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police more efficient, and the world will follow our lead into the
future." -- Adolf Hitler, 1935



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Prior to 1900, hemp seed cake was one of the world's principal animal feeds. (2), (12), (13)

By 1900 there were 60 Agricultural Experiment Stations. (87)

By 1900 the patent medicine trade had grown into a $250 million a year industry. (44)

From 1900 to 1903 Hamilton Wright served during a special mission in India, studying tropical diseases, especially beri-beri, malaria and plague. (133)

From 1900 to 1914 on average, 800,000 immigrants per year arrived in America. Most of these were immigrants from parts of the world to which Americans were unaccustomed: Russia, Poland, Austria-Hungary, Italy, the Balkans, and Turkey. Many newcomers brought Marxist and anarchist ideas alien to the old American stock. (38)

From 1900 to 1914 "Psychiatry" begins to enjoy the status of a recognized school. (116)

In 1900 there were 2.8 diagnosed cases per 100,000 of diabetes and its associated diseases. (43)

In 1900 "the U.S. government was particularly interested in the therapeutic potential of marihuana and planted cannabis as well as opium and henbane along the banks of the Potomac near Washington… The experiment was short-lived, however. In the wake of controversy over the 'doping' of Americans that prompted the Food and Drug Act of 1906, the federally sponsored project was terminated and the 'dope' fields were eradicated, to be occupied years later by the Pentagon." (106) On April 18, 1900 about 400 acres at Arlington, Va., were transferred from the War Department to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as an experimental farm. Subsequently the farm was displaced by the Pentagon. (94) [See note 123, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1900 the average Englishman's annual consumption of sugar had risen fourfold from 1950 to 80 pounds. (44)

On April 7, 1900 the second Philippine commission is appointed.  Known as the Taft Commission, it was chaired by William Howard Taft, (S&B 1878).  The remaining (American) Commissioners were Dean C. Worcester, Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, Bernard Moses and Mark Sullivan.  The Filipino Commissioners, appointed by Taft immediately after his installation as Civil Governor on July 4, 1901 were Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda and Jose Luzuriaga. The commission arrived in Manila on June 3rd and was operational on Sept. 1. (149)

In 1900, following a U.S. Department of Agriculture report on 152 "patent preservatives" (substances called: Mrs. Price's Canning Compound, Freezine, Preservaline, etc.), Congress authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to "investigate the character of proposed food preservatives and coloring matters to determine their relation to digestion and health and to establish principles which should guide their use." (85)

In 1900 modern genetics began; De Vries (Holland), Corren (Germany) and Tschermak (Austria) independently developed the genetic principles of Mendel. (82) Hugo De Vries (Holland), Karl Correns (Germany), and Erich von Tschermak-Seysenegg (Austria) claimed to have independently discovered and verified Gregor Mendel's principles, marking the beginning of modern genetics. (105) [See also 1865]

In 1900 Alfred Krupp, the head of Germany's largest armaments firm sponsors an essay contest entitled, "What does the Theory of Evolution Teach us in Regard to the Internal Political Development and Legislation of States?". (116)

In 1900 North Dakota bans marriage for alcoholics, the insane and those suffering from tuberculosis. (116)

In 1900 President Theodore Roosevelt signs a law for construction of the second Federal fisheries laboratory in the United States at Beaufort, North Carolina. Its first director is Henry Van Peters Wilson, a University of North Carolina professor. (20)

In 1900 the American Medical Association Journal, which was already under the editorship of Dr. George H. Simmons, sounded the call to arms. "The growth of the profession must be stemmed if individual members are to find the practice of medicine a lucrative profession." (48)

In 1900 heart disease is virtually unknown. (8) According to Dr. Erasmus the number is 15%. (43)

In 1900 Percy Avery Rockefeller graduates Yale and Skull & Bones. (26), (107)

On April 7, 1900 President William McKinley instructed the second (Taft, S&B 1878) commission to "bear in mind that the government which they are establishing is designed not for our satisfaction nor for the expression of our theoretical views, but for the happiness, peace and prosperity of the people of the Philippine Islands." (1) Elihu Root wrote the instructions for the commission which were, in reality, a constitution, a judicial code, and a system of laws; they were reaffirmed by Congress in the Organic Act of 1902. (1) [(Philippines, 1898, 1902)]

In 1900 the fourteenth annual meeting of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations was held in New Haven, ConnecticutAt this meeting a "promotion committee" is appointed to create the American Breeders Association.   The need for this new association was realized during the Hybridizers Conference in London in 1899, under the auspices of the Royal Horticultural Society. (229)  The committee that was appointed was chaired by Willet M. Hays and directed by L.H. Bailey of Cornell.  The other members of the committee were Prof. T.F. Hunt of Cornell, Dean C.F. Curtiss of Ames, Iowa, and Dr. H.J. Webber of the United States Department of Agriculture. (230)  "The promotion committee which called the first meeting of the American Breeders Association was composed of the following named gentlemen: Professor W.M. Hays, University of Minnesota, St. Anthony Park, Minn. Chairman; Director L.H. Bailey, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Professor Thomas J. Hunt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Dr. Herbert J. Webber, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., and Dean Charles F. Curtiss, Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa." (229)  [See note 158, note 162, 1899, 1903]

From 1901 to 1904 William H. Taft, (S&B 1878) served as the first Civil Governor of the Philippines. (149)

From 1901 to 1903 Hugo De Vries' Mutationslehre advanced the thesis that species are not continuously connected but arise through sudden large changes. (105)

From 1901 the U.S. Department of Agriculture repeatedly predicts that once machinery capable of harvesting, stripping and separating the hemp fiber from the pulp is invented, hemp will again be America's "Number One" crop. (28) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1901 Nobel Prize awards began. (82)

In 1901 Mendel's paper on inheritance in peas was republished in the Royal Horticulture Society journal. (87)

In 1901 the Kristiania Conference endorsed scientific inquiry as the basis for a rational exploitation of the sea, and laid down rather precise plans for hydrographical and biological work. This brought together several countries to the inaugural meeting of ICES in 1902. (66)

In 1901 the American Medical Association began lobbying to transform the availability of drugs.  One of their goals was to increase the medical control of drugs by increasing the physician's prescribing authority.  This campaign was a direct effort to curb the non-medical use of opiates.  To encourage patients to seek advice from physicians, the AMA worked vigorously to expose the fraud of 'quack' medicine, and lobbied politically to gain control over drug distribution via physician-regulated prescription.  This effort of the AMA was partly responsible for the introduction of the Harrison Narcotic Act in 1914, which legislated that opiates and cocaine could only be used when prescribed by a physician and dispensed by a pharmacist. (122)

In 1901 the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York was founded by Rockefeller with $60,000,000 to "advance and disseminate knowledge of the nature, causes, treatment and prevention of disease." (1) William H. Welch (S&B 1870) is the first President. (26), (109) Simon Flexner is appointed the first director. (48) [See note 16]

In 1901 the amino acid, L-proline was isolated from casein by Emil Fischer. (82)

In 1901 President McKinley died eight days after being shot by Leon Czolgosz. (151)

In 1901 Hopkins, along with S.W. Cole succeeded in isolating from proteins the amino acid tryptophan. (1)  Tryptophan was discovered in the enzymatic digest of casein by Hopkins and Cole. (82)

In 1901, bios, a growth factor for yeasts was reported by Wildier. (82)

In 1901, in a major reorganization, USDA centralized its activities by creating a Bureau of Plant Industry, Bureau of Soils, Bureau of Chemistry, and Bureau of Forestry. (94)

In 1901 the Museum of Anthropology at Berkley is founded by Phoebe Appleton Hearst. (163)

In 1901 the journal, Biometrika is created by Francis Galton, Karl Pearson, and Walter Weldon "to promote the study of biometrics, the statistical analysis of biological phenomena." (226) Charles B. Davenport was made one of its three editors given that "the relations between Davenport and Pearson were most cordial" during this period. (225) 

On September 14th, 1901 Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in as President at the home of Ansley Wilcox in Buffalo by U.S. District Court Judge John R. Hazel. (189) It was "Massachusetts political mastermind" and Opium syndicate member, Henry Cabot Lodge who had "mentored Roosevelt early in his political career." (190) (49)

In 1902, 1903 Walter Stanborough Sutton and Theodor Boveri pointed out the parallelism between chromosome behavior and Mendelism, closing the gap between cytology and heredity. (105)

In 1902 the Carnegie Institution of Washington was founded with a $10,000,000 grant "to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind." It conducts fundamental research in various scientific fields. (1)  Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852) was its first President until 1904. (1), (26)  The Carnegie Institution was established "to encourage, in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research, and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind." Twenty-four of America's most respected names in science, government and finance were installed as trustees.  The celebrated names included National Library of Medicine cofounder John Billings, Secretary of War Elihu Root and philanthropist Cleveland Dodge.  Renowned paleontologist John C. Merriam became president."  (183) [See note 155William H. Welch (S&B 1870) became a trustee in 1906. (26)  Andrew D. White (S&B 1853) was a trustee from 1902 (likely one of the founders) until 1916. (228)  See note 157 for a more comprehensive list of the earlier trustees. [See 1909]

On February 18, 1902 Theodore Roosevelt, through his attorney-general, Philander C. Knox, brought suit against the giant railroad complex, the Northern Securities Company. Since this holding company had been put together by J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, Edward H. Harriman and James J. Hill, the government was attacking the very citadel of U.S. finance capitalism and corporate business. On March 14th 1904, the attack was successfully brought home when the Supreme Court reaffirmed a decree of a federal circuit court ordering the dissolution of the Northern Securities Company. For the next seven years of his administration Roosevelt vigorously used the Sherman Act against some of the nation's greatest industrial organizations. The U.S. Steel Corporation, the Standard Oil Company, and more than 30 other industrial combinations were summarily ordered into court. (1)

In 1902 the term dietician began to be used in hospitals. (82)

On July 1 1902 a bill approved by Congress changed the name of the Marine Hospital Service to the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service and established an advisory board for the Hygienic Laboratory. It later became the National Advisory Health Council. (80)

In 1902 the 57th Congress enacted Public Law 244 to regulate the shipment of biologics. The technical responsibilities of the program were assigned to the Hygienic Laboratory. (80) The Advisory Board for the Biologics Control Division was established on July 1. (80)

In 1902 the Manila Medical Society (Philippines) was founded. (1) [See note 111, (Philippines 1900, 1903)]

In 1902 the United States withdraws its troops from Cuba on the condition that Cuba accepts the Platt Amendment giving the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuban affairs. (96)

In 1902 amendments made to the Oleomargarine Act of 1886 raises the tax on colored margarine five-fold, but decreased licensing fees for white margarine. Consumption is 120 million pounds. (9)

In 1902 the General Education Board was founded by Rockefeller as a discretionary perpetuity of nearly $130,000,000. (1)  It was a combination of its three predecessors, the Southern Education Board, the Peabody Education Fund and the John F. Slater Fund.  Its charter stated that its purpose was "the promotion of eduction within the USA without distictions of race, creed or sex".  Its incorporators included its first president, William H. Baldwin Jr., Frederick T. Gates and Daniel Coit Gilman, (S&B 1852). (130), (1)  Gates is Rockefeller's right-hand man. (6)  Another incorporator was George Foster Peabody, a member of the family which had set up the Peabody Education Fund. (130)  A family member of the Rockefeller's, Senator Nelson Aldrich, shepherded the General Education Board charter through congress. (130)

In 1902 food standards are published and incorporated into the laws in many states. Concerns about the growing use of chemical preservatives in foods (e.g. borax, salicylic acid, formaldehyde, sodium benzoate, and sulfites) lead Congress to appropriate $5000 to Harvey Wiley to study the effects of such preservatives on health. Wiley establishes his soon infamous "Poison Squad," a group of healthy young men who agree to take the various preservatives with their meals so that the effects of graduated doses of such preservatives could be studied. (85)

In 1902 Rosenfeld showed that a high-carbohydrate, low protein diet results in fat deposition. So does a high-carbohydrate, high-protein diet. But when "good" fats are added, less fat deposition occurs and better food utilization and energy production take place. (13) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1902 Emil Fischer and Franz Hofmeister demonstrated that proteins are polypeptides. (105)

On May 26th, 1902 the Nation's second Federal fisheries laboratory, in Beaufort, North Carolina, is occupied. It provides a laboratory, aquarium, office, 12 bedrooms, storerooms, etc. (20) [See note 61]

In 1902 Emil Fischer received a Nobel award for work on sugar and purine synthesis. (1)

On December 2, 1902 the Pan American Sanitary Bureau was established. The Public Health and Marine Hospital Service began international health cooperation. (80)

In 1902 the Episcopal Church appointed Charles Brent (at the time serving as priest in charge of a slum parish in Boston) as Missionary Bishop of the Philippines.  He [later] arrived [in the Philippines] on the same ship with the American Governor, William H. Taft, (S&B 1878) and carried with him the unofficial but very real prestige of the American establishment.…He directed his efforts toward the non-Christians of his diocese: the pagan Igorots of the mountains of Luzon, the Muslims of the southern islands, the Chinese settlements in Manila… (121) [See (Philippines, 1902, 1903)]

In 1902, on a visit to London, Charles Davenport had met Galton and the pioneering biometrician, Karl Pearson, both of whom helped refine his plans for the Cold Spring Harbor laboratory,… (184:3) [see 1897]  Davenport took his wife, Gertrude Crotty along and "they visited most of the European Marine Biological Laboratories from Bergen to Naples, where they spent three weeks." (225)  [See note 138]

In 1902 David Starr Jordan's book, Blood of a Nation, first articulated the concept of "blood" as the immutable basis for race. (183:65)


On May 5th, 1902 Charles Davenport writes his formal proposal to Carnegie Institution trustees for creating a Station for Experimental Evolution.  By the time of his writing, Carnegie is already aware of the racial intent of Davenport's plans.  "From the very start, the trustees of the Carnegie Institution understood that Davenport's plan was a turning-point plan for racial breeding…" (183:36)  "…With the Carnegie Institution now receptive to his more grandiose idea, Davenport knew it was important to continue rallying support from the scientific establishment.  He convinced the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Science, which controlled the lab site at Cold Spring Harbor, to form a prestigious scientific committee to press the 'plan for a permanent research laboratory…in connection with the Carnegie Institution at Washington.' " (183:36)

In 1902 the International Conference on Plant Breeding and Hybridization met in New York City. (180:2)  The dominant force at the 1902 New York Conference was Bateson; his lead paper combined a straightforward account of Mendel's laws with a discussion of their applied, and especially commercial, importance.…The following two papers, by C.C. Hurst (Bateson's close friend and colleague) and Hugo de Vries, focused on Mendel as well.  In all, ten participants either presented papers or made extended remarks promoting Mendelism.  Seven were Americans: Willet Hays of the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell, S.A. Beach of the New York Experiment Station, Walter Austen Cannon of Columbia and the New York Botanical Garden, and O.F. Cook and W.J. Spillman, both of the USDA.…These biologists were generally affiliated with the USDA or state agricultural colleges and experiment stations and they aimed to combine practical public interests with theoretical science. (180:2-3)  At the 1902 New York Conference, eleven of the seventy-five participants were employed directly by the USDA; many more were affiliated with the state agricultural colleges and experimental stations. (180:4)

Until 1903 the popular soft drink Coca Cola contained a dose of cocaine. (44)

In 1903 William J. (Bill) Donovan studies law at Columbia University until 1908. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was one of Donovan's classmates. (6)

In 1903 a chemical distinction between DNA and RNA was made by Levene. (82)

In 1903 legislation was passing through the Philippine government concerning the reinstating of the government monopoly on opium which had been provided to Chinese on the Philippine Islands through a prior Spanish government monopoly. Civil Governor William Howard Taft, (S&B 1878) had considered reinstating the monopoly which, in his judgment would be reasonable and the profits from the opium monopoly could then be used to help educate Filipinos. Missionaries in Manila and in the United States had learned that "tainted money" from opium sales was to be employed for education, and they besought President Theodore Roosevelt to prevent this moral wrong. He ordered Taft to stop the bill, and that was the end of it. This helped pave the way for the Food and Drug Act in the U.S. (91) The Protestant Episcopal bishop, Charles Henry Brent had come out with Taft to help in the Americanization of the new U.S. possession, the Philippines. (91) [See note 109 (Philippines, 1902, 1903)]

In 1903 the colonial regime in the Philippines, headed by Civil Governor William Howard Taft, (S&B 1878) appointed the Episcopal missionary Bishop Charles Henry Brent, formerly an assistant minister in a poor Boston parish, to head a committee investigating the opium problem. After touring Asia to study the matter, Bishop Brent recommended an ultimate prohibition. (44) The formation of this committee was in response to the veto from Washington, (Roosevelt) which put an end to the reinstatement of the opium monopoly. (91)  On August 8th, 1903 The New York Times ran an article announcing the appointees to the Opium Commission.  The article reads, "WASHINGTON, Aug 8. --- Secretary [Elihu] Root today received a cablegram from Gov. Taft (S&B 1878) saying that Major Edwin C. Carter, Bishop Brent, and Dr. Albert had been appointed as an Opium Commission to visit countries where opium is used and ascertain the methods of regulation and control.…" (5)  Reverend Charles H. Brent led a campaign supported by American missionaries in China to eliminate drug trafficking. (122) [See (Philippines, 1903, 1905)]

In 1903 the bomb calorimeter was designed by [W.O.] Atwater (and Blakeslee) for foods and physiological materials. (82) [See note 99, 1904]

On July 18, 1903 E.W. Scripps, his brother Fred Scripps and wife, Ellen Browning Scripps, Virginia Scripps and others visit the Hotel del Coronado boathouse at the invitation of W.E. Ritter.  This is the first time that E.W. Scripps and Ritter meet. (120)

On July 28, 1903 E.W. Scripps invites W.E. Ritter and Charles A. Kofoid to visit him at his home, Miramar Ranch.…Ritter's diary notes E.W. Scripps "assures us that if we can locate in La Jolla and do something for the scheme that interests him, viz. a popular public aquarium, he will help us." (120)

On August 2, 1903 W.E. Ritter meets with E.W. Scripps and Ellen Browning Scripps at Miramar.  Ritter outlines proposal about establishing a permanent marine laboratory in La Jolla affiliated with the University of California.  E.W. Scripps proposed an association to support the laboratory and dictates what its purposes and officers should be. (120)

On September 26, 1903 the Marine Biological Association of San Diego is formed at a meeting held at the Chamber of Commerce.  The purpose of the Association is to found and endow a scientific institution known as the Sand Diego Marine Biological Institution.  W.E. Ritter is named Scientific Director.  Homer Peters, E.W. Scripps and Ellen Browning Scripps pledge $1500/year each for three years to support the institution. (120)

In 1903 Theodore Roosevelt created the Department of Commerce and Labor, with its secretary a member of the president's cabinet. (1)

In 1903 the first Federal bird reservation is established by President Theodore Roosevelt on Pelican Island, Florida, and placed under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Biological Survey. (139)

In 1903 epileptics and insane persons were added to those 'undesirable' aliens excluded under U.S. Immigration law. (78), (117)

In 1903 the average American's annual consumption of sugar had risen fourfold from 1865 to 78.8 pounds. (44) [See note 33]

In 1903 Rockefeller's General Education Board was chartered by congress for "the promotion of education within the United States of America, without distinction of race, sex or creed." (1) Incorporators include Frederick T. Gates, (Rockefeller's right-hand man) and Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852)… (6)

In 1903 David Starr Jordan was chosen to head a committee appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt to investigate the causes for the decline in the salmon fisheries of Alaska. (20) [See note 60]

In 1903 Roosevelt appoints a Public Lands Commission to study and report on public lands issues.  The Commission's members are W.A. Richards, F.H. Newell and Gifford Pinchot, (S&B 1889). (142)

In 1903 the Philippine Medical Association was founded. (1)

In 1903 the hydrogenation process is patented. (15) by a man named William Norman. (43)

In 1903 barbiturates are first marketed in the U.S. (116)

On July 1, 1903 the Fish Commission (along with its Office of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries) was placed under the newly created Department of Commerce and Labor and renamed the Bureau of Fisheries. (63), (136) [See 1903, note 77]

In December, 1903 the American Breeders Association, (reorganized in 1913 as the American Genetics Association) is founded. (140), (352)  The ABA was created by the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experimental Stations, after four years of preparatory effort spurred by a request from the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture. The American government urged animal breeders and seed experts to "join hands."  The idea of bringing the two groups together was first suggested in 1899 at the Hybridizer's Conference in London. (183:38)  "Under the call issued by the promotion committee appointed ... by the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, a meeting was held during the last days of December 1903, in St. Louis, MO., at which the American Breeders Association was formed." (229)  Davenport prevailed upon members of the ABA to add a Eugenics Committee to the other two organizational groups—Plants and Animals. (183:39)  The president of the ABA was secretary of the Department of Agriculture, James Wilson.  Its secretary was the assistant secretary of the Department of Agriculture, Willet M. Hays. (183:47)  Some practical breeders such as L.H. Kerrick and Eugene Funk were founding members of the ABA. (180:2)  E.M. East, William E. Castle, Charles Davenport and George H. Shull were all members of the ABA. (180:3)  The American Breeders Association was organized December 29-31, 1903, at a meeting called for that purpose at St. Louis, Mo. That call was issued by an "Organization Committee" from the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. This Committee was composed of the following named gentlemen: Prof. W.M. Hays, University of Minnesota, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn., Chairman; Director L.H. Bailey, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Prof. Thomas F. Hunt, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.; Dr. Herbert J. Webber, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.; and Dean Charles F. Curtiss, State College, Ames, Iowa. (233:64)  [See 1900, 1906]

From 1904 to 1906 Luke E. Wright served as the second Civil Governor of the Philippines. (149)

From 1904 to 1926 Rev. Henry Sloane Coffin (S&B 1897) was Associate Professor of Practical Theology at Union Theological Seminary in New York. (26)

In 1904 Alfred Binet, director of the psychology laboratory at Sorbonne, is commissioned by the French government to develop a means of detecting children who would not benefit from normal teaching methods. (116)

In 1904 the Carnegie Institution of Washington established a biological experiment station [the Station for Experimental Evolution] at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island, New York.  Charles B. Davenport is assigned as director.  (6), (109), (186:1)  This is the second of three directorship positions that Davenport will accept at Cold Spring Harbor. Since 1898, he had also served as director of the first scientific laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor, the marine biological laboratory known as Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory or CSHL. (182), (177), (179), (187) 

In 1904 Atwater and Benedict designed a respiration calorimeter for human nutrition studies. (82) [See 1903, 1907]

In 1904 Sir Francis Galton formulates his classic definition of eugenics as "the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally." (140)

On March 16, 1904 the Hygienic Laboratory moved to a new building on a 5-acre tract at 25th and E Streets NW, Washington, D.C. (80)

In 1904 Margarine production suffered from passage of amendments in 1902 and consumption dropped from 120 million pounds to 48 million pounds. (9)

In 1904 cancer caused 4% of deaths in the United States. (6)

In 1904 isoleucine was discovered by Felix Ehrlich. (82)

In 1904 secretin was discovered by Bayliss and Starling. (82) Secretin is a polypeptide hormone, produced in the small intestine, that activates the pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice. (112)

In 1904 Ivan Pavlov received the Nobel prize in medicine for discoveries relating to the physiology of digestion. (46), (116)

In 1904 eugenics was established as a course at the University College in London. (6), (116) Francis Galton had endowed a research fellowship in eugenics and in his will, provided funds for a chair of eugenics at University College, London University. The fellowship and later the chair at University College were both occupied by Karl Pearson, a brilliant mathematician who helped to create the science of biometry. Pearson was a controversial figure who believed that environment had little to do with the development of mental or emotional qualities. He felt that the high birth rate of the poor was a threat to civilization and that the "higher" races must supplant the "lower." (1)

In 1904 German Alfred Ploetz founds the Archiv fur Ration Rassen Gesellschaftbiologie, (Archive for Racial and Social Biology), which becomes the chief journal of the German eugenics or race hygiene movement. Eugenics is popularized in Germany by Ernst Haeckel. (6), (78)  The Gesellschaft fur Rassenhygiene, (or Society of Race-Hygiene) was founded by Dr. Alfred Ploetz and Dr. Ernst Rüdin, and in 1905. (159) 

In 1904 the American Horticultural Society was established. (97)

In 1904 the National Tuberculosis Association is founded [by Henry Phipps?]. "A peculiarly American approach to the support of health services and, to a substantial extent, of medical research is seen in the large voluntary health agencies, beginning with the National Tuberculosis Association which was founded in 1904." (1)

In 1904 I.G. Farben had originated when the six major chemical companies in Germany began negotiations to form the ultimate cartel, merging Badische Anilin, Bayer, Agfa, Hoechst, Weiler-ter-Meer and Greisheim-Electron. The guiding spirit, as well as the financing, came from the Rothschilds, who were represented by their German banker, Max Warburg of M.M. Warburg & Co., Hamburg. (48)

In 1904, John Harvey Kellogg endowed and established the Race Betterment Foundation in Battle Creek, Michigan. The well-funded foundation held several national conferences on Race Betterment. (203) [see 1914, 1915 and 1928]

On March 9, 1904, speaking before the Committee on Ways and Means, Henry W. Elliott asserts that substantial numbers of fur seals on the Pribilof islands are illegally being taken below one year of age. (400)

From 1905 until the first World War, a great deal of literature was in evidence that attacked the "intellectual nature" of education. (6)

From 1905 to 1909 Elihu Root served as Roosevelt's Secretary of State. (1) [See note 124]

From 1905 to 1907 President Theodore Roosevelt sets aside more than 180 million acres of land for wildlife refuges and national parks. (95)

In 1905 the Division of Biological Survey, within the U.S. Department of Agriculture, is renamed to the Bureau of Biological Survey. (142) [See 1896]

In 1905 the American Eugenics Society was founded by Madison Grant, Harry H. Laughlin, Irving Fisher (S&B 1888), Fairfield Osborn, and Henry Crampton. (1) [See note 95, 1922]

In 1905 Racial hygienists in Germany establish a eugenics organization. (116)  Dr. Alfred Ploetz founds the Society of Race Hygiene in Germany.  Proposals for control of the population through regulation of the reproductive activities of the German people is widely discussed at this time. (116)

In 1905 The Pennsylvania State Legislature passes an "Act for the Prevention of Lunacy", which contains a sterilization clause.  It is vetoed by the governor. (116)  [According to (117), this took place in 1901]

In 1905 the American Bison Society was founded.  Madison Grant was one of the founders.  Grant was also president of the Bronx Zoo for many years, co-founder and president of the Bronx Parkway Commission (which built the road to the Zoo); co-founder of the Save the Redwoods League, and a founding member of the Boone and Crockett Club in 1887, which helped establish Yellowstone National Park. … Conservationism was an aspect of Grant's career that he considered intimately related to his work in racial science and his involvement with nature and wildlife was long and varied. … With Madison Grant serving as secretary and later as president, the Boone and Crockett Club was largely comprised of eugenicists and eugenics sympathizers. (38)  Madison Grant was the man Teddy Roosevelt picked to start the New York Zoo. (49)  Franklin W. Hooper—Director of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, which help found the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in 1890—was also a founder of the American Bison Society along with Ernest Harold Baynes.  At Hooper's suggestion Baynes wrote to President Theodore Roosevelt, who became the Society's first Honorary President.  Hooper also suggested the inclusion of the Premier of Canada, Earl Grey, as an officer of the society.  Hooper himself became the Society's president in 1911. (331) 

In 1905 the Forest Service was established after Gifford Pinchot, (S&B 1889) then head of the Bureau of Forestry, persuaded President Theodore Roosevelt to transfer custody of the national forests from the Department of the Interior to [the Department of] Agriculture. (94), (95), (1)

In 1905 the National Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals is founded in New York, officially uniting the numerous state groups which have sprung up since 1896, and establishing a strong national voice for conservation. The organization's name was changed to the National Audubon Society in 1940. (95)

In 1905 F. Knoop deduced the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. (105) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1905 the International Institute of Agriculture is founded in Rome on the idea proposed by David Lubin, a merchant of Sacramento, California. … The organization assembles one of the largest agricultural libraries in the world, housed in the building donated to the institute by the king of Italy; later a special library building was erected, aided by a grant of funds by the International Education Board. (1)

In 1905 the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was created with an original gift of $10,000,000, primarily to provide retirement pensions for professors at nonsectarian colleges and Universities.

In 1905 the Journal of Biological Chemistry began publication. (82)

In 1905 the Sears, Roebuck & Company catalogue advertised a 69 cent bottle [of cannabis extract]: We here offer a perfectly safe and reliable cure to those addicted to the habit of using opium or morphine in any manner whatsoever. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1905 opium smoking was restricted in the Philippines. (93) [See (Philippines, 1903, 1908)]

In 1905 John W. Daniels and George P. Archer founded the Archer Daniels Linseed Company. In the mid-1800s, both men had begun their respective careers in the linseed crushing business. (84) [See (EFAs Previous, Next)]

In 1905 Theodore Roosevelt "forced the Dominican Republic … to accept the appointment of an economic adviser responsible to the U.S. Department of State. (1)

In 1905 in a famous series of muckraking articles on the patent medicine trade published by Collier's magazine, Samuel Hopkins Adams reported that many leading American newspapers had long-term advertising contracts with patent medicine advertisers containing a single escape clause—the drug companies could break the contract if state or local legislation restricted the sale of their products. (44)

In 1905 the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry is set up. It and the American Medical Association worked together very closely. (48)

In 1905 Robert Koch received the Nobel prize in medicine for his tuberculosis research. (1)

In 1905 the Food and Drug Act was passed in the United States. (6), (48)

In 1905 Thomas Dixon publishes The Clansman. (117)

In 1905 Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon develop the Binet-Simon test for children age 3-13. (117)

In 1905 David Starr Jordan responds in a letter to Gertrude Crotty Davenport on her questions regarding the "Tribe of Ishmael," a Midwestern ethnic group generally associated with Romanian gypsies and a common research subject of American eugenicists.  [See note 63]

In 1905,1906 agreements are reached between the British and Chinese to reduce domestic opium production. (1)

In 1905 Mary Harriman, daughter of Mrs. E. H. Harriman, had spent part of the summer at the Cold Spring Harbor Biological Laboratory while an undergraduate at Barnard College. (175) See 1906

In 1906 Frederick Gowland Hopkins of England predicted the isolation of vitamins. He had also isolated growth-promoting substances. Hopkins published preliminary reports of his findings. (1) He first sought to explain dietary deficiency by a biochemical investigation of the lack of essential amino acids in the diet. (105) [See 1912, note 28]

In 1906 the U.S. regime governing the Philippines restricted sales of opium to adult Chinese males and registered 12,700 smokers. (44)

In 1906 China embarked on another opium prohibition program. (122)

In 1906 identification of tryptophan as an essential amino acid was made by [Frederick Gowland] Hopkins and Willcock. (82)

In 1906 the Biochemical Journal of Great Britain began publication. (82)

In 1906, in a repeat of the incident in Wilmington, North Carolina, dozens of blacks and whites are killed in several days of racial rioting in Atlanta, Georgia. (160)

In 1906 Henry C. Ide served as the third Civil Governor of the Philippines.  After his short term, James F. Smith serves as the fourth Civil Governor until 1909. (149)

In 1906 Christiaan Eijkman found the anti-beriberi agent to be a water-soluble component of rice polishings. (105)

In 1906 the American Society of Biological Chemists was founded. (82)

In 1906 the American Breeders Association set up the first functioning Committee on Eugenics. Its stated purpose was to investigate and report on heredity in the human race and to emphasize the value of superior blood and the menace to society of inferior blood. The Committee's membership included such distinguished Americans as horticulturist Luther Burbank; David Starr Jordan, president of Stanford University; and professor Charles Davenport of the University of Chicago. (75)  The creation of the Committee on Eugenics was at Davenport's urging.  David Starr Jordan chaired the committee and Davenport was it's secretary.  These men and others active in the Committee on Eugenics (including the founders of the Nativist Immigration Restriction League, Robert DeCourcey Ward and Prescott F. Hall; Henry H. Goddard and Walter E. Fernald, who both joined a subcommittee on feeble-mindedness; Alexander Graham Bell; and Edward L. Thorndike) would form the core of the eugenics movement for the next 25 years. (140)  Other influential members included Roswell H. Johnson, Charles R. Henderson, William E. Castle and Vernon Kellogg.  In 1910 the eugenics committee will become a full-fledged eugenics section. (231)  Members included: David Starr Jordan, chairman, C. B. Davenport, secretary and Alexander Graham Bell, Luther Burbank, William E. Castle, C. R. Henderson, A. Hrdlicka, V. L. Kellogg, Adolf Meyer, J. Arthur Thomson, W. L. Tower, H. J. Webber, C. E. Woodruff, Frederick A. Woods. (234)  [See 1903, 1909]

In 1906 the Third Conference on Hybridization and Plant Breeding commenced. (116)  In his inaugural address William Bateson states "I suggest for the consideration of this congress the term Genetics, which sufficiently indicates that our labours are devoted to the elucidation of the phenomena of heredity and variation…" (116)

In 1906 Frederick Gowland Hopkins, working with W. Fletcher laid the foundation of modern knowledge of the chemistry of muscular contraction by his researches into lactic acid production in muscle. (1) Sir Walter Morley Fletcher and Sir Fredrick Gowland Hopkins showed that lactic acid is formed quantitatively from glucose during anaerobic muscle contraction. Hopkins also showed that part of the lactic acid is oxidized to furnish energy for the synthesis of glycogen from the remaining lactic acid. (105)

In 1906 Woodworth and William Ernest Castle introduced Drosophila [the fruit fly] as new experimental material for genetic studies. (105)

In 1906 the first Pure Food and Drug law in the United States passed (6) It required labeling of patent medicines showing their precise contents. Within two years sales of the once secret remedies had dropped by one-third. (44) Passage of the act by Congress was largely through the efforts of Harvey W. Wiley. (82) The law recognizes the U.S. Pharmacopeia as the guide for setting standards for drugs. For example, if patented drugs contain any one of 11 ingredients deemed harmful (including morphine, opium, and alcohol) they must be declared on the label if they are present in the product. Provisions are left out of the law which would have established similar standards for foods. (85) On the premise that Americans were addicting themselves simply because they were unaware of the contents of the nostrums they were taking, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 required that all patent medicines shipped across state lines had to list their ingredients if they contained more than a specified amount of opium, morphine, heroin, cocaine, alcohol, chloral hydrate, or cannabis. (106) In addition, the law required that fraudulent claims be removed from patent medicines. (92) Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in securing the passage of this act. (1) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1906 the USDA began issuing rules called "food inspection decisions (FID)." FID 39 prohibits fluorides as preservatives and Martius yellow (Naphthol yellow) as a color in macaroni and noodle products. (85)

In 1906 the American Medical Association approved heroin for general use "in place of morphine in various painful injections," as did its counterparts in Europe and Australia. In short, physicians believed that heroin was an effective, non-addictive substitute for morphine whose dependency-inducing properties were, at last, well understood. (44)

In 1906 William A. Rockefeller dies in Freeport, Illinois. (6)

In 1906 global opium production peaked at 41,600 tons. (44)

In 1906 William H. Welch (S&B 1870) becomes a trustee of the Carnegie Institution. (26) He holds this position until 1934. (109) [See note 81]

In 1906 followers of [Ernst] Haeckel [in Germany] form the influential Monist League, pressing for a government patterned along Darwinian lines (6)

In 1906 the Carnegie Nutrition Laboratory opened in Boston. (82)

In 1906 experimental evidence showed that differences in nutritive value of proteins are related to amino acid composition. (82)

In 1906 concern over the continued Asian immigration led the San Francisco Board of Education to announce that as of that year, Japanese students would have to attend a Chinese school, along with Korean children. (160) [See 1907]

In 1906 Dr. John Harvey Kellogg of Battle Creek, Michigan, founded the Race Betterment Foundation. (183:88)

In 1906 Mrs. E.H. Harriman's daughter, also named Mary, enrolled in one of Cold Spring Harbor's summer biology courses. (183:46)  Her teacher was Charles B. Davenport. (224), (225)  See 1905

In May 1906, the American Association of Museums is organized in New York "to promote the welfare of museums and the museum profession; to increase and diffuse knowledge relating to them, and to provide national representation; to provide useful services for the membership and for those interested in museums."  In 1926 its headquarters will be established at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. (352)

In 1907 the Gentlemen's Agreement temporarily settled the anti-Japanese attitude on the West Coast. In the agreement, Japan promised not to issue passports to labourers wishing to migrate to the United States and the U.S. tacitly recognized the Japanese seizure of Korea. (1)  Elihu Root allayed Japanese antagonisms raised by San Francisco school segregationists in the crisis of 1907 and negotiated the Gentlemen's Agreement by which Japan undertook to control emigration to the United States. (1) [See 1906]

In 1907 Francis Galton founded the English Eugenics Society as the Eugenics Education Society. (1)

In 1907 the International Society for Racial Hygiene is founded, composed mostly of German racial hygienists. (116)

In 1907 the synthesis of a protein molecule of 18 amino acids was made by Emil Fischer. (82)

In 1907 lactic acid formation in normal muscle contraction was demonstrated by Fletcher and Hopkins. (82)

In 1907 F.G. Benedict began 30 years of research on respiration calorimetry and energy metabolism of man and animals at the Nutrition Laboratory of Carnegie Institute (Boston). (82) [See 1904]

In 1907 the Royal Society of Medicine in Great Britain is formed from the merging of 18 societies, including the Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society, the Pathological Society of London, the Epidemiological Society, the Odontological Society of Great Britain and the Obstetrical Society of London. (1)

In 1907 the Academy of Medicine, Toronto "was formed by the amalgamation of several Toronto medical societies, and houses an extensive library." The academy publishes a Bulletin. (1)

In 1907 the first edition of Hawk's Practical Physiological Chemistry was published. (82)

In 1907 organized opposition to U.S. conservation policy arises. At the Denver Public Lands Convention, Western ranching and mining interests call for cession of public lands to the states and restriction of national forests. (95)

In 1907 Lutz proved that the gigas mutation in the evening primrose contained twice the usual chromosome number. This led to the analysis and artificial production of polyploidy. (105) [See note 84]

In 1907 the Russell Sage Foundation was created with a $10,000,000 endowment to promote better social and living conditions in the United States. Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852) was it's original incorporator. (1), (130)  Its first board of directors consisted of Daniel Coit Gilman, Helen Gould, Margaret Sage and Dwight Morrow. (130)

In 1907 Indiana passed the world's first compulsory sterilization law for 'all confirmed criminals, idiots, rapists and imbeciles' who were confined in state institutions. (6)

In 1907 at the Indiana State Reformatory, 475 males receive vasectomies. (6)  These, (465) Performed by Dr. Harry C. Sharp. (117)

In 1907 the United States Immigration adds "imbeciles and feeble-minded persons" to the exclusion list. (6)

In 1907 the Bureau of Chemistry is empowered by Congress to police quality of U.S. food. (6)

In 1907 Allen Dulles is secretary to the Hague Peace Conference. (6) Attempts are made in vain to set up an international court. (1)

In 1907 A. Holst and T. Frohlich were able to produce scurvy in guinea pigs by withholding from them fresh plant materials and by feeding them only dried hay and oats. By the use of such a ration it was possible to determine which foods contained the antiscorbutic vitamin (vitamin C, or ascorbic acid). (1), (82)

In 1907 the American Medical Association "requested" the Carnegie Foundation to conduct a survey of all the medical schools of the nation. The Carnegie Foundation named Abraham Flexner to head up its study of medical schools. (48) The report was entitled Medical Education in the United States and Canada. (???)

In 1907 a riot broke out in Vancouver during an anti-Asian demonstration.  The federal government sent Mackenzie King, (Deputy Minister of Labour) to Vancouver to investigate the riot and reimburse business owners who suffered damages. The discovery that two opium merchants wanted reimbursement for their losses led King to embark on an investigation of the opium 'evil'.  It seems that the evil was particularly intolerable because "the habits of opium smoking was making headway, not only among white men and boys, but also among women and girls".  King's support for legislation to restrict the sale of opium stemmed from his moral stance that "to be indifferent to the growth of such an evil in Canada would be inconsistent with those principles of morality which ought to govern the conduct of a Christian nation".  (122)

In 1907 Clinton Hart Merriam, "a strong friend of eugenics,…had single-handedly arranged a private meeting between Davenport's circle of eugenicists and President Theodore Roosevelt at the president's Long Island retreat." (183:46)

In 1907, the American Association for Cancer Research is founded.  It'll be incorporated in 1940 in New York. (352)

From 1908 to 1933 Henry Fairfield Osborn was the President of the American Museum of Natural History. (159)  [See 1922]

In 1908 I.G. Farben discovers sulfanilamide.  It is kept secret for 28 years. (6)

In 1908 shad, sea trout, and carp were among the ten most valuable U.S. fishery products, accounting for nearly 10 percent of the total catch value. Conversely, tuna barely showed in the industry statistics, and shrimp accounted for only about one percent of the total catch. (63)

In 1908 Archibald Edward Garrod recognized that gene products are proteins. He also was the first to carry out detailed studies of genetic diseases in humans. His work was largely ignored until 1940. (105)

In 1908 Godfrey Harold Hardy, a Cambridge mathematician, and Wilhelm Weinberg, a Stuttgart physician, independently formulated the theorem that in the absence of mutation and selection, the frequency of a gene in any large, randomly mating population will reach an equilibrium in one generation and remain in equilibrium thereafter regardless of whether the gene is dominant or recessive. Also, the genotypic frequencies of a population in equilibrium with two alleles with frequencies p and q are given by the formula p2 + 2pq + q2. This theorem forms the mathematical basis for population genetics. (105)

In 1908 Ilja Mecnikov received the Nobel prize for discoveries relating to immunity. (46)

In 1908 Clifford Beers publishes A Mind That Found Itself, an expose of conditions inside state and private mental institutions. (144)

In 1908 Clifford Beers founds the Mental Hygiene Society at Yale University. (3) [See note 145]

In 1908 Henry H. Goddard learns of Binet's tests. (117)

In 1908 a race riot occurs in Springfield, Illinois, the home of Abraham Lincoln.  Two vicious black on white murders spark off a white riot during which a white crowd kills two blacks and burns down a crime infested black suburb known as the "Badlands". (160) [See 1909]

In 1908 Theodore Roosevelt called a White House conference on conservation that focused public attention on the subject. Soon thereafter the National Conservation Commission was created to make a systematic study of the nation's resources. (1) Invited to the conference are all the states' governors as well as the entire cabinet and each member of Congress—though not Congress as a body. In attendance were such figures as Gifford Pinchot, (S&B 1889) and William J. McGee, a long-time Smithsonian Institution executive called by admiring chroniclers of the Progressive Era the "brains behind the Conservation movement". (49)  The resulting three volume report was delivered to Congress in December.  Irving Fisher's (S&B 1888) paper, National Vitality, its Wastes and Conservation—complete with preliminary sections for Acknowledgements, Suggestions for Readers, Abstract and Summary—comprised the last quarter of the report and argued for various eugenics causes.  [See note 159]

In 1908 Abraham Flexner joined the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, serving there until his retirement in 1928. (48)

In 1908 William H. Taft (S&B 1878) was elected President. (1)

In 1908 Canada passed the Patent and Proprietary Medicine Act. Like the American Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, the Canadian law required the labeling of certain ingredients in medicines. Although the presence of opiates had to be indicated, the amount of alcohol limited, and cocaine banned outright, no restrictions were placed on cannabis. (106) Suppression of opium traffic in Canada was recommended to the House of Commons by Deputy Minister of Labor (later Prime Minister) William Lyon Mackenzie King as a result of "stories of white women and children being lured into opium dens, rumors of huge profits in opium, and moral indignation over drug abuse in general." (106)  Mackenzie King delivered his report on opiate use to the Minister of Labour in 1908 and within three weeks narcotics legislation was drafted and passed in the form of the Opium Act.  This Act stated that the sale of opium for non-medicinal uses was punishable with a maximum 3 year prison term and a $1,000 fine. (122) [See note 118]

In 1908 A.E. Verrill completes his study of the specimens collected during the survey that began at the Woods Hole lab in 1871. The project has formed the basis of hundreds of scientific papers on invertebrates. The specimen collection includes some 2,000 species taken from 3,000 locations in New England and is eventually given to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard with duplicates in the Peabody Museum of Yale University. (20) [See note 42]

In 1908, speaking before the American Breeders Association in Washington, Alexander Graham Bell remarked: "We have learned to apply the laws of heredity so as to modify and improve our breeds of domestic animals. Can the knowledge and experience so gained be available to man, so as to enable him to improve the species to which he himself belongs?" Bell believed that "students of genetics possess the knowledge … to improve the race" and that education of the public was necessary to gain acceptance for eugenics policies." (75)

In 1908 the charter of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York was amended to allow educational activities. (1)

In March 1908 the three-year period—during which non-Filipino opium addicts, mostly Chinese, were maintained—came to an end. During the final six months, the opium provided was gradually reduced to zero. For official purposes, opium smoking had stopped in the Philippine Islands. (91) [See (Philippines, 1905, 1909)]

In 1908, in Egypt, hashish is seized and almost 2000 business were closed because their proprietors had allowed hashish to be used on the premises. (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1908, in the German colony of Southwest Africa, all mixed marriages are banned—existing ones are dissolved. (116)

In 1908 The British Eugenics Education Society is formally created from a provisional committee formed the year earlier by "a few dozen eugenic activists."  "Many of its founders were previously members of the Moral Education League, concerned with alcoholism and the proper application of charity.  David Starr Jordan, president of the Eugenics Section of the American Breeders Association, was made a vice president of the Eugenics Education Society." (183:210)  The society is founded by Francis Galton. (1)

In 1908 the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology is founded with a gift from Annie Montague Alexander. (163:29)

In 1908, the American Home Economics Association is organized (incorporated in 1909). (352)  Helen Atwater, daughter of Wilbur O. Atwater of the USDA, serves as first editor of the association's monthly, Journal of Home Economics.  At this time Ms. Atwater is also a member of the staff in the same department at the USDA that her father had previously worked for (the scientific division of the Bureau of Home Economics). (353), (354)

From 1909 to 1915 Elihu Root served as a Republican senator from New York. (1)

From 1909 to 1928 classic studies were performed by Thomas Burr Osborne (S&B 1881) and Lafayette B. Mendel on the nutritive value of proteins. (82)  The two men also "collaborated on ground-breaking experiments on vitamin theory." (269)  Osborne was a member of Skull and Bones at Yale. (270)

From 1909 to 1913 William H. Taft (S&B 1878) is President. (3)

From 1909 to 1913 W. Cameron Forbes is Civil Governor of the Philippines. (149)

In 1909, the railroad magnate, E.H. Harriman (whose fortune, like that of the Rockefellers, had been funded entirely with Rothschild money funneled to him by Jacob Schiff of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.) died of cancer. His family then formed the Harriman Research Institute. (48)

In 1909 Inborn Errors of Metabolism was published by Archibald E. Garrod. (82)

In 1909 Karl Thomas introduced the term "biological value of proteins" and developed a method for its determination. (82)

In 1909 J.M. Merdoch (Superintendent of the Western Pennsylvania Institution for the Feeble-Minded) issues report, Quarantine Mental Defectives. (117)

In 1909 Henry H. Goddard introduces school teachers to his version of the Binet test. (117)

In 1909 "geriatrics" was used by Nascher as a term for the study of needs and care of the elderly. (82)

In 1909 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was created in Springfield, Illinois, Abraham Lincoln's own hometown. The creation of the NAACP was inspired by an event in 1908 in which a black habitual criminal attacked a white girl in her bedroom and, while being pursued by her father, turned and killed the man with a razor. At least one other attack on a white woman was also reported, and the white people in Springfield responded by killing two blacks and burning down a crime-ridden black neighborhood called the "Badlands." Thousands of local blacks fled Springfield. (38) [See 1908]

In 1909 the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission is established. It is the beginning of the Rockefeller Foundation. (6) Rockefeller personally financed the commission to help health departments curb hookworm in 11 southern states. (1)

On October 1, 1909 Dr. John F. Anderson was appointed director of the Hygienic Laboratory. (80), (81)

In 1909 Dr. Hamilton Wright wrote to the U.S. Secretary of State that "if we continue and press steadily for the Conference, China will recognize that we are sincere in her behalf, and the whole business may be used as oil to smooth the troubled waters of our aggressive commercial policy there." (122)  "Mr. [Elihu] Root urged Congress to pass an act before the meeting of the commission excluding from the Nation all but medicinal opium…" (133)

In 1909 domestic manufacture of smoking opium in the U.S. is outlawed. (1) Import of all opium for smoking or non-medical use is banned. (86)

During February 1909 President Theodore Roosevelt convened the Shanghai Opium Commission of 13 nations, which met in Shanghai to discuss the international [opium] problem. This led to the Hague Opium Conference of 1912. (1) The Philippines played a central role in calling for the Shanghai Opium Commission of 1909. (86) The commission was a creation of the U.S. State Department. Episcopal Bishop, Charles Henry Brent would head the delegation. The second delegate was from the American legation at Peking and Hamilton Wright was the third U.S. delegate. (90) [See note 102, note 97 (Philippines, 1908, 1912), (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1909 the Carnegie Institution of Washington is incorporated by Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852), Cleveland H. Dodge, Frederic A. Delano, Andrew Dickson White (S&B 1853), Elihu Root, Darius Ogden Mills and William E. Morrow. (130) [See 1902, note 31]

In 1909 ex-psychiatric inmate Clifford Beers founds the National Committee on Mental Hygiene in the U.S.  This organization will later become the National Committee on Mental Health. (116)

By 1909 there were 60 agricultural high schools in the U.S. plus 346 secondary schools which simply offered agricultural courses. (335)  [See Farmers' High School 1855]

In January of 1909 David Starr Jordan is asked by Secretary Strauss of the Department of Commerce and Labor to serve as chairman on the Fur Seal Advisory Board.  This board is tasked with management of the Fur Seal Service within the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries.  The other members of the board are Dr. Leonard Stejneger, Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Hon. Edwin W. Sims, Mr. Frederick A. Lucas and Mr. Charles H. Townsend. (397)  According to Dr. Barton W. Evermann, "the board consists of Mr. Lembkey, the chief fur-seal agent on the islands; Dr. C. Hart Merriam, director of the Biological Survey; Dr. Leonard Stejneger; Mr. F. A. Lucas, director of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences; Charles H. Townsend, who has been on the islands many times, who is now director of the New York Aquarium; Edwin W. Sims, formerly solicitor of the department, and Mr. Frank H. Hitchcock, the present Postmaster-General..." (401)  [See note note 182]

In December, 1909 the sixth annual meeting of the American Breeders Association is held at Omaha, Nebraska.  At this meeting the proposal is put forth that the Committee on Eugenics be put on the same footing as the other two sections by making it a third section of the association.  The organizational change will be put to a vote by ABA members over the coming month and be approved unanimously. (233)  The Committee on Eugenics also votes to establish a subcommittee on the heredity of the feeble-minded, chaired by A.C. Rogers. (117)  The ABA was organized in 1903, under the auspices of the American Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. Its President is Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. The Secretary and Executive Officer of the Association is Hon. W.M. Hays, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. The Vice-President and the eight [sic] following named officers constitute the governing council: William George, Vice-President, Aurora, Ill.; W.M. Hays, Secretary, Washington, D.C.; N.H. Gentry, Treasurer, Sedalis, Mo.; C.F. Curtis, Chairman, Animal Section, Ames, Iowa; H.W. Mumford, Secretary, Animal Section, Urbana, Ill.; H.J. Webber, Chairman, Plant Section, Ithaca, N.Y.; N.E. Hansen, Secretary, Plant Section, Brookings, South Dakota; David Starr Jordan, Chairman, Eugenics Section, Stanford University, Cal.; C.B. Davenport, Secretary, Eugenics Section, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. (235)  [See 1906]



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