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"Those who fail to understand history are condemned to repeat it." --
George Santayana



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From 1910 to 1918 Dr. Olin West is state director in Tennessee for the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission. (48)

From 1910 to 1920 a species of "albino rat" is standardized as the species of choice to be used in testing the effect of substances in studies of human physiology, anatomy, and behavior. (85)

From 1910 to 1934 William H. Welch (S&B 1870) was President of the Board of Directors of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research. (26) [See note 81]

From 1910 to 1920 southern "officials" are alarmed because "pot smoking darkie jazz musicians" are beginning to "think that they are as good as whites." (For example, the Jim Crow segregation laws prohibited Black entertainer s from performing in white clubs. Because these performers were so very talented however, white club owners found a way to circumvent the law by requiring Black performers to wear "black face". In other words, a Black entertainer who was willing to pretend to be a white person pretending to be Black was permitted to perform. When Blacks objected to this lunacy they were accused, by whites, of being "no-good marijuana-smoking niggers.") (28) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1910 South Africa begins outlawing marijuana (for the same "Jim Crow" reasons cited by U.S. bigots: to stop the insolence of Blacks) and lobbies the League of Nations to have cannabis outlawed world-wide. (???)  Many Southern U.S. states are influenced by South Africa and follow suit with prohibitions. (Note, however, that Black mine workers in South Africa were permitted to continue smoking the herb because it increased their productivity). (28) 1911 is the date that cannabis is banned according to (89). [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1910 the revolution in Mexico "drove thousands of Mexicans north into the United States." (106)

In 1910 Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, working with G. Savory performed important research on Bence-Jones protein. (1)

In 1910 Baltimore Maryland became the first city in America to officially delineate separate Black and White suburbs, and was followed by Dallas, Texas; Greensboro, North Carolina; Louisville, Kentucky; Norfolk Virginia; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Richmond, Virginia; Roanoke, Virginia and St. Louis, Missouri. (160)

In 1910 Jacques Loeb, (1859—1924), became director of the division of experimental biology at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, (now Rockefeller University) in New York City. (109)

In 1910 genetic experiments were made by T.H. Morgan on the fruit fly. Mendelian genetics was established as a science. (82) Morgan proposed a theory of sex-linked inheritance for the first mutation discovered in Drosophila melanogaster: white eye. This was followed by the announcement of the gene theory, including the principle of linkage. (105)

In 1910 the American Association of Pathologists and Bacteriologists was formed. (1)

In 1910 the International Psychoanalytic Association is formed. (117)

In 1910 consumption of margarine is at 130 million pounds. Despite attempts to repeal, the federal tax on margarine remained. (9)

In 1910 Albrecht Kossel received the Nobel prize for knowledge of cellular chemistry, especially proteins. (46), (1)

In 1910 the Carnegie Foundation's "Flexner Report", begun in 1907, is completed by Abraham Flexner. … Flexner spent much of his time at Johns Hopkins University finalizing his report. The medical school, which had only been established in 1893, was considered to be very up-to-date. It was also the headquarters of the German allopathic school of medicine in the United States. (48)

In 1910 Japan acquires a source of cheap and abundant sugar on Formosa. Incidence of tuberculosis rises dramatically in Japan. (6) [See note 33]

In 1910 the first tuberculosis sanitarium is opened. The tuberculosis death rate is 180 per 100,000. (6), (48)

In 1910 the American Medical Association requests the Carnegie Foundation to survey all U.S. medical schools. Simon Flexner (later to be a director of the Rockefeller Foundation) produces the report, called Medical Education in the United States and Canada. (6)

In 1910 the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was founded with a $10,000,000 fund to promote world peace. It attempts to increase international understanding by conducting research on international law, history, economics and other aspects of foreign relations. (1) Elihu Root served as its president. (1)  Some original trustees were Andrew Dickson White (S&B 1854), Cleveland Hoadley Dodge, Charles William Eliot, Luke E. Wright and John Watson Foster (138)

In 1910, W. Averell Harriman's mother, (Mary A. Harriman) paid for the founding of the race-science movement in America, building the Eugenics Record Office at Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. as a branch of the Galton National Laboratory in London. (3) Harry H. Laughlin was the office's superintendent from 1910 to 1921. (108) Alexander Graham Bell, Charles Davenport and William H. Welch (S&B 1870) were founding members. (109) Mary H. Harriman donated 80 acres of land and buildings in 1910 to establish the Eugenics Record Office (ERO) and Eugenics Research Association, [which was founded in 1913] in Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Mrs. Harriman, her daughter Mary Rumsey Harriman, and her son Averell (S&B 1913) invested over $500,000 in the eugenics center over the next several years, making it the international center for race science. (49)  Among other pursuits, the Eugenics Record Office makes recommendations regarding public policies on eugenics and sterilizations. (116)  In 1910, Davenport approached Mrs. E.H. Harriman for funds to establish yet another link in the Cold Spring empire, the Eugenics Record Office. (184:4)  The Eugenics Record Office functions "as a joint project of Mrs. Harriman and the American Breeders Association's eugenic section." (183:47).  In 1910, under the auspices of the American Breeders' Association, he [Davenport] established the Eugenics Record Office (ERO) adjacent to the Carnegie station with a donation from Mrs. E.H. Harriman. (181:3) See 1912

In 1910 the Committee on Eugenics solicited new members with a letter that read, "The time is ripe for a strong public movement to stem the tide of threatened racial degeneracy… America needs to protect herself against indiscriminate immigration, criminal degenerates, and…race suicide."  The letter also warned of the impending "complete destruction of the white race." (140)

In 1910 some visual criteria used by immigration officials in detecting undesirable aliens stand in line to be processed upon arrival in the U.S. include: Active or Maniacal Psychosis: Striking peculiarities in dress; talkativeness; apparent shrewdness; keenness; excitement; smiling; facial expression of mirth; laughing; eroticism; uncommon activity.  Alcoholism or Organic Dementia: untidiness; expressionless face; great amount of calmness; jovial air; self-confident smile; fussiness.  Also, "if an Englishman reacts to questions in the manner of an Irishman, his lack of mental balance would be suspected… If the Italian responded to questions as the Russian Finn responds, the former would in all probability be suffering with a depressive psychosis." (116)

On April 26, 1910 the Insecticide and Fungicide Act was signed, authorizing the U.S. Department of Agriculture to stop the Interstate shipment for sale of any adulterated or misbranded insecticide or fungicide. (94)

In 1910 Carnegie institutes his Wundt model of vokschulen, (school for the masses), in his home town of Gary, Indiana until 1914. The system in Gary was pioneered by William Wirt. (6)

In 1910 a chemist with the Corn Products Refining Company (now Corn Products Company International) discovered a process that would allow the refining of corn oil for cooking, thus giving rise to the product Mazola. (87)

In 1911 John D. Rockefeller helps establish the Bureau of Social Hygiene.  It supports study of prostitution, venereal disease, delinquent females etc. (116)

In 1911 Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888) was appointed as Secretary of War by President William H. Taft (S&B 1878). (1), (26)

In 1911 the Indiana Governor refuses to release funds to any institution that performs sterilizations. (117)

In 1911 the New Jersey legislature authorized statewide special education classes and mandated eugenic sterilization for certain categories of adult feeble-minded. (117)

In 1911 Aaron Rosanoff publishes two articles which conclude that insanity is a degenerative characteristic following simple Mendelian laws of heredity. (117)

In 1911 the International Hygiene Exhibition takes place in Dresden, organized by the International Society for Racial Hygiene.  Eugenicists gather from Germany, Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, Austria, Sweden, Denmark and the United States. (116)

In 1911, Dr. Charles Benedict Davenport argued in Heredity in Relation to Eugenics that modern medicine, with its improved capacity for saving lives, "is responsible for the loss of appreciation of the power of heredity." … He denounced the "present practices" of providing life-saving treatment to the needy as a social policy "dictated by emotion untempered by reason," and wrote that "emotion untempered by reason is social suicide. If we are to build up in America a society worthy of the species of man," he continued, "then we must take such steps as will prevent the increase or even the perpetuation of animalistic strains." … Davenport's proposals for purifying the race were numerous. He even included the death penalty among his recommended eugenic measures. "We are horrified by the 223 capital offenses in England less than a century ago, but though capital punishment is a crude method of grappling with the difficulty it is infinitely superior to that of training the feeble-minded and criminalistic and then letting them loose upon society and permitting them to perpetuate in their offspring these animal traits." … Immigration and fertility were uppermost in Davenport's mind. He warned that "the population of the United States will, on account of the great influx of blood from South-eastern Europe, rapidly become darker in pigmentation, smaller in stature, more mercurial, more attached to music and art, [and] more given to crimes of larceny, kidnapping, assault, murder, rape and sex-immorality" and that "the ratio of insanity in the population will rapidly increase." (101)

In 1911 a two year famine began in Russia. While people starved and died, the country continued exporting a fifth of its annual grain production (which constituted about 25% of world trade). (87)

By 1911, Thorsten Thunberg knew of the importance of sulfur-rich (animal) proteins, and knew that these proteins work in combination with a functional partner in biological systems. (13) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

On March 1, 1911 Week's Law was signed, establishing the principle under which the Secretary of Agriculture could purchase lands for National Forests. (94)

In 1911 the first patent for hydrogenated cottonseed oil was obtained. (43)

In 1911 Canada passed the Opium and Drug Act. The new law broadened the ban against opium by adding morphine, cocaine, and their derivatives to the list of proscribed drugs. Again, cannabis was not mentioned. (106)

In 1911 the Biochemical Society was founded in London, England. (82)

In 1911 the first commercial hydrogenated shortening called Crisco and made by Proctor and Gamble went on sale. (15) Crisco was a combination of hydrogenated palm and cottonseed oil mixed with lard and animal fats. As people were not purchasing Crisco, Proctor & Gamble literally started giving the product away. (43)

In 1911 viruses were shown to be a cause of cancer in chickens by Peyton Rous of the U.S. who succeeded in transmitting a sarcoma by means of a cell-free extract. (1) Rous would be awarded the Nobel Prize in 1966 for this discovery. (6)

In 1911 the Encyclopedia Britannica contains "a guide for acquisition, operation and care of the opium pipe." (6)

In 1911 Casimir Funk isolated crystalline "antineuritis vitamine" (actually B-complex). (105)

In 1911 the Carnegie Corporation of New York foundation is created with gifts of $135,000,000 and by 1959 it is considered to be the fifth largest U.S. foundation ever created. It is a grant-making organization promoting "the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding among the people of the United States and of the British dominions and colonies." It has made large gifts to the other Carnegie trust and to many colleges, universities and research organizations for educational and research programs. (1) It is incorporated by Andrew Carnegie and Elihu Root. (130)  The directors for the Carnegie Corporation in the future would include Mark Kaplan, president of Drexel Burnham & Lambert (Belgian Rothschilds). (6)

In 1911 James Duke reorganized American Tobacco and asked Percival Hill to be President and his son, George Washington Hill to be Vice President. (48)

In 1911 the U.S. House Ways and Means Committee was hearing proposals for federal antinarcotics legislation. Members of the committee were presented with arguments regarding whether cannabis should be outlawed domestically. Heading the anti-cannabis forces was Charles B. Fauns, a well-known director of a drug and alcohol hospital in New York City. Fauns berated those who minimized the dangers of cannabis. "To my mind it is inexcusable," he told the congressional hearing, "for a man to say that there is no habit from the use of that drug. There is no drug in the pharmacopoeia today, and of all the drugs on earth I would certainly put that on the list…" Dr. William J. Schieffelin concurred with Fauns, although he felt that Fauns had overstated the case. Although very little cannabis was being used in the United States, he had heard that New York City's Syrian colony were smoking it and therefore perhaps it should be outlawed." Charles A. West, chairman of the National Wholesale Druggists' Association, and Albert Platt, representing New York pharmaceutical firm Lehn and Fink, spoke against the proposal. Cannabis was not included in the subsequent debate over national restrictions on narcotic drugs. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1911 Denmark sugar consumption is 82 pounds per person annually. The death rate for diabetes in Denmark is 8 per 100,000. (6)

In 1911 Elmer Bobst joined the drug firm of Hoffman LaRoche, where his talents as a salesman got him the presidency of the firm. … Bobst's great achievement at Hoffman LaRoche was his advertising campaign for vitamins. It was so successful that he won the nickname of "the Vitamin King." (48) [See Bobst]

In 1911 Davenport's Eugenics Record Office begins publishing its newsletter, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. (184:4)

In 1911 in Palmer, Massachusetts, the research committees of the American Breeder's Association's eugenic section adopted a resolution creating a special new committee, the Eugenics Record Office's Committee to Study and Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population.  Laughlin was appointed the special committee's secretary.  The advisory panel included surgeon Alexis Carrel, M.D., of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research; O.P. Austin, chief of the Bureau of Statistics in Washington, D.C.; physiologist W.B. Cannon and immigration expert Robert DeCourcy Ward, both from Harvard; psychiatrist Stewart Paton from Princeton; public affairs professor Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) from Yale; political economist James Field from the University of Chicago; renowned attorney Louis Marshall. (183:57) 

In 1911, the Race Betterment Foundation was founded in Battle Creek, Michigan with money from the Kellogg cereal fortune.  (242), (76)  The Foundation sponsored three national conferences on race betterment ( 1914, 1915, and 1928). (242)  Officers included Charles Davenport, Yale Professor Irving Fisher (S&B 1888), Progressive Senator from Oklahoma Robert Dale Owen, settlement worker and writer Jacob A. Riis and Charles Eliot, president emeritus of Harvard. (203)  Gifford Pinchot (S&B 1889) was a charter member of the foundation from the start. (243)  [See note 87]

In 1911 the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention—the first international treaty to address conservation issues—was passed as a result of Henry W. Elliott's fight to save the fur seals of the Pribilof Islands from the threat of pelagic sealing. The treaty is signed by the U.S., Great Britain (on the part of Canada), Japan and Russia. (398)

From 1912 to 1922 methods for testing the presence of amino acids were developed by Folin. (82)

In 1912 Frederick T. Gates of the Rockefeller Foundation joins Abraham Flexner of the Carnegie Institution for lunch and asks "What would you do if you had one million dollars with which to make a start in reorganizing medical education in the United States?" In response, Flexner said that the money "could most profitably be spent in developing the Johns Hopkins Medical School" where William H. Welch was dean of the institution. … William H. Welch (S&B 1870) had been brought to Johns Hopkins University by Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852). (26)

In 1912 the Biological Board of Canada was established. (66)

In 1912 the Marine Biological Association of San Diego deeds its property in consideration of a sum of $10 to the Regents of the University of California.  The Marine Biological Association ceases to exist and the Scripps Institution for Biological Research of the University of California is established. (120)

In 1912 Paul Sabatier received a Nobel prize in chemistry for the development of a method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely powdered metals. (1), (143)

In 1912 Salmon, a member of the National Committee on Mental Hygiene, works to get Congress to enact legislation requiring mental exams for immigrants. (116) [see 1917]

In 1912 the American Medico-Psychological Association appoints a Committee on Applied Eugenics. (116)

In 1912 Ballod calculated that a U.S. standard of life would support 2.333 billion people on Earth, a German standard would allow 5.6 billion, and a Japanese standard could underwrite 22.4 billion people. (87)

In 1912 the American-Philippine Company, a corporation, was formed to facilitate U.S. investments in the Philippines.  After Wilson was elected in 1912 the American-Philippine Company mounted a vigorous campaign to portray the Filipinos as a primitive people that still needed U.S. control and tutelage.  It employed Dean C. Worcester, former Secretary of the Interior for the Philippines (1901 - 1913), to campaign in its behalf.  Worcester made a national speaking tour that ostensibly had an educational focus but which was promoted by the American-Philippine Company and was clearly directed towards establishing the need for continued U.S. occupation of the Philippines. (146)  Officers of the company are Edward H. Fallows, counsel for the American Brake Shoe Company, president; David Fox, Vice-President; Richard E. Forrest, chairman of the finance committee; and Charles S. Fallows, secretary and treasurer.  The directors are George C. Ames, S.C. Edmunds, Charles S. Fallows, Edward H. Fallows, Richard E. Forrest, David Fox, Scott R. Hayes, N.C. Kingsbury, H.C. Knox, also connected with the American Brake Shoe Company;  Willis B. Richards, T.S. Spivey, Alexander Turner, Leo H. Wise, New York; H.W. Davis, Wilmington, Del.; E.E. Garrett, F.C. Kingsbury, Los Angeles, Cal.; and Rudolph Ortmann, Chicago. (147)

In 1912 Casimir Funk coined the term "vitamine". (82)

In 1912 Elihu Root won the Nobel Peace Prize. (1)

In 1912 mitochondria was first suggested as the site of cellular oxidation. (82)

On January 13, 1912 Dr. Rupert Blue was appointed Surgeon General of the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, (later the U.S. Public Health Service). (80)

On August 14, 1912 the name Public Health and Marine Hospital Service was changed to Public Health Service, (PHS) and the research program was expanded to include other-than-communicable diseases field investigations, navigable stream pollution, and information dissemination. (80)

In 1912, writing to Charles Davenport, Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) of Yale remarked: "Eugenics can never amount to anything practically until it has begun, as Galton wanted it, to be a popular movement with a certain amount of religious fervor in it and as … there is already a sentiment in favor of restricting immigration … this is a golden opportunity to get people in general to talk eugenics." (75)

In 1912 Frederick Gowland Hopkins of England published full results of his vitamin experiments that took place in 1906. (1) [See 1906]

In 1912 the First International Congress of Eugenics is held at the University of London. The president of the Congress is Major Leonard Darwin, son of Charles Darwin; one of the first English vice presidents is First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, later Prime Minister. American vice-presidents included Charles William Eliot, president emeritus of Harvard, and Alexander Graham Bell. (6), (78), (116) At the inaugural dinner, chaired by Charles Darwin's son Leonard, the keynote address was given by [the British prime minister] Arthur Balfour. Also present was Dr. Alfred Ploetz, President of the German Society for Race Hygiene. One vice-president of the Congress was Gifford Pinchot (S&B 1889) the recent founder of the United States Forestry Service. Another was David Starr Jordan, first president of Stanford University and the President of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeders' Association. Jordan was also a founder of the Sierra Club and it's publication editor. A third vice-president of the Congress was Charles B. Davenport, director of the Eugenics Records Office in New York, financed by the Harriman family. (49) German vice-presidents included M. von Gruber, professor of hygiene at Munich and Dr. Alfred Ploetz, president of the International Society for Race Hygiene. (78), (116) The American Consultative Committee was appointed during the 1912 eugenics congress. It was responsible for organizing the Second International Congress which was scheduled for 1915 but not held till 1921 due to the war. The committee members were C.B. Davenport, Alexander Graham Bell, William Castle, C.R. Henderson, A. Meyer, F.A. Woods, Ales Hrdlicka and Vernon Lyman Kellogg. This committee lasted until 1921. (23)
Davenport was the guiding spirit of the congress. He helped persuade Bell, whose world-wide fame would help lend prestige to the conference, to be the honorary president and H.F. Osborn to be the president. (173:5:2)  July of 1912 was selected because it coincided with a visit to London by Stanford University's [David Starr] Jordan and other eugenic leaders. (183:70)  [See (Eugenics Meetings Next)]

In 1912 Dr. Robert Boesler, a New Jersey dentist, notes that "modern manufacturing of sugar has brought about entirely new diseases. Sugar has caused a vast degeneration of the people." (6) [See note 33]

In 1912 Otto Heinrich Warburg postulated a respiratory enzyme for the activation of oxygen, discovered its inhibition by cyanide, and showed the requirement of iron in respiration. (105)

In 1912 the Hague Opium Conference is held at which it is required that each adhering power control its production, importation, and exportation of raw opium and coca leaves; to regulate its own domestic manufacture, distribution, and use; and to confine the latter to legitimate medical purposes. (1) With the support of William H. Taft (S&B 1878) the former Philippine governor who was now the U.S. president, Bishop Brent again chaired the conference and maintained its moral momentum against the colonial interest. Moving beyond the mere recommendations of the Shanghai Commission, these sessions drafted the Hague Opium Convention, which required each signatory nation to pass its own domestic drug legislation. (44) 46 nations discussed opium, morphine, cocaine, heroin and cannabis. The Hague Convention for the Suppression of Opium and Other Drugs was drawn up requiring parties to confine to medical and legitimate purposes the manufacture, sale and use of each of these drugs, excluding cannabis. (89) Hamilton Wright's team [at the Hague in 1911 according to (106)] included California pharmacist Henry J. Finger. During the conference, Finger unexpectedly rose from his seat to plead that cannabis be put on the list with opium and other narcotic drugs to be censured on a worldwide basis. The reason for such an unprecedented move, he said, was San Francisco's concern over the "large influx of Hindoos," who were introducing "whites into their habit." Italy also favored restrictions on cannabis. They had just won jurisdiction over the African colonies of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, where they saw a problem with cannabis. The other delegates, however did not view San Francisco's plight or Italy's consternation seriously, and no recommendations regarding cannabis were adopted. (106) [See note 13, (Philippines, 1909), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1912 Psychologist Henry Goddard published The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeblemindedness. In this same year Goddard also administered IQ tests to immigrants to Ellis Island, finding that 83 percent of the Jews and 80 percent of the Hungarians, 79 percent of the Italians and 87 percent of the Russians who wanted to enter the United States were "feeble-minded". (78)  The deliberate and even fraudulent misrepresentations of the people in the family studies have been established.  Stephen Jay Gould, for example, has shown that H.H. Goddard, author of The Kallikak Family, retouched the photographs to make the Kallikaks appear mentally retarded. (140)  

In 1912 Dr. Charles Benedict Davenport and Florence H. Danielson publish The Hill Folk. (117)

In 1912, shortly before the Eugenics Record Office installed its board of scientific directors, the New York State legislature had created the Rockefeller Foundation, which boasted fabulous assets.  John D. Rockefeller donated $35 million the first year, and $65 million more the next year. (183:93)


In 1912 the Eugenics Record Office had inaugurated a Board of Scientific Directors.  The board was initially comprised of Davenport, plus eminent Harvard neuropathologist E.E. Southard, Alexander Graham Bell and renowned Johns Hopkins University pathologist William Welch (S&B 1870).  Welch enjoyed impeccable qualifications; he had served as both the first scientific director of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research and as a trustee of the Carnegie Institution.  Moreover, before and during his term on the ERO's scientific board, Welch was also elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, the American Medical Association and the National Academy of Science.  Understandably, Laughlin and Davenport felt it only fitting that he should serve as chairman of the ERO's Board of Scientific Directors. (183:89)  Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) is a scientific director. (183:89), (225)  The board of scientific directors is chaired by William H. Welch (S&B 1870), who doubles as scientific director for John D. Rockefeller Jr. (183:93)  Welch served on the original committee of Scientific advisors to the Eugenics Record Office from 1912 to 1918. (109)  Another member was William H. Welch associate, L.F. Barker.  Charles B. Davenport served as secretary and H.H. Laughlin served as superintendent. (225)  See 1910 

In 1912 the New York State School of Agriculture is established on Long Island through the efforts of Hal B. Fullerton and Franklin W. Hooper.  Hooper is the Director of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences which in 1890 helped to found Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. (331), (335)  Those calling for establishment of an agricultural school included Congressman Frederick H. Cox from Queens County, who would later serve as a trustee for the school; Hal B. Fullerton, who was a special agent for the Long Island Railroad (LIRR) and served as Director of its Agricultural department; Franklin W. Hooper, Director of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences; John M. Lupton, state assemblyman from Mattituck; George L. Thompson, state assemblyman and later Senator from Smithtown and Kings Park; Dennis J. Harte, state assemblyman from New York City; Dr. James S. Cooley, superintendent of schools in Nassau County; Charles H. Howell of Riverhead, district superintendent of schools; Elwood V. Titus, pioneer in the cooperative movement among farmers and sponsor of the Nassau County Farm Bureau; Ezra Tuttle, a leading Long Island lawyer and expert in agriculture… (335)  [See Hooper, 1890]

From 1913 to 1921 Francis Burton Harrison is Governor General, (Civil Governor) of the Philippine Islands. (125), (149)

In 1913 Dr. Morris Fishbein becomes the American Medical Association Journal's editor. (48)

In 1913 the American College of Surgeons was formed. (1)

In 1913 the policy of segregation was carried out at the highest level: when Woodrow Wilson became president the first action he took upon arriving in Washington D.C. was to order the segregation of all federal facilities in the American capital. (160)

In 1913 Edith Spaulding and William Healy publish a study which concludes that there is no proof of the existence of hereditary criminalistic traits. (117)

In 1913 the Wisconsin Legislature authorizes sterilization to stop the breeding of mental defectives. (117)

In 1913 the Eugenics Research Association was founded to bring together those interested in the latest eugenical investigations. (76) The association was founded by Charles B. Davenport. (186:1) Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) is "a leader" of the Eugenics Research Association. (183:134) Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) heads the Eugenics Research Association. (183:224) The Eugenics Research Association was established by the field workers of the Eugenics Record Office; Davenport was its first president and Henry H. Laughlin its secretary. Annual meetings of the ERA were held at Cold Spring Harbor and the organization became the national center for individuals working in the eugenics field. (203) [See note 78, 1910]

In 1913 Geza von Hoffmann, former Austrian vice-consulate in California, writes a book Racial Hygiene in the United States of North America.  He says that Galton's hope of eugenics becoming "the religion of the future" was coming true in America.  He quotes President Woodrow Wilson as saying during a speech that "the whole nation has awakened to and recognizes the extraordinary importance of the science of human heredity, as well as its application to the ennoblement of the human family." (116)

In 1913 the Webb-Kenyon Act was passed. At the time, multiple states had enacted alcohol prohibition laws which were limited by the fact that liquor could be bought and transported from a "wet" state. The Webb-Kenyon Act was enacted to remove that loophole. (91)

In 1913 concern over rising levels of Asian immigration caused the government of the state of California to pass the Webb Act, by which Japanese as a race were denied the right to acquire land or long leaseholds in that state.  Japan protested that this act violated rights given it by treaty with the national government, but the federal government disclaimed the power to interfere with state laws such as the act in question. (160)

In May of 1913 a group of doctors and laymen met at the Harvard Club in New York City to establish a national cancer organization. Not unnaturally, it was named the American Society for the Control of Cancer, also known as the American Cancer Society. (48), (352)

In 1913 President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act, which was set up to provide funding for the forthcoming World War; a national progressive income tax, taken directly from Marx's Communist Manifesto of 1848, was imposed upon the American people; and legislatures had their constitutional duty of appointing Senators removed, they being henceforth elected by popular Senators; they all now had to compete for the popular vote. (48)

In 1913 John D. Rockefeller founds the Rockefeller Foundation "to promote the well-being of mankind throughout the world." Directly and indirectly it received nearly $242,000,000 from the founder. It assumed the work of the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission established in 1909 and also creates the International Health Board. The two organizations co-operated in the south to combat hookworm, yellow fever, malaria, pellagra, smallpox, tuberculosis, etc., and to strengthen county and state public health departments. They extended this program to many other countries and the Rockefeller Foundation spent $94,000,000 on public health abroad in its first 40 years. It co-operated with the General Education Board to improve American medical schools and made grants to several American and foreign universities to create schools of public health. Directly and through the China Medical Board of New York which it created, it provided nearly $45,000,000 to develop the Peking Union Medical College. By 1959 the Rockefeller Foundation was considered the second largest foundation ever created in the U.S. (1)  The Rockefeller Foundation charter is pushed through congress by Senator Robert F. Wagner of New York, as a way to evade government decrees against the Standard Oil monopoly. (6), (130) [See note 125]

In 1913 the Royal Society of Medicine is organized as a historical medical society. (1)

In 1913 the Philippine Society was formed.  Though non-commercial in nature, it was closely associated with the American-Philippine Company which was formed in 1912. (146)

In 1913 the existence of vitamin A was first clearly recognized by E. V. McCollum and M. Davis and by T. B. Osborne and L.B. Mendel. (1) At the time it is known only as a "fat soluble accessory food factor". (82)

In 1913 Thomas Burr Osborne and Lafayette Benedict Mendel showed that rats developed xerophthalmia on diets in which lard supplied the fat; the condition was cured by substitution of butterfat. (105) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1913 the Medical Research Committee of Great Britain was established. (82)

In 1913 Victor Ernest Shelford formulated the law of ecologic tolerance. (105)

On March 4, 1913, through an Act, the Department of Commerce and Labor is split into two separate departments and the Bureau of Fisheries remained in the Department of Commerce. (63), (20) [See note 77]

In 1913 the American Social Hygiene Association is organized. (352)

On June 20, 1913, Henry Elliott is ordered by the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Commerce to travel to the Pribilof islands to ascertain the condition of the fur seal herd. (420)

From 1914 to 1931, 29 states, most west of the Mississippi, prohibit cannabis for non-medical use. (86) [See note 101, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

By 1914 eugenics was taught in the U.S. at Harvard, Columbia, Cornell, Brown, Wisconsin, Northwestern, Clark and other universities. (78), (6)

By 1914, 27 state and city laws prohibit smoking opium. (86)

In 1914 Clarence Gamble graduates from Princeton University. (24)

In 1914 the Eugenics Record Office's Committee to Study and Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population released its final report. It called for the forced sterilization of "defectives" including paupers, the blind, the deaf, criminals, the feebleminded, epileptics, the weak and people with tuberculosis and "hereditary laziness." The report was mass-distributed to American legislators, clergymen, editors and professors. (49) [See 1922]

In 1914 the First National Conference on Race Betterment was held in Battle Creek, Michigan. A "segregation and sterilization program" was proposed to reduce the number of "defective and anti-social" people in the population from 10% to 5.7% by 1955 by sterilizing 5.7 million Americans. (6) The event was hosted by John Harvey Kellogg. (62) Many psychiatrists gather to discuss the fact that the future of the race depends on addressing the mentally ill. (116)  The conference is organized by the Race Betterment Foundation created in 1911.  [See Eugenics Meetings Previous, Next]

In 1914 the German Reichstag considers a eugenic sterilization law. (6)

In 1914 the U.S. government excludes Indians from immigration. (96)

In 1914 Kool-Aid drink mix first becomes available for sale, only through mail order. (96)

On May 8, 1914 the Smith-Lever Act was signed, providing for cooperative administration of extension work by U.S. Department of Agriculture and the state agricultural colleges. The major goal was to assist individual farmers in increasing productivity. This work resulted in the establishment of the Cooperative Extension Service. (94)

In 1914 most of the shortening producers removed any remaining animal fats from the oils they were producing and began using vegetable oils exclusively. (43) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1914 Harry H. Laughlin issued a report to the American Breeders Association in which he stated, "Society must look upon germ plasm as belonging to society and not solely to the individual who carries it." The most startling part of his report was the finding that 10 percent of the population of the United States were "socially inadequate biological varieties" who should be segregated from the federal population and sterilized. (75)

In 1914 the Harrison Drug Control Act is passed. (6) It imposed a stamp tax of one cent per ounce on opium and coca products and required all who handled them—importer, manufacturer, wholesaler, pharmacist, and prescribing physician—to register, to keep records, and to make use of special order and purchase forms. But the act also contained an ambiguous limitation: the physician was exempted from its order-form requirements only in prescribing drugs "to a patient" and "in the course of his professional practice only." Enforcement fell to the Department of the Treasury. From the outset, though the Harrison Act called merely for collection of the tax, registration was refused to sellers outside the medical profession, and even doctors and pharmacists who ministered to addicts were arrested and prosecuted. (1) Congress passed the act with strong support from religious movements. (44) For a time cannabis was included in the early drafts of the Harrison Drug Control Act; however, due to the vocal opposition of the pharmaceutical and medical professions, it was later dropped. (45) The U.S. did however manage to prohibit the importation of cannabis for non-medical purposes. (86) The Harrison Act seemed merely to be a law which raised revenue by the orderly marketing of narcotics on the part of doctors, pharmacists, manufacturers and importers. However, as interpreted by the courts, the Act became a tool which prevented physicians from maintaining opiate addicts as part of their treatment. (45)  After the Harrison Narcotics Act was passed, the demographics changed such that the predominant users were young males of lower socioeconomic class.  This group of users did not obtain the drugs from a physician but rather a black market, which sprang up in part because physicians refused to challenge the idea that addiction was a crime rather than a disease. (122)  The Harrison Drug Control Act treats cocaine as more dangerous than opium, classifying it incorrectly as a narcotic. (86)  The criminal justice system of the United States interpreted the Harrison Act to mean that since "addiction is not a disease, the addict who seeks a maintenance dose is therefore not a patient and maintenance doses are therefore not supplied in the course of…professional practice." (122) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1914 El Paso, Texas passed a city ordinance banning the sale and possession of marijuana. (45), (106) "The pretext for the law was said to have been a fight started by a Mexican who was allegedly under the influence of the drug…". (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1914 Dr. Joseph Goldberger was assigned to study pellagra by the U.S. Public Health Service. (82) He announced his views of pellagra as a dietary deficiency, emphasizing the importance of dietary deficiency diseases. (80) He demonstrated that pellagra, widely held to be a hereditary condition, was actually caused by a diet lacking in meat or milk. The exact cause was later determined to be niacin deficiency. (105) [See also 1915]

In 1914 the Committee on Provision for the Feeble-Minded is founded, (funded by Mary Harriman).  Its purpose is to disseminate knowledge concerning the extension and menace of feeblemindedness, and initiate methods for its control and ultimate eradication from the American people.
(117)

In 1914 the American Breeders Association became the American Genetic Association.

In 1914, Harold Ley and Irving Fisher, (S&B 1888) founded the Life Extension Institute.  It "promoted health practices through annual health exams and related literature on healthy living and lifestyles distributed through insurance companies such as Metropolitan Life." (349), (350), (351)  "Conservation of human life by the systematic application of modern science is the object of the Life Extension Institute, which was incorporated at Albany yesterday.  At a meeting of its Directors held yesterday afternoon in the board room of the Guaranty Trust Company ex-President William H. Taft [(S&B 1878)] was elected Chairman of the board and E. E. Rittenhouse, Conservation Commissioner of the Equitable Life Assurance Society, President of the institute.  He will serve his connection with the Equitable and give all his time to his new work.  … Headquarters of the new organization, which will be national in its scope, will be opened within a few days in the office building at 25 West Forty-fifth Street.  … On its Board of Directors are a number of men with large means at their command, and the new health promoting agency is heavily backed with capital.  … it was intimated in well-informed quarters that $1,000,000 would be at the disposal of the founders…" (351)  Its Hygiene Reference Boardchaired by Irving Fisher, (S&B 1888) of Yale University—includes Col. William Crawford Gorgas "whose fight against yellow fever in Havana and in the Canal Zone has tended to reduce the death rate there to a small fraction of what it was…" (351)  Other Reference Board members include: "Dr. Lee K. Frankel, head of the extensive social service of the Metropolitan; Dr. Burnside Foster, who was the first to advocate free medical examinations for policy holders; Walter H. Page, United States Ambassador to England, who has been especially active in the movement to exterminate the hook-worm disease; Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone and a deep student of eugenics; Dr. C. B. Davenport of the Eugenics Record Office; Dr. George H. Simmons, Secretary of the American Medical Association; Dr. William J. Mayo, the celebrated surgeon; Dr. William H. Welch [(S&B 1870)] of Johns Hopkins University; Prof. Russell H. Chittenden, Director of the Yale Sheffield Scientific School; President David Starr Jordan of the Carnegie Peace Foundation; Miss Mabel Boardman of the Red Cross; Dr. Wickliffe Rose of the Rockefeller Hook-Worm Commission; Dr. Harvey W. Wiley of pure food fame; Dr. William H. Tolman of the American Museum of Safety, and some seventy others, mostly technical experts in scientific hygiene." (351)  The Board of Directors included: William H. Taft [(S&B 1878)], Chairman; Harold A Ley of Springfield, originator of the plan; Prof. Irving Fisher, (S&B 1888) of Yale; E. E. Rittenhouse; Robert W. De Forest; Frrank A. Vanderlip; Dr. E. R. L. Gould; Charles H. Sabin; Francis R. Cooley and Henry A. Bowman. (351) 

On April 4, 1914 the final report (of two reports one and two) of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Commerce and Labor is printed which charges—as a result of allegations made by painter/naturalist Henry Elliott—that agents of the U.S. government had conspired with the lessees of the Pribilof islands to take seals in violation of the law as well as in violation of the provisions of their contract and that said lessee company had secured the lease from the government by fraud and perjury. Of particular concern, was that there had been a drastic reduction in the seal herd populations since the U.S. had taken responsibility for managing the fur seals from the Russians... Among those who were implicated by these allegations was George M. Bowers, Commissioner of the Bureau of Fisheries and David Starr Jordan, Chairman of the Fur Seal Board. Two extended hearings on these and related matters were held before this committee—one beginning May 31, 1911 and the second beginning October 13, 1913. (417), (379) From about 1910 to 1915, numerous articles were published in the New York Times regarding the destruction of the fur seals of the Pribilof islands. (403), (404), (405), (406), (407), (408), (409), (410), (411), (412), (413), (414), (415), (416) [For an example in which the Bureau of Fisheries was even more clearly found to be acting contrary to its mandate to preserve marine resources, see 1892; See note 184]

From 1915 until 1933, marijuana use was perceived to be a local problem. (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On November 20, 1915 George Walter McCoy is appointed director of the Hygienic Laboratory, (renamed the National Institute of Health in 1930) where he served until May 25, 1930. (81)

In 1915 the Harriman's Eugenics Records Office wrote an implementation report calling for 15 million Americans to be sterilized—to produce "the perfect man" by 1980. (49)

In 1915 the American International Corporation was formed in New York.  Its principle goal was the coordination of aid, particularly financial assistance, to the Bolsheviks which had previously been provided by Schiff and other bankers on an informal basis.  The new firm was funded by J.P. Morgan, the Rockefellers, and the National City Bank.  Chariman of the Board was Frank Vanderlip, former president of National City…Directors were Pierre DuPont, Otto Kahn of Kuhn, Loeb Co., George Herbert Walker, grandfather of President George H. W. Bush (S&B 1948), William Woodward, director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; Robert S. Lovett, righthand man of the Harriman-Kuhn, Loeb Union Pacific Railroad; Percy Rockefeller, John D. Ryan, J.A. Stillman, son of James Stillman, principle organizer of the National City Bank; A.H. Wiggin, and Beekman Winthrop.  The 1928 list of AIC directors included Percy Rockefeller, Pierre DuPont, Elisha Walker of Kuhn, Loeb Co., and Frank Altschul of Lazard Freres.  In their program of aiding the Communists, AIC worked closely with Guaranty Trust of New York (now Morgan Guaranty Trust).  Guaranty Trust's directors in 1903 included George F. Baker, founder of the First National Bank; August Belmont, representative of the Rothschilds; E.H. Harriman, founder of Union Pacific Railroad; former vice president of the U.S., Levi Morton, who was a director of U.S. Steel and the Union Pacific;  Henry H. Rogers, partner of John D. Rockefeller in Standard Oil, also a director of Union Pacific; H. McK. Twombly, who married the daughter of William Vanderbilt, and was now he director of fifty banks and industries; Frederick W. Vanderbilt, and Harry Payne Whitney. (130)

In 1915 The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity, an epochal book, was published by Thomas Hunt Morgan, Alfred Henry Sturtevant, Calvin Blackman Bridges, and Hermann Joseph Muller. (105)

In 1915 the Naval Appropriation Act established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, (NACA), the forerunner of today's NASA, to study problems of flight and to conduct research in aeronautics.  In the early years of this century aeronautical developments were seen to be pursued more vigorously in Europe than in the United States, that historically claims to have performed the first manned flight of a heavier-than-aire machine in 1903. This did not go unnoticed by proponents in America and among others Alexander Graham Bell fought for a government body to conduct research in aeronautical science and engineering, much like Britain had with its Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The lack of American eminence in aviation during these early years can be judged from the sparse number of military aeroplanes in existence: 23, compared with more than 3,500 in Britain, Europe and Russia, at one counting in 1914. Attempts were made to rally support in the form of a rider to the Naval Appropriation Act of 1915, with Charles D. Walcott of the Smithsonian and others pressing for a national body. (161)  [See note 148]

In 1915 the California state legislature was the first to prohibit possession of cannabis unless prescribed by a physician. (106), (28), (45), (124) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1915 the Utah state legislature prohibited possession of cannabis unless prescribed by a physician. (106), (28), (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1915 the Wyoming state legislature prohibited possession of cannabis unless prescribed by a physician. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1915 D.W. Griffith debuted his film masterpiece, Birth of a Nation, based upon The Clansman, and, to some degree, on Dixon's 1902 novel, The Leopard's Spots. This movie was hailed as a technical triumph even by its harshest critics. Nevertheless, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, along with other black and some Jewish organizations, picketed the movie and threatened violence in the cities where it opened. During its opening in Atlanta, William J. Simmons announced the founding of the second Ku Klux Klan, in nearby Stone Mountain, Georgia. This Klan organization went on to sweep the country, becoming especially strong in the Midwest. (38)

On September 25, 1915 a memo was sent out by the Treasury Department to "collectors and other officers of the customs" recommending that appropriate instructions be issued to customs officers pursuant to the provisions of Section 11 of the Food and Drugs Act approved June 30, 1906, to refuse admission of Cannabis Sativa Linne unless it is to be used for medicinal purposes. (134)

In 1915 the Second National Conference on Race Betterment was held in San Francisco, California. Dr. Charles Benedict Davenport delivered a lecture in which he elevated eugenics to the status of a religion. Said Davenport, eugenics must become "a religion that may determine your behavior." Announcing that "every religion, it appears, should have a creed," Davenport proceeded to dictate to the audience just precisely what this "creed for the religion of eugenics" should be. (101)  The conference is organized by the Race Betterment Foundation created in 1911.  [See Note 114, (Eugenics Meetings Previous, Next)]

In 1915 the American College of Physicians was founded. (1)

In 1915 the American Medical Women's Association was founded. (1)

In 1915 two Japanese scientists, K. Yamagiwa and K. Ichikawa, demonstrated chemical carcinogenesis experimentally by inducing tumours on the ears of rabbits with coal tar. (1)

In 1915 a doctor (Joseph Goldberger) in Mississippi alters the diet of 12 prison inmates and is successful at producing pellagra, [a vitamin B deficiency disease] in a curious attempt at reverse contradictory logic in an "attempt to find a cure for the disease". (6) [See niacin, (Prisons Next)]

In 1915 the discovery of a water soluble factor required for growth is made. (82) [See note 99]

In 1915 nutrition education programs were begun by the National Dairy Council, (first such programs by industry). (82)

In 1915 Congress approves the appointment of a full-time fish pathologist to the Bureau of Fisheries staff. (20)

In 1915 the Bureau of Narcotics budget was $292,000. (106)

In 1915 the name "League of Nations" is in general use among the small groups which were discussing the future organization of peace. Their ideas, encouraged by a few statesmen such as former Pres. William H. Taft (S&B 1878) in the United States and Sir Edward Grey and Lord Robert Cecil in Great Britain, gradually became known and supported. In the United States the League to Enforce Peace and in Britain the League of Nations societies acted as centres of discussion. (1)

In 1915 Dr. William E. Koch, professor of physiology at Detroit Medical College and the University of Michigan, began his oxidation studies and presaged free radical pathology treatment with the development of Glyoxylide, which stimulated the body to oxidize toxins. Although his treatment was never scientifically refuted, Koch was persecuted for sixteen years by the Medical Monopoly. (48) [See Koch]

In May 1915 the Lusitania is sunk. (1)  Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt (S&B 1899) who represented the Vanderbilt family, was aboard the ship when it sank.  Oddly, a telegram warning Vanderbilt not to sail was delivered to the Lusitania before it sailed but it never reached Vanderbilt.  Consequently, Vanderbilt went down with the ship. (26)

On November 20, 1915 Dr. George W. McCoy was appointed Hygienic Laboratory director. (80)

In 1916, the American Radium Society is organized. (352)

From 1916 to 1935 The Hearst newspapers initiate and build a campaign to outlaw "marijuana." Reporting is slanted to generate reader bias. (For example, the reader was never told that "hemp" and "marijuana" are exactly the same plant. Nor was the reader told that the active ingredients of the tonic they gave their baby to ease colic came from the marijuana / hemp plant, nor that the smoke they inhaled in their ever popular hashish parlors was a derivative of marijuana. Furthermore, news stories were manipulated to aggrandize and exaggerate the supposed "horrors" of recreational marijuana use. The story of an auto accident where one marijuana cigarette was found would dominate front page headlines for weeks while alcohol related accidents—which outnumbered marijuana 1000 to 1—were briefly mentioned and buried in the back pages. Also, the rape of white women by "Negros," previously attributed by Hearst publications to cocaine use was, by these same publications, suddenly attributed to the use of marijuana). (28) The New York Times also reports these horror stories. (45) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1916 Madison Grant published The Passing of the Great Race or the Racial Basis of European History, in New York. He intended it as a call to American whites to counter the dangers from both blacks and non-traditional immigration. The book became an immediate best-seller, with new editions in 1918, 1920 and 1921. It underwent multiple printings and translations into German, French and Norwegian. (38) In the book Grant states "Mistaken regard for what are believed to be divine laws and a sentimental belief in the sanctity of human life tend to prevent both the elimination of defective infants and the sterilization of such adults as are themselves of no value to a community. The laws of nature require the obliteration of the unfit and human life is valuable only when of use to the community or race." (78)  Hitler later writes Grant a letter thanking him for writing this book, saying the book was his Bible. (116)  His book called for a halt of nonwhite immigration into the United States.  The book was an international best seller, being favorably reviewed by Science, the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and numerous other equally influential publications. (160)

In October 1916 Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the United States. (159)

In 1916 Lewis M. Terman, Professor of Psychology at Stanford University published the Stanford Binot IQ test in the United States. Chorover credited Terman with "injecting race into the IQ debate." Terman claimed that mental deficiency is very common in Spanish-Indian and Mexican families… and also among Negroes. He also warned that "if we would preserve our state for a class of people worthy to possess it, we must prevent, as far as possible, the propagation of mental degenerates." (78)  He published the first Americanized version of the IQ test.  Regarding feeble-mindedness, he states, "… all feeble-minded are at least potential criminals.  That every feeble-minded woman is a potential prostitute would hardly be disputed by anyone."  He claims mental deficiency is common among "Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among Negroes.  Their dullness seems to be racial or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they come …"  He goes on to recommend that "children of this group should be segregated in special classes …  They cannot master abstractions, but they can often be made efficient workers…There is no possibility at present of convincing society that they should not be allowed to reproduce, although from a eugenic point of view they constitute a grave problem because of their unusually prolific breeding." (116)

In 1916 the American Medico-Psychological Association, (later to become the APA) calls for "close cooperative relations…with boards of health, organized charity, and societies for protection of child life." (116)

In 1916 Aaron Rosanoff conducts a study of "mental disorders" in Nassau County, New York.  They include "sociological" categories, such as truancy, sexual immorality, vagrancy, criminal tendency, dependency, drug addiction and domestic maladjustment.  Finding that huge numbers of the public at large are in need of psychiatric services, he calls for programs of "mental hygiene", to "make available for the community unrestricted psychiatric consultation and advice". (116) [See note 129]

In 1916 during presidential election, both parties advocated U.S. membership in a future "League of Nations". (1)

In 1916, military authorities in the Panama Canal Zone "began to suspect that army personnel were also smoking marihuana." (106) [See (Panama 1923), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1916 Hemp pulp technology for papermaking was invented by U.S. Department of Agriculture chief scientists, botanist Lyster Dewey and chemist Jason Merrill. (2)

In 1916 the U.S. Department of Agriculture publishes Bulletin No. 404, Hemp Hurds As Paper-Making Material, extolling and demonstrating the outstanding qualities of paper manufactured from hemp-pulp, a new process. The document was printed on hemp-pulp paper and explained the new technology. Previously most all paper was made with the hemp fiber content of "rag" (worn-out clothing). (28), (2)

In 1916 the Medical Women's Federation in London was founded as a descendent organization of the Association of Medical Women. (1)

In 1916 the National Park Service is founded as a division of the U.S. Department of the Interior. Stephen T. Mather is its first director. (95)

In 1916 "Fat-soluble A" and "water-soluble B" were the names given to the accessory factors discovered by McCollum and Davis, and Osborn and Mendel. (82)

In 1916 Henry Edward Crampton described geographical races of the snail Partula in Tahiti. (105) [See 1905]

In 1916, in U.S. vs. Jim Fuey Moy, the courts held that federal authorities had no right to arrest physicians for prescribing narcotics to known addicts. (106)

In 1916 W.G. Bateman contributes evidence leading to the discovery of the vitamin known as biotin. (1)

In 1916 Montagu Norman leaves "the family firm" and serves as assistant to the deputy governor of the Bank of England. (1) [See note 12]

In 1916 the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences is organized in Washington, D.C. (82)

On August 6, 1916 a formal dedication ceremony is held for the Scripps Institution.  Speakers include University of California President Benjamin Ide Wheeler and Stanford President David Starr Jordan. (120)

By 1917 12 states have passed sterilization laws. (117)

From 1917 to 1922 water-soluble B factor, (vitamin B) is shown to be more than one factor. (82)

From 1917 to 1920, the American Medical Association's stance towards compulsory health insurance changed from exploratory interest to violent hostility according to one authority, James G. Burrow. This stance was justified as "anti-Communism," it being well known that Socialized Medicine had long been a primary goal of the Communist Party. A select group of prominent American leftists had been summoned to Moscow for special indoctrination in this goal. They attended a summer course at Moscow University on "the organization of medicine as a state function." The group included such stalwart liberals as George S. Counts and John Dewey. On their return, they began a campaign of public agitation for national health care. Their first convert was a "liberal Republican," Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. In fact, he represented the New England group of bankers who were allied with Rockefeller in maintaining the Medical Monopoly. (48)

On April 6, 1917 the U.S entered the First World War. (116)  During the war, the hemp industry experienced a temporary revival. (106)  During the conflict roughly half of the patients in German mental hospitals, (at least 50,000) are starved to death or die from disease. (116)

In 1917 despite the fact that Joseph Goldberger of the U.S. Public Health Service published a report in 1914 that pellagra is a disease caused by malnutrition, it is reported by the National Pellagra Commission, (led by the head of the Eugenics Record Office) that pellagra is a hereditary disease caused by inferior breeding stock. (116)

In 1917 Dr. Thomas Salmon calls for psychiatry to make "schools and prisons…the chief fields of efforts and not the institutions for the so-called insane." (116)  [see 1912]

In 1917 a race riot occurs in St. Louis, Illinois; some 40 people, mainly blacks, are killed in the violence.  In the same year a black army battalion goes amok in Houston, using firearms against white civilians.  Two blacks and eleven whites are killed in the fighting.  Some 63 black soldiers are court marshaled and thirteen are hanged as a result. (160)

In 1917 the Albatross undergoes repairs for a November transfer to the U.S. Navy. It is placed under U.S. Navy direction and patrols the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea region. It is returned to the Bureau of Fisheries in 1919. (20)

On April 13, 1917 when the ship carrying Trotsky and three hundred Communist revolutionaries from the Lower East Side of New York, stops in Halifax, Canada, Canadian Secret Service officers immediately arrest Trotsky and inter him in Nova Scotia. The case became an international cause celebre, as leading government officials from several nations frantically demanded Trotsky's release. The [Canadian] Secret Service had been tipped off that Trotsky was on his way to take Russia out of the war, freeing more German armies to attack Canadian troops on the Western Front. Prime Minister Lloyd George hurriedly cabled orders from London to the Canadian Secret Service to free Trotsky at once—they ignored him. Trotsky was finally freed by the intervention of one of Rockefeller's most faithful stooge, Canadian Minister Mackenzie King, who had long been a "labor specialist" for the Rockefellers. King personally obtained Trotsky's release and sent him on his way as the emissary of the Rockefellers, commissioned to win the Bolshevik Revolution. (48)

In 1917, of the draftees for World War I, 21.3% were rejected and 9.9% placed in "limited service" because of various handicaps. (48)

In 1917 Elmer Verner McCollum and Simmonds showed that xerophthalmia in rats is due to lack of a fat-soluble substance which they named vitamin A. (105)

In 1917 the Harriman Research Institute was suddenly shut down. Its financial backing was then transferred to Memorial Hospital. The principle backer of the hospital at that time was James Douglas, chairman of the Phelps Dodge Corporation, whose heiress in 1853, Melissa Phelps Dodge, had been the initial backer of what eventually became Memorial Hospital. (48)

In 1917 research emphasis at the [fisheries] lab is changed from general interest to work concentrating on the immediate increase of aquatic food supplies—a change precipitated by the onset of World War I. During this time, the Navy occupies the lab. (20)

In 1917 the American Medical Association shows hostility toward compulsory health insurance. (6)

In 1917 Henry H. Goddard presents data that 40 - 50% of immigrants are feeble-minded. (117)

In 1917, at age 25, Harry J. Anslinger became an inspector for the War Department. (45)

In 1917 the prohibition amendment is ratified in the U.S. with scheduled implementation in the year 1920. (6)

In 1917 Knibbs calculated that (exclusive of the Arctic and Antarctic) with a land area of 33 billion acres, Earth could yield 752.4 trillion bushels of corn, which could support a population of 132 billion. (87)

In 1917 the number of medical schools had been reduced from 650 to a mere 50 in number. The number of annual graduates had been reduced from 7500 to 2500. (48)

In 1917 fifteen states in the U.S. have eugenics laws on the books which authorize sterilization of criminals, epileptics, the retarded and insane. (6)

In 1917 the Julius Rosenwald Fund was created as a liquidating fund to be terminated within 25 years after Rosenwald's death. He died in 1932 and it was liquidated in 1948. Its charter purpose was to serve "the well-being of mankind," and it aided southern rural education, race relations and the health and education of Negroes. (1)  The fund was set up by Edwin R. Embree.
(130)

In 1917 a resolution is passed, probably at the behest of the Rockefeller interests, that alcohol had no scientific place in medicine. For their own hidden purposes, the Rockefeller interests were strongly supporting passage of prohibition at that time. (48)

In 1917 the American Dietetic Association is founded. (82)

On August 10, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson issued Executive Order 2679-A creating the U. S. Food Administration. (131)  The organization was principally run by Kuhn Loeb partner Lewis L. Strauss. (130)  Other members included T.F. Whitmarsh. (130)  Herbert Hoover, former head of the Belgian Relief Organization became head of the U.S. Food Administration. (130)  Vernon Kellogg was Herbert Hoover's assistant in the organization. (130)  Harold W. Dodds was executive secretary. (130)  Hoover's erstwhile accomplice was Julius H. Barnes. (130)

In 1917, the American Dietetic Association was organized in Cleveland, Ohio.   It will eventually have 50 affiliated state associations plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. (352)

On February 10, 1917, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists is organized in Tulsa, OK as the Southwestern Association of Petroleum Geologists. (352)

From 1918 to 1923 public health facilities (narcotic drug clinics), established in many communities to provide treatment for addicts, were closed. (1)

In 1918 Harry J. Anslinger was assigned to the American Legation at The Hague, (Netherlands). Situated behind enemy lines, young Anslinger carried out many espionage missions. As a result, he somehow obtained the field utility kit and other minor personal possessions of His Imperial Highness, Kaiser Wilhelm II, which were donated to the Smithsoniam Institution in 1957. "How I obtained them must remain a secret," the modest official wrote later. (45)

In 1918 the Chamberlain-Kahn Act, passed July 9, provided for the study of venereal diseases. The Public Health Service, (PHS) made grants to 25 institutions, establishing a precedent for the Federal Government to seek assistance of scientists through grants. (80) [See 1932]

In 1918 the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial was endowed with nearly $74,000,000 by Rockefeller. (1)

In 1918 the Galton Society is founded. Madison Grant is one of the founders. (38) Meetings were held monthly at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. (76) Davenport is "chairman and charter member of the eugenicist Galton Society from 1918, along with Madison Grant, E.G. Conklin, and J.C. Merriam." (176)  Charles B. Davenport is President of the Galton Society. (23)  Charles B. Davenport was a founder. (186:1), (140)  William K. Gregory may also have been a member. (185:1)   The Eugenics Research Association and the Galton Society began jointly publishing the magazine, Eugenical News. (203) [See note 79]

In 1918 W. Averell Harriman (S&B 1913) began serving as a board member for the American Museum of Natural History. (49) [See note 79]

In 1918 the American Medico-Psychological Association, (forerunner of the American Psychiatric Association), in conjunction with the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, publishes the first organized text on psychiatric diagnosis, The Statistical Manual for the Use of Institutions for the Insane, which had 22 principle categories, mostly of a biological basis. (116)

In 1918 the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin founds the Institute for Psychiatry in Munich. (116)

In 1918 virus transmission of leukemia in chickens was established by V. Ellerman. (1)

In 1918 New York's sterilization law is found to be unconstitutional. (117)

In 1918 Alexander Johnson estimates that he has given 1,100 lectures to 250,000 people between 1915 and 1918.  He preaches the menace of the feeble-minded. (117)

In 1918 the U.S. Navy takes over the Bureau of Fisheries's Beaufort, North Carolina, fisheries laboratory in World War I to study the fouling of ship bottoms, and returns it to the Bureau of Fisheries in 1920. (20)

In 1918 funding is approved for the first fishery products laboratory, in Washington, D.C. to house rooms for drying, smoking, canning and refrigerating of fish. An experimental kitchen is also built. (20)

In 1918 the first of 125 nationwide cooking demonstrations begins in Seattle to show consumers the best and most economic ways of preparing and cooking fish. (20)

In 1918 the Surgeon General of the United States issues a report that states that tuberculosis is the leading cause for discharge of men from the Armed Forces. (6) [See note 35, note 127]

In 1918 a black riot in Chester, Pennsylvania spreads out to attack white passersby: two whites are killed and three black are shot by police.  The riot in Chester Pennsylvania spreads to Philadelphia.  One white is killed and three blacks are shot by police. (160)

In 1918 the Migratory Bird Treaty Act is passed implementing the Convention between the United States and Great Britain (for Canada) for the protection of Migratory Birds. (139)

In 1918 the great flu "epidemic" occurred. Today, medical historians have finally come to the reluctant conclusion that the epidemic was solely attributable to the widespread use of vaccines. It was the first war in which vaccination was compulsory for all servicemen. The Boston Herald reported that forty-seven soldiers had been killed by vaccination in one month. As a result, the military hospitals were filled, not with wounded combat casualties, but with casualties of the vaccine. The epidemic was called "the Spanish Influenza," a deliberately misleading appellation, which was intended to conceal its origin. This flu epidemic claimed twenty million victims; those who survived it were the ones who had refused the vaccine. In recent years, annual recurring epidemics of flu are called "the Russian Flu." For some reason, the Russians never protest, perhaps because the Rockefellers make regular trips to Moscow to lay down the party line. (48)

In 1918 the existence of a vitamin responsible for the effects of cod-liver oil (vitamin D) was indicated in experimental animals by E. Mellanby. (1)  Experimental rickets in dogs was shown by E. Mellanby to be due to lack of a fat soluble vitamin. (82), (105)

In 1918 the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching established the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America. (1)

In 1918 Woodrow Wilson, as chief spokesman for the allied coalition gave his historic fourteen points in which he calls for the formation of "a general association of nations". (???)

In 1918 Montagu Norman was appointed as deputy governor of the Bank of England. (1)

In 1918 the Commonwealth Fund is created and by 1959 it is considered to be the ninth largest U.S. foundation ever created. (1)

In May of 1918, Prescott Bush (S&B 1917) and five other officers at Fort Sill Oklahoma desecrated the grave of Geronimo. They took turns watching while they robbed the grave, taking items including a skull, some other bones, a horse bit and straps. These prizes were taken back to the Tomb, the home of the Skull & Bones Society at Yale in New Haven, Connecticut. They were put into a display case, which members and visitors could easily view upon entry to the building. (3) [See note 89]

In 1918 Charles B. Davenport's Eugenics Record Office formally comes under the aegis of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. (184:4), (183:105), (225)  In 1917, the Carnegie Institute of Washington took responsibility for the annual operating expenses and future expansion of the Eugenics Record Office. (181:3)

In 1918 (unconfirmed) Harry J. Anslinger left his post at The Hague to became Vice-Consul at Hamburg, Germany, which was at that time a worldwide center for illicit drugs. (45)

In 1918 (unconfirmed), two years after Harry J. Anslinger arrived at his post in Hamburg Germany, he was promoted to Consul at La Guaira, Venezuela. (45)

In 1918 (unconfirmed), after World War I, Albert Lasker, "called the father of modern advertising" took the American Tobacco advertising account, working with the tobacco king, James Duke. (48)

In 1918, "through the initiative of a Committee on Anthropology of the National Academy of Sciences, [Charles B.] Davenport was commissioned as a major in the Sanitary Corps and assigned to the Surgeon General's Office to summarize the physical records of recruits, with Lt. Col. Albert G. Love, M.D." (225)

In 1919 Texas enacted prohibitionist legislation against the non-medical use of marijuana. (45), (106), (124) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1919 a rise in heroin use is reported among urban male youths. (86)

In 1919 the National Parks Association (renamed the National Parks and Conservation Association in 1970) is founded. (95)

In 1919 the first of the infamous "Red Summer" race riots occur.  Eventually 26 different riots take place between April and October.  These included disturbances in the following areas:  Charleston, South Carolina in May; Gregg and Longview counties, Texas and Washington, D.C. in July; Chicago, (this was the worst of the 1919 riots.  Sparked off when some whites threw a few stones at a black swimming in Lake Michigan; the black swimmer subsequently drowned.  The police refused to arrest the stone throwers as there was no link between the stone throwing and the drowning.  Dissatisfied, a black mob then went on a rampage in Chicago for several days, resulting in 38 deaths.); Knoxville, Tennessee and Omaha, Nebraska in July; Elaine and Phillips counties, Alabama in October. (160)

In 1919 the Twentieth Century Fund, a discretionary perpetuity chartered by Edward A. Filene is created to improve economic, industrial, civic and educational conditions through research and publication. It pioneered in studying economic and social problems and became strictly and operating foundation. (1)

In 1919 the Hoover Institution was founded at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California with a donation of $50,000 from Herbert Hoover. (130)  Herbert Hoover founded the Hoover Institution at the suggestion of three men, Andrew Dickson White (S&B 1853), Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852) and Ray Lyman Wilbur, president of Stanford. (130)

In 1919 maintenance of addicts by physicians was ended. (92)

In 1919 Bert Walker formally organizes the W.A. Harriman & Co. private bank. (6)

In 1919 Sir Jack Cecil Drummond named vitamin C, and proposed the change in spelling from vitamine to vitamin. (105)

In 1919 Thomas Hunt Morgan and coworkers published The Physical Basis of Heredity, a summary of the rapidly growing findings in genetics. (105)

In 1919 Otto Warburg found that the efficiency of photosynthesis was increased in intermittent light. (105)

In 1919, in U.S. vs. Doremus, the courts held that physicians were not immune to paying the tax on narcotics. This meant that doctors had to keep records of their dispensations. In a second ruling rendered the same day, the court also held in U.S. vs. Webb et al That it was unlawful for a doctor to give opiates to narcotic addicts merely to keep them from experiencing withdrawal. Only in cases of senility or intractable pain could an addict legally receive narcotics. (106)

In 1919 the Egyptian Medical Association was founded which publishes a Journal. (1)

In 1919 the publication of Inbreeding and Outbreeding by E.M. East and D.F. Jones gave scientific underpinnings to corn breeding and introduced Jones' system of double crossing through the use of four inbred lines. This work, fostered by the U.S. Experiment Station system, was one of the most significant early accomplishments of modern agricultural science. (87)

In 1919 the Bureau of Fisheries reports that, "In no branch of the fisheries is there greater need for exhaustive study than in the methods or preservation of fishery products." (20)

In 1919 the 18th amendment, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation, and exportation of alcohol was ratified. (92)

In 1919, 1920 Harry Steenbock demonstrated the relationship between vitamin A activity and the plant pigment carotene. (105)

In 1919,1920 narcotics trafficking objectives are pursued by the League of Nations as ratification of the 1919 - 1920 peace treaties includes automatic ratification of the 1912 Hague convention.



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