John D. Rockefeller interlocks his empire with I.G. Farben in Germany. (6)

In 1928 the Osler Club, London is organized as a historical medical society. (1)

In 1928 a federal prison census showed 2,529 prisoners out of a total of 7,138 to be Harrison Drug Control Act offenders. (1) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1928 penicillin was discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming of England. (1)

In 1928 the Dangerous Drugs Act of 1925 becomes law in Great Britain. (89)

In 1928, the American Institute of Nutrition is organized with a provisional charter (which is made permanent in 1934). (352)

In 1929 - 1930, George O. Burr and M. M. Burr at the University of Minnesota discovered that rats reared on a fat-free, deficient diet containing no essential fatty acids [called for a time, "vitamin F"] failed to grow, developed renal disease and necrosis of the tails, and subsequently died. (1), (25) It was discovered that if an animal's diet were devoid of fat, certain symptoms would arise: poor reproduction, low resistance to infection, scaly skin, slow growth, and certain chemical changes in the blood. (27) It was at this time that Burr and Burr discovered essential fatty acids and showed that if protein is given to animals deficient in essential fatty acids, the animals die very quickly. (13) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acids, were found essential for rat growth by Burr. (82) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

From 1929 to 1932 Dwight F. Davis was the ninth Civil Governor of the Philippines. (149)

From 1929 to 1934 the Danish biochemist Henrik Dam and his associates drew attention to a deficiency disease of chicks characterized by a tendency to bleed and by a greatly retarded clotting time of the blood. Dam ascribed the disease to lack of a particular anti-hemorrhagic factor in the diet, (vitamin K). (1)

On January 19, 1929 the Narcotics Control Act was passed, authorizing construction of two hospitals for drug addicts, and creation of a Public Health Service, (PHS) Narcotics Division. (80) P.L. 70-672 established two Federal "narcotics farms" and authorized a Narcotics Division within Public Health Service, (PHS). (79) This was the Porter Narcotic Farm Act. This act provided for the U.S. Public Health Service to establish federal hospitals specifically for the treatment of imprisoned addicts. The first of two facilities was built in Lexington, Kentucky in 1935 and the second facility opened in Fort Worth, Texas in 1938. These facilities were in fact prisons modified to provide medical and psychiatric services. (93) [See Note 46,  (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1929 the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial is merged into the Rockefeller Foundation. (1)

In 1929 the International Congress of Eugenics takes place in Rome. (116) [See note 132]

In 1929, the department surgeon in-charge of the new inquiry, (second investigation into the use of marihuana in the Panama Canal Zone by American personnel) reported that "use of the drug is not widespread and … its effects upon military efficiency and upon discipline are not great. There appears to be no reason for renewing the penalties formerly exacted for the possession and the use of the drug." (106) [See (Panama 1926, 1930), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1929, alongside Madison Grant on the Board of Directors, [of the American Eugenics Society] you find [Charles] Davenport, Conklin of Princeton, and C.C. Little, founder of the Jackson Laboratories in Bar Harbor.  On its larger advisory council, alongside the popularizers Albert E Wiggam and Lothrop Stoddard, you dind the geneticist Castle and East of Harvard, Guyer of Wisconsin, Holmes of Stanfard, Franklin Shull of Michigan, Herbert Walter of Brown, Frederick Adams Woods of MIT, Horatio Hackett Newman and Sewall Wright of Chicago. (158)

In 1929 C.C. Little, (Pres. Michigan University) became president of the American Eugenics Society. Afterwards, Henry Pratt Fairchild, (Sociology, New York University) became president of the Society for the remainder of 1929 until 1931. (23)

In 1929 Clarence D. Little [Clarence C. Little] was named as chairman of the American Cancer Society by the Rockefellers, longtime associates who had established a laboratory for him at their summer home on Mt. Desert Island. He seemed to have no interest in cancer, spending most of his time as president of the American Birth Control League, the Euthanasia Society, and the Eugenics Society, the latter being a pet project of the Harriman family. (48) [see 1929, 1929, note 56]

In 1929, after a decade of poor performance, the first federal drug agency, the Treasury's Narcotics Division, collapsed when a New York City grand jury discovered systematic corruption. Field agents were protecting the city's drug dealers and the division chief's son was working as a tax agent for the country's most notorious racketeer, Arnold Rothstein, a gambling broker best known for fixing the 1919 World Series. (44) A number of agents attached to the New York office of the Narcotics Division of the Prohibition Bureau were caught padding their arrest records; a grand jury found that these agents had been doing so on orders from Assistant Deputy Commissioner William Blanchard, who in turn incriminated Deputy Commissioner L.G. Nutt. It was the grand jury's finding that these actions had been carried out to hide a dismal arrest record which it attributed to probable collusion between federal narcotics agents and drug distributors. (106)

On August 13, 1929 Alfred P. Sloan, President of General Motors, made a public statement concerning the installation of safety glass in his company's vehicles. "The advent of safety glass will result in both ourselves and our company absorbing a very considerable portion of the extra cost out of our profits. I feel that General Motors should not adopt safety glass for its cars and raise its prices even a part of what that extra cost should be." (48)

In 1929 Dr. Wiley's book The History of a Crime Against the Food Law, detailing the subversion of the food purity laws and government corruption; all the books produced are mysteriously bought up, and no copies can be found. Wiley's Bureau of Chemistry is dismantled and replaced by the Food Drug and Insecticide Administration, precursor of the Food and Drug Administration. All lists of "dubious compounds in food" were declared "Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)". (6)

In 1929 Henry Ford begins extensive research into the production of methanol (as a fuel) and the manufacturer of plastics from renewable vegetable crops, including hemp. (28)

In 1929 Standard Oil gains 1/2 rights to the hydrogenation process in the world except for in Germany. (6) [See note 14]

In 1929 Harry J. Anslinger was appointed Assistant Commissioner of Prohibition after working three years on the problem in Washington as Chief of the Division of Foreign Control with the Treasury Department. (45)

In 1929 Herbert Hoover appointed Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888) Secretary of State. (26)

In 1929 Clarence Gamble finances birth control clinics in Ohio. (???)

In 1929 William Bosworth Castle showed that the substance responsible for preventing pernicious anemia arose from the combination of an intrinsic factor in the gastric juice and an extrinsic factor in the diet. This antianemic factor was then stored in the liver. (105)

In 1929 Christiaan Eijkman received the Nobel prize in medicine for the discovery of an antineuritic vitamin. (1)

In 1929 Sir Francis Hopkins received the Nobel prize in medicine for the discovery of growth-stimulating vitamins. (1)

In 1929 I.G. Farben concluded limited cartel agreements with Du Pont Chemical in the U.S. (6)

In 1929 Montagu Norman, head of the Bank of England, arrives in Washington to confer with Andrew Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury. The Fed raises the discount rate. New York financiers call in loans. (6)

In 1929 the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is founded in Great Britain. (1)

In 1929 Francis Garvan, who had served as Alien Property Custodian during the First World War, and who knew many secrets of I.G. Farben's operations, was prosecuted to force him to remain silent. The action was brought by the Department of Justice through Attorney General Merton Lewis, the former counsel for Bosch Company. John Krim, former counsel for the German Embassy in the United States, testified that Senator John King had been on the payroll of the Hamburg American Line for three years at a salary of fifteen thousand dollars a year; he appointed Otto Kahn as treasurer of his election fund. (48) [See note 39]

In 1929 (unconfirmed) George O. Burr and M. M. Burr at the University of Minnesota discovered the importance of Vitamin E in animal nutrition and they later discovered it to be very important in humans, too. (25)

In 1929 the Aerospace Medical Association was founded. (1)

In 1929 a Surgeon General's report, (Public Health Service) gives credence to prior circulating reports that associate marijuana with Mexicans and horrible crimes. (86) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1929, in Canada, marijuana was added to the list of regulated substances in the Opium and Narcotics Drug Act.  Canadian lawmakers were quick to do this after Janey Canuck's (Emily F. Murphy) exposé in which drug users were transformed from mere moral degenerates to public enemies, bent on the destruction of the White race. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]



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