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"We can foresee a time when … the only people at liberty will
be prison guards who will then have to lock up one another." -- Albert

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From 1970 to 1973 the Nutrition Canada National Survey was made for the population of Canada. Z.I. Sabry was the coordinator. (82) [See 1968]

By the 1970s, most state sterilization laws have been repealed. (76)

In 1970 the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act repealed the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, but it incorporated verbatim the Act's definition of Marihuana. There was an essential difference, however: while the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 used a system of taxation and disclosure that, in effect, allowed the Government to penalize marijuana growers without punishing industrial hemp growers, the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act abolished the taxation approach and effectively made all cannabis cultivation illegal, except where the DEA issued a limited-use permit. Marihuana, defined exactly as in the Marijuana Tax Act, to include all varieties of the plant Cannabis sativa L., was placed in Schedule I, the most restricted category of substances, under the Act. (19) The act classified marijuana along with heroin and LSD as a Schedule One drug, meaning a drug with a high potential for abuse and addiction and no known medical use. (88) It is worth noting that, under the scheduling provisions of the act, marijuana is seen as needing to be grouped with heroin while cocaine, with its significant abuse liability and very limited medical use, still falls into Schedule II. (93) [See note 108, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1970 the Jamaican Study was carried out by the National Institute of Mental Health on Jamaicans who smoked a type of marijuana that is much stronger than that in the United States. The study concluded that marijuana did not cause amotivational syndrome or mental illness and that there were no significant physical abnormalities in individuals who were heavy marijuana smokers compared to a control group with similar social and economic backgrounds. Many marijuana smokers were the children and grandchildren of people who also smoked marijuana. Many of these individuals were probably exposed to marijuana before birth, as well as during their whole adult life, but neither chromosomal abnormalities nor evidence of increase incidence of birth defects was found. The study said marijuana was a relatively harmless intoxicant. Recommendation: No criminal penalties for marijuana use. (88) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1970 the Le Dain Commission of the Canadian Government summed up its finding with respect to marijuana by saying that it is a grave error to indulge in deliberate distortion or exaggeration concerning the alleged dangers of a particular drug or to base a program of drug education upon a strategy of fear. The Le Dain Commission recommended, as the overwhelming majority of honest scientific investigative boards have, that serious consideration should be given to legalizing marijuana. (88) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1970 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is formed. The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and the saltwater labs of the BSFW become its National Marine Fisheries Service. In subsequent reorganization actions, the Ann Arbor Biological Station is moved to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. There is a proposal to close both the Milford and Ann Arbor Technology Stations. The Gloucester Lab is moved under the Division of Fishery Products Technology, Office of Management Services, along with the nation's other fisheries technology labs. (20)  NOAA is created within the Department of Commerce  combining the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U.S. Weather Bureau, Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Environmental Data Service, National Satellite Center, Research Libraries among others. (136)  The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, an arm of the Fish and Wildlife Service, is transferred to the Department of Commerce and renamed the National Marine Fisheries Service. (139) [See 1969, note 77, note 148]

In 1970 the Ford Foundation establishes the Police Foundation, headed by Pat Murphy, to train police in behaviorism and "human relations." (130)

In 1970 Carl A Larson publishes an article, Ethnic Weapons, in Military Review, November 1970. (6)

In 1970 Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. As the "Father of the Green Revolution" he developed high yielding dwarf strains of wheat while working at the Rockefeller-financed CIMMYT Agricultural Station in Mexico City. (87)

In 1970 Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Dr. Herbert Ley blows the whistle on the FDA and its corrupt relationship with the medical and pharmaceutical cartels. It is ignored by an intimidated government. Ley is forced out and replaced. (6)

In 1970 multinational companies begin the process of acquiring 1000 seed and plant breeding companies. (6) [See 1985]

From 1971 to 1972 Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, (HANES) collected measures of nutritional status of representative sample of the U.S. population. (82) [See 1970]

In 1971 George H.W. Bush joins the Council on Foreign Relations. (6)

In 1971 the first Sea Grant colleges are designated - Texas A&M University, University of Rhode Island, Oregon State University and the University of Washington. (136)

On January 4, 1971 the secretary of the Committee on Quackery reported back to the trustees of the American Medical Association that "its prime mission, first, the containment of chiropractic, and ultimately, the elimination of chiropractic." A more blatant admission of conspiracy can hardly be found in any organization's records. (48)

In 1971 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was isolated as a metabolically active form of vitamin D3 and showed hormone-like action. (82)

In 1971, at Bobst's instigation, Nixon signed the National Cancer Act which transformed the National Cancer Institute at Bethesda into a new monolithic government bureaucracy. During the next fifteen years, NCI was to spend more than ten billion dollars funding various cancer programs, none of which had any effect in curing or preventing cancer. (48)

In 1971 Robert White, first NOAA Administrator, establishes four major offshore fisheries research centers throughout the nation: the Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center (NWAFC), Southwest Fisheries Center (SWFC), Northeast Fisheries Center (NEFC), and Southeast Fisheries Center (SEFC). They report to NMFS headquarters. Three coastal fisheries research centers, which report to Regional Directors, are also established: Gulf Coast Fisheries Center (GCFC), Atlantic Estuarine Fisheries Center (AEFC), and Middle Atlantic Coast Fisheries Center (MACFC). The basic five-regional office structure is retained. (20) "… it was decided to remove the research laboratories from the purview of the Regional Directors, who had a great many other things to do, and to place them under a Research Center Director reporting directly to the NMFS Washington, D.C. office. (64) [See note 77]

In 1971 research on fish protein concentrate production culminates in construction of an experimental plant (which began operation in March) and issuance of U.S. Patent 3,598,606 for a novel washing procedure that removes the bulk of the lipids. (20) [See note 94]

In 1971 National Marine Fisheries Service Auke Bay Laboratory scientists survey prior to and after detonation of nuclear device at Alaska's Amchitka Island; no significant damage to marine fauna or environment is found. (20) [See also 1946]

In 1971 the United Nations adopts the Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons. (117)

In 1971 Middle Atlantic Coast Fisheries Center (MACFC) scientists find fin rot disease in fish to be caused by several pathogenic bacteria. Incidence of the disease appears to be related to environmental pollution. (20) [See note 51]

In 1971 Atlantic Estuarine Fisheries Center, (AEFC) scientists prove that the Atlantic menhaden resource is composed of one stock of migrating fish. Gulf research indicates that menhaden populations east and west of the Mississippi River may constitute separate stocks. (20)

On December 1971 U.S. commercial whaling ends. (20)

In 1971 The Office of Resource Research is formed. The National Systematics Lab and the Atlantic Environmental Group are moved into that office. (20) [See note 77]

In 1971 the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC) is established by the Secretary of Commerce to advise on marine fisheries resource issues. (20)

From 1972 to 1973 the Schafer Commission was created by Congress and President Nixon and headed by Raymond P. Schafer, former governor of Pennsylvania. After months of study, it concluded that marijuana does not cause violent, aggressive behavior; does not lead to the use of harder drugs; does not constitute a major public health problem; does not lead to chromosomal or brain damage; and does not lead to physical dependency. Recommendation: Decriminalization of marijuana. President Nixon turned down his own commission's recommendation. (88)  The Schafer report voices concern at the level of spending used to stop illicit drug use.  From 1969 - 1973 the level of spending rose over 1000 percent. (124) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1972 the Marine Mammal Protection Act is passed and establishes a moratorium on taking marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas. (20)  The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act establishes NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries Program.  Also, the National Coastal Zone Management Program is begun. (136)

In 1972 the U.S. Department of Agriculture, (USDA) finds that hemp seed oil is lower in saturated fats than any other vegetable oil (including soybean and canola). Other studies note that until this century hemp-cake (the by-product of pressing the seed for oil) was one of the world's principle animal feeds. Also that hemp seed, like soybeans, can produce a tofu-like curd and be spiced to taste like chicken, steak or pork; can be sprouted for salads, ground into meal, and also made into margarine. Hemp seed is recommended as a nutritionally balanced food for domestic pets and farm animals. (28)

In 1972 the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) petitioned the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (formerly the Federal Bureau of Narcotics) to transfer marihuana to Schedule II so that it could be legally prescribed by physicians. …The government refused to transfer it to Schedule II.…In rejecting the NORML petition, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs failed to call for public hearings as required by law.  The reason it gave was that reclassification would violate U.S. treaty obligations under the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Substances. (123) 

In 1972 New England experienced its first red tide with devastating effects on the shellfish industry. (72)

In 1972 the first gay mass-marketing of "poppers" (amyl/butyl nitrates) takes place. They have effect of suppressing the immune system of users. (6)

In 1972 Dr. Dean Burk of the National Cancer Institute declares in a letter to a member of Congress that high officials of the Food and Drug Administration, American Medical Association, American Cancer Society and the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare were deliberately falsifying data and information, lying, committing unconstitutional acts and in other ways thwarting potential cures to which they were opposed. Burk openly refers to FDA corruption. (6)

In 1972 Bruce K. Eckland, (Sociology, University of North Carolina) became president of the American Eugenics Society, (from 1973 called the Society for the Study of Social Biology) until 1975. (23)

In 1972 WHO bulletin No. 47 refers to creation of an immune virus and suggests that a useful way to study the effects would be "to put it into a vaccination program and observe the results." (6)

In 1972, according to the Journal of the American Medical Association, (v230, Oct. 14, 1974) the New York State Department of Agriculture determines that 30% of organic food is contaminated with pesticides, as compared with 25% in regular foods. (6)

In 1972 the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act mandated the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) whose task was to provide overall planning and policy and establish objectives for all federal demand reduction programs. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) was created and was to be the center piece for a major federal effort in demand reduction. (93)

In 1973 Dr. Muriel Shimkin of the National Institute of Health, wrote in the Institute's official primer on cancer in 1973 that "Treatment of cancer by diet alone is in the realm of quackery." (48)

In 1973 Medical World News in March revealed data from a tobacco industry authority which shows that cigarettes contain 5% sugar, cigars contain 20% and some pipe tobaccos contain 40% sugar. (6)

In 1973 Senator Hubert Humphrey, was found to have cancer of the bladder; he was treated by X ray. (48) [See (Humphrey 1978, 1976)]

In 1973 the Endangered Species Act is passed to protect species and populations whose numbers are small or declining; National Marine Fisheries Service is responsible for marine species under the law. (20), (136)  The Endangered Species Act is passed by Congress to protect endangered plants and animals.  Building upon legislation passed in 1966 and 1969, the new law expands and strengthens efforts to protect species domestically and internationally.  The Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service (Department of Commerce) assume responsibility for administering the Act. (139) [See note 116]

In 1973 the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory is formed in Seattle, Washington. (136)

In 1973 Oregon becomes the first state to take steps towards legalization of cannabis. (124).

In 1973 the American Eugenics Society was renamed to the Society for the Study of Social Biology. (23)

In 1974 the Atlantic Environmental Group is moved to the Northeast Fisheries Center (NEFC) Narragansett Laboratory. The group analyzes the marine environment of western North Atlantic and its influence on fishery resources. (20) [See note 77]

In 1974, in Wyatt v. Aderholt, Federal Court rules that Alabama's eugenic sterilization law is unconstitutional. (117)

In 1974 remote sensing applications to fisheries research in southeastern U.S. waters are stimulated when Southeast Fisheries Center scientists find significant relationships between water color and Gulf menhaden distribution patterns. (20)

In 1974 legislation established the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA). (93)

By 1974 there were public demands for a Congressional investigation of the SWAT tactics used by the Post Office and the U.S. Public Health Service against elderly housewives. … Needless to say, no such Congressional investigation was ever held. Instead, the Coordinating Conference on Health Information suddenly went underground. … After they went underground, health practitioners in the State of California suddenly found themselves under more concerted attack than ever before. … It was then found that the stealthy minions of Coordinating Conference on Health Information, still doing the work of the Medical Monopoly, had merely abandoned their national operations for fear of exposure, but had now nested in the California State Board of Health like a group of diseased rats hiding from inevitable retribution. The Coordinating Conference on Health Information has remained imbedded in the California State Board of Health ever since, carrying on a steady warfare against health practitioners in that state. … The effect of the Coordinating Conference on Health Information depredations has been devastating. Millions of Americans, particularly the elderly and the poor, have been forcibly deprived of reasonably priced health care because of this conspiracy. (48)

In 1974 a special amendment of the National Cancer Act was required to force the National Cancer Institute to devote just 1% of it's budget to nutrition studies despite the fact that the majority of environmental causes of cancer are linked to nutrition. (39)

In 1974 CFR (Council on Foreign Relations) member Brent Scowcroft prepares NSSM 200, Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests, which is immediately classified Secret, (now declassified). Prepared for the National Security Council, this document proposes reduction of worldwide population by concentration on Third World Countries. A conclusion of the study is that mandatory population control, (reduction) may be appropriate. (6)

In 1974 California passes an act based on the American Cancer Society's "model law" in 1966 which makes it a felony to treat cancer in California by any method other than radiation, surgery or chemotherapy. (6)

In 1974 the CIA releases a report, Potential Implications of Trends in World Population, Food Production and Climate, indicating that food supplies would be affected by climate changes coming in the near future, and that forced mass migrations, sometimes backed by force, would become an issue. (6)

In 1974 the first international Population Conference is held in Bucharest and is sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund. (159)

In 1974, in response to failure of the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs to call for public hearings as required by law and its continued refusal to do so, NORML responded by filing a suit against the BNDD.  The U.S. Second Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the bureau's dismissal of the petition, remanding the case for reconsideration and criticizing both the bureau and the Department of Justice. (123)

In 1975 the National Institute of Drug Abuse convenes a conference among America's leading researchers on marijuana at which practically all participants conclude that the federal government should be rushing to invest tax money into large scale cannabis research. Many of these scientists predict that cannabis will be one of the world's major medicines by the mid-1980's. (???)  Hundreds of doctors call on U.S. Government to instigate further research on cannabis. (124)

In 1975 animal encephalitis outbreak rages in 16 states in the U.S. (6)

In 1975 GOES-1, NOAA's first owned and operated geostationary satellite is launched. (136) [see note 148]

In 1975 a General Accounting Office (GAO) study of the Food and Drug Administration revealed that 150 FDA officials owned stock in the companies they were supposed to regulate. (6)

In 1975 the United Nations adopts a Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons. (117)

In 1975 a military manual predicts the development of "ethnic chemical weapons which would be designed to exploit naturally occurring differences in vulnerability among specific population groups." (6)

In 1975 the British medical journal Lancet reports on a study which compared the effect on cancer patients of chemotherapy versus no treatment at all. No treatment proved to be a significantly better policy for patient survival and quality of life. (6)

In 1975 the Mid-Atlantic Center is incorporated into the Northeast Fisheries Center. (20) [See note 77]

In 1975 some 195 cases are investigated relating to the Marine Mammal Protection Act as are 381 cases involving endangered species and related products including seizures of quantities of sperm whale oil and teeth, raw baleen and scrimshaw. (20)

In September 1975, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), successor to the BNDD, acknowledged that treaty obligations did not prevent the rescheduling of marihuana but continued to refuse public hearings.  NORML again filed suit against the BNDD. (123)

In 1975 the national laboratories and technology labs are incorporated into the centers, with the National Systematics Lab, the AEG, and the Gloucester, Massachusetts Tech Lab organized into the Northeast Fisheries Center (NEFC). (20) [See note 77, note 42]

In 1975 the NMFS Southeast Fisheries Center is reorganized to include the research that had been done under four smaller laboratories. Headquarters are in Miami, Florida, and additional research facilities are in Beaufort, N.C.; Charleston, S.C.; Panama City, Florida; Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, Mississippi; and Galveston, Texas. (20) [See note 77]

In 1975 Emporer Hirohito of Japan visits Scripps Institution of Oceanography. (120) [See Note 140]

On April 15, 1976 Congress passed Public Law 94-266, which provided $135 million of taxpayer's funds to pay for a national swine flu inoculation campaign. (48)

In 1976 Senator Hubert Humphrey's physician, Dr. Dabney Jarman, triumphantly reported that "As far as we are concerned, the Senator is cured." (48) [See (Humphrey 1973, 1977)]

In 1976 L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, (Genetic Psychiatry) became president of the American Eugenics Society, (from 1973 called the Society for the Study of Social Biology) until 1978. (23)

In 1976 the HIV virus was discovered in African blood banks. (6)

In 1976 the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act provides for NMFS enforcement of fisheries resources and activities in federal waters. (136)

In 1976 the Ford administration, with George Bush as the head of the CIA, is lobbied extensively by pharmaceutical companies to obtain total jurisdiction over all medical (marijuana) research. A "surprise" policy issued by the government forbids federally funded research by universities into the therapeutic benefits of marijuana. The research findings of 10 years worth of federally funded marijuana research is turned over to corporate (for-profit) drug companies who promise to synthesize the beneficial properties of the natural herb. (28)  Ford administration bans government funding of medical research on cannabis.  Pharmaceutical companies allowed to carry out research on synthetic, manmade cannabis analogues. (124) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1976, a formal definition of national security interests, NSSM 200, described the major threats to the United States.  Some of these threats were obvious.  The first, of course, was Communism in Europe, with the military charged with principle responsibility for defending American national security from this threat.  In the Pacific, the threat was the possibility of losing bases; the military was charged with the principal responsibility for defending this national interest.  In Latin America, there was the threat of incipient Communism; the CIA had principal responsibility for our defense.  In Africa, according to the American government in 1976 and ever since, there is a threat to American national security interests: population growth.  The [U.S.] Agency for International Development (USAID) was given the responsibility of defending America from this grave threat.  NSSM 200 was classified until 1992. (159)

In 1977 Otto Warburg, Nobel Laureate in Medicine states: "Cancer … there is no disease whose prime cause is better known… in the meantime millions of men must die unnecessarily." (6) [See 1920]

In 1977 George Bush leaves his post as Director of the CIA and is appointed as a director of Eli Lilly by Dan Quayle's father and family who, along with Bush, are major shareholders in Lilly. (28)

In 1977 the Declaration of Alma Ata gave to the World Health Organization (WHO) the means to extend the Flexner Report not only in North America, but throughout the entire world. Again, in the name of health and the well-being of the populations of the world, and in respect of the right of "health for all", international criteria and rules were established for practicing medicine. Control of health, therefore, was transferred from national governments to a world government. A world government that is non-elected. And of which its "Surgeon General" in charge of health is the WHO. (41)

In 1977 Jane Brody in her New York Times book, You Can Fight Cancer and Win, co-authored with American Cancer Society vice-president Holleb, cites Hubert Humphrey as "a famous beneficiary of modern radiotherapy." She glosses over the fact that "this famous beneficiary" was totally disillusioned with radium therapy before his death. (48) [See (Humphrey 1976, 1978)]

In 1977 the process to obtain GRAS designation for menhaden fish oil begins. (21)

In 1977 Ray Ravenhott, director of the population program for the U.S. Agency for International Development, (USAID) publically announced that his agency's goal was to sterilize 25% of the females on the planet in order to "protect U.S. corporate interests from threat of revolutions spawned by chronic unemployment." (6)

In 1977 the U.S. Army admits that it had carried out hundreds of biological warfare tests in the United States over a period of decades since World War II, including 25 major operations targeting the American public employing known disease-causing agents. Crop disease substances were used 31 times. (6)

On March 4, 1977 Jonas and Darrell Salk warned that "Live virus vaccines against influenza or poliomyelitis may in each instance produce the disease it intended to prevent … the live virus against measles and mumps may produce such side effects as encephalitis." (48)

In 1977 Congressional hearings are held on the cancer problem in the United States. A report generated concluded that "the public has been misled by the major cancer organizations for the past 25 years." It recommended that those benefiting from "the system" not be allowed to dictate the choices available to the American public. The study is ignored. (6)

From 1978 to 1992 some 35 states endorsed the medicinal use of marijuana, a position supported by the American Medical Association. In 1988, the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, (NORML) won a 16-year lawsuit to force the federal government to make marijuana accessible as medicine. This, however, was rejected by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) on the basis that other medications exist which can function as well or better than marijuana with the medical model and that insufficient controlled scientific data were available to support its being rescheduled. (93) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On January 14, 1978, Senator Hubert Humphrey, quoted in the Daily News called chemotherapy "bottled death." (48) [See (Humphrey 1977, 1973)]

In 1978, in the U.S., despite the fact that teen pregnancies are at the lowest rate in over 40 years, federally mandated family planning and sex education in schools is enacted. (6)

In 1978 the Ocean Pollution Planning Act is passed.  It recognizes the need to investigate effects of pollutants on marine environments.  This begins NOAA's Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment (HAZMAT). (136)

On March 3, 1978 author Larry Sloman, stuck in Washington as a result of a postponed ice hockey game, decided to dial up Dr. James Munch who had been the pharmacologist working with Anslinger in pursuing passage of the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937. Nearing the end of what must have been a 30 minute phone conversation, Sloman asked Munch "How about the theory in the fifties that marijuana was the first step toward using other drugs—eventually heroin?" to which Munch responded, "Well, it was all right in the fifties. I don't think it has any standing now though," Munch admitted. "A lot of those earlier theories were just good theories, and we had to try and explain them somehow. The same way that we now have about a million high school girls who are pregnant every year. Now if you… why do they want to get pregnant?" Sloman was stumped. "I don't know. What's your theory?" Munch chuckled. "I don't know. There's no relation to marijuana. Now don't get me on that." (45) [See note 48, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1978 Rand Corporation does de-population and martial law studies. (6)

In 1978 New Mexico becomes the first U.S. state to make cannabis available for medical use. (124)

In 1978, in Larry P. v. Wilson Riles, California Board of Education imposes a moratorium on the use of intelligence tests deciding that IQ tests are biased against black children and tends to place them in stigmatizing programs for the mentally retarded. (117)

In 1978 is held a Club of Rome meeting on world population growth. (6)

On July 4, 1979 the New York Times noted that 70% of all cancer patients at Memorial [Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center] receive radiation treatments, at a charge of $500,000 a year. (48)

In 1979 NOAA launches its first polar-orbiting environmental satellite. (136) [see note 148]

In 1979 Lindzey Gardner, (Center for Advanced Study, Behavioral Sciences) became president of the American Eugenics Society, (from 1973 called the Society for the Study of Social Biology) until 1981. (23)

In 1979 California Supreme Court Chief Justice Rose Byrd, June 25, 1979, dissenting opinion: (relating to California's cancer statutes prohibiting any treatment except radiation, surgery and chemotherapy): "To these cancer victims, the enforcement of the [statute], the denial to them of medical treatment, albeit unorthodox, must surely take on a nightmare quality. No demonstrated public danger, no compelling interest of the state warrants an Orweillian intrusion into the most private of zones of privacy." (6)

On August 20, 1979 Scripps Institution of Oceanography accepted a grant for $1.5 million from Max C. Fleischmann Foundation to be used for a program to upgrade SIO's major equipment resources for research and teaching. (120)

In the 1980s the Reagan administration cuts funds for urban forestry and other ecology programs. (95)

In 1980 George Bush becomes Vice President and all of his personal wealth is placed into a "blind" trust managed by William Stamps Farish III, his Beeville Texas hunting partner and the multi-millionaire grandson of former Standard Oil president and CEO. (3) [See note 25]

In 1980 Through the Freedom of Information Act the research procedures of the Heath / Tulane University "Monkey Study" (which concluded that marijuana caused brain damage and was bannered by the Federal government as "conclusive proof" of the harmful effects of marijuana) were, after a six year legal battle, delivered to the hands of independent researchers. (28), (2) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1980 Memorial [Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center] bought all new equipment for its radium treatment, an expenditure of $4.5 million. (48)

In October 1980 the Court of Appeals remanded the NORML petition to the DEA for reconsideration for the third time. (123)

In 1980 passage of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act dramatically expands the size of the National Wildlife Refuge System, adding nine new refuges, expanding seven existing refuges, adding over 53 million acres of land and designating numerous Wilderness Areas. (139)

In 1980 the National Abortion Federation calls for aborting pregnancies of teens in the U.S. (6)

In 1981Vice President Bush actively lobbied illegally both within and without the administration to permit drug companies to dump more unwanted, obsolete or especially domestically-banned substances on unsuspecting Third World countries. (2)

In 1981 a major compilation of the research on the chemical composition and nutritive values of fishes and fish products is published by Southeast Fisheries Center, (SEFC) Charleston, [South Carolina] Laboratory scientists. (20)

In 1981 new Lacey Act amendments are passed to make it illegal to trade in fish wildlife, or plants taken in violation of any U.S. or Indian tribal law, treaty, or regulation. (20)

In 1981 Scientists "identified" AIDS. (6)

In 1981 petitions are circulated among "War on Drugs" groups calling for immediate Presidential clemency and aggrandizement as a "national hero" of Mark Chapman for his murder of John Lennon of the Beatles (because Lennon was an "evil man" who had "turned-on" the world to "illicit drugs"). Other "War on Drugs" campaign propaganda calls for the jailing of people who listen to or play any type of music that is not on an "approved" list. (28)

In 1981 a covert censorship of television and radio programs begins, keeping pro-marijuana commentary, including sit-com jokes, off the public air-waves. (28) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1982 the U.N. Law of the Sea denotes the sea as common heritage of man. Neither the U.S. nor U.K. sign. (6)

In 1982 the Posse Comitatus Act of 1876 was amended to permit state and local law enforcement to use the military for training, intelligence and investigation of law violations involving drugs. Military equipment (for example, planes) could be used by civilian agencies in enforcing drug laws. (93)

In 1982 John L. Fuller, (Behavioral Genetics) became president of the American Eugenics Society, (from 1973 called the Society for the Study of Social Biology) until 1983. (23)

In 1982 the first genetically engineered crop was developed at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. By 1994 the Flavr-Savr tomato became the first such plant approved for commercial marketing. The Flavr-Savr tomato was designed for slow fruit ripening and increased shop life. (87)

In September 1983 the Reagan / Bush Administration puts out a soft "feeler" for all American universities and researchers to destroy all 1966—1976 cannabis research work, including compendiums in libraries. Scientists and doctors so ridiculed this unparalleled censorship move that the plans were dropped. (2) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1983 Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip of England visit Scripps Institution of Oceanography. (120) [See Note 140]

In 1983 NOAA assumes operational responsibility for LANDSAT satellite system. (136) [see note 148]

In 1984, having proved his loyalty to the Rockefeller power, Claude Pepper was allowed to stage another health conference. It was denounced by informed observers as a typical "Moscow show trial." The new Pepper sideshow was called the Congressional Hearings on Quackery. Pepper claimed that "health fraud" was a ten billion dollar a year scandal, an impressive figure for what was essentially a small cottage industry. He summoned a longtime apologist for the Medical Monopoly, Dr. Victor Herbert, a physician at the Bronx Veterans Administration Hospital. Herbert demanded that the Justice Department use the RICO (Racketeer Inspired Criminal Organization) strike force against "medical charlatans" and "health frauds" by using the same techniques which had been employed against organized crime. RICO allows the government to confiscate all assets of those who are convicted "as a result of a proved conspiracy." (48) [see note 53]

In 1984 the Eastern Pacific Tuna Licensing Act of 1984 is passed to issue and enforce rules protecting designated species of tuna under the Eastern Pacific Tuna Fishing Agreement. (20)

In 1984 the Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act is passed to assist in the conservation, restoration, and management of the species and enforce compliance with the Interstate Fisheries Management Plan for Striped Bass. (20)

In 1984 the American Cancer Society admits that vitamins and diet might be of some benefit. (6)

In 1984 a complaint was filed by a group of U.S. physicians with the U.N. Center for Human Rights in Geneva, entitled A Complaint Against Medical Tyranny As Practiced in the United States of America: American Medical Genocide. The existence of the report was suppressed by the Bush administration and the media. (6)

In 1984 the second international Population Conference is held in Mexico City and is sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund. (159)

In 1984 the Comprehensive Crime Control Act gave authorities the right to seize the property and assets of drug dealers without criminal charges, and these seizures proved to be a boon to local and federal law enforcement agencies, adding in some cases millions of dollars to police coffers. The state and federal governments split the take. Citizens who once enjoyed the presumption of innocence and the protection of the Constitution against illegal search and seizure saw their belongings seized without benefit of judge or jury. (88) The Comprehensive Crime Control Act increased dramatically Federal mandatory minimum sentencing provisions for drug-related crime, including the manufacture, distribution, or possession of controlled substances. It also expanded the criminal and civil asset forfeiture laws to penalize drug traffickers and increased Federal criminal penalties for drug-related offenses. (92) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1984 the Scripps Institution of Oceanography purchased a 125-foot research vessel and named it R/V Robert Gordon Sproul at a dedication ceremony. (120)

In 1985 the Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT) begins operation of LANDSAT. (136) [see note 148]

In 1985 Southeast Fisheries Center, (SEFC) scientists begin a new fish oil program to help the biomedical community ascertain the effects of the omega-3 fatty acid sub-components on human health. (20)

In 1985, after the number of tuberculosis cases had fallen to 22,201 in the United States, the lowest recorded figure in modern history, the decline ended and the number of active tuberculosis cases in the United States began to rise again. (7)

In 1985 Michael S. Teitelbaum, (U.S. Congress staff; U.S. population policy) became president of the American Eugenics Society, (from 1973 called the Society for the Study of Social Biology) until 1990. (23)

In 1985 there were 36,969 deaths caused by diabetes. (43)

In 1985 multinational companies spend $10 billion acquiring seed and plant breeding companies. Imperial Chemical Industries, (ICI) in England is now one of the worlds largest seed suppliers. From 1985 to 1990, ICI swallowed up 11 large seed companies. (6) [See 1970]

In December 1985 the Food and Drug Administration approved the drug Suprol in 200mg capsules (suprofen), an analgesic produced by McNeil, a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson. (48)

In 1985 an arsonist destroys the Sandy Hook, N.J. Laboratory building housing the research aquarium facilities, many records and the library. (20)

In 1985, the first known brown tide appeared off Long Island, N.Y., and destroyed the local bay scallops industry. (72) [See note 133]

In 1985 the government reclassified synthetic THC as a Schedule II drug but kept marihuana itself - and THC derived from marihuana - in Schedule I. (123)

By 1986 the Medical Monopoly had reached a yearly take of $355.4 billion a year, eleven percent of the Gross National Product of the United States. (48)

In 1986 NOAA's Aeronomy Laboratory begins investigation of the Antarctic ozone hole at McMurdo Base, Antarctica. (136)

In 1986 National Marine Fisheries Service petitions the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to seek affirmation of menhaden oil and partially hydrogenated menhaden oil as being Generally Recognized As Safe, (GRAS), culminating 9 years of research into the chemistry of fish oils and the history of their safe use. (20)

In 1986 a "red tide" algae bloom occurred in the Coastal Bend, [Port Aransas, Texas] killing 22.2 million fish. Only two other Texas outbreaks have been reported in this century, in 1935 and 1955. (59)

In 1986 the Anti-Drug Abuse Act mandated the creation of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, (ONDCP), to be headed by a director, sometimes called the drug czar, who would coordinate U.S. drug control and abuse policy, resources, and operations (Public Law 100-690). (92) This act also restored mandatory prison sentences for large-scale distribution of marijuana, imposed new sanctions on money laundering. (93) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1986 the Interjurisdictional Fisheries Act of 1986 is passed to distribute Federal money to the states for use in developing research programs to enhance the management of interstate fisheries. (20)

By February 13, 1986 the firm [McNeil, a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson] had received the first reports of acute kidney damage [resulting from use of Suprol]. (48)

On December 2, 1986 (unconfirmed) the Food and Drug Administration Arthritis Advisory Board recommended that Suprol remain on sale as an "alternative analgesic." It had already been banned in Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Italy and Great Britain; McNeil suspended its production here on May 15. (48)

In 1987 Dr. Victor Herbert, the physician at the Bronx Veterans Administration Hospital who was summoned by Claude Pepper during his Congressional Hearings on Quackery in 1984, filed a 70 page complaint in the U.S. District Court in Iowa. He charged that the officials of the National Health Federation, a rival to the American Medical Association, and other alternative health care practitioners had libeled him. Kirkpatrick Dilling, the attorney for the defendants, termed the suit a flagrant attempt to destroy freedom of choice in health care in the United States. Dilling pointed out that Herbert was backed by a shadow group called the American Council for Science and Health, a front for major food manufacturing companies. (48)

On August 27, 1987, after eleven years of continuous litigation, Federal Judge Susan Getzendammer of the U.S. District Court found the American Medical Association, the American College of Surgeons, and the American College of Radiologists, guilty of conspiring to destroy the profession of chiropractic. … Thus ended the legacy of malice and obstructionism which Morris Fishbein had left to the American Medical Association. (48)

In 1987 the General Accounting Office, (GAO) completed a two-year study of cancer statistics. The results validate Bailar and Smith (See 1986). According to the GAO, $2 billion per year was spent on cancer research (more than 50% of it government funds). Despite this enormous expense, "only slight improvement in cancer patient survival was indicated for the 30-year period 1950—1982." The GAO study was shelved to protect the cancer industry. (6)

In 1987 an unusually large number of humpback whales die of unknown causes, followed by toxic algal blooms (red tides) on the east coast of North America. (6)

In 1987 the South Pacific Tuna Treaty between the governments of certain Pacific Island States and the U.S. government is signed in Papua New Guinea, giving U.S. tuna fishermen access to over 10 million square miles of rich fishing grounds in the South Pacific. (20)

In 1987 Reagan replaced Paul Volcker, head of the Federal Reserve Board, with Alan Greenspan, a partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (48)

In 1987 NOAA's GOES-7 satellite is launched. (136) [see note 148]

In 1988 Memorial [Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center] was performing 11,000 surgical procedures and 65,000 radium treatments a year. (48)

On April 15, 1988 the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced the selection of 20 research projects to develop new public and private sector applications of space-based and airborne remote sensing technologies. Among the 20 research projects, one is the application of the Airborne Ocean Color Imager for Commercial Fishing, proposed by investigators affiliated with NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC), Mountain View, Calif.; Daedalus Enterprises, Ann Arbor, Michigan; National Marine Fisheries Center, NSTL; Zapata Haynie Corp., Hammond, La.; Spectro Scan Inc., Miami, Fla. (61) [See note 80, note 148]

In 1988 the South Pacific Tuna Act is passed by Congress, implementing the treaty between the United States and various Pacific Island states, covering prohibitions and licensing procedures for tuna fishing and authorizing National Marine Fisheries Service to carry out U.S. obligations under the treaty. The SWR establishes a field office in Pago Pago, American Samoa, to take species composition and length-frequency samples of U.S. catch from the Treaty area, inspect vessel logbooks, and facilitate the placement of observers aboard vessels. (20)

In 1988 the Maurice Stansby Fish Oil Biomedical Test Materials Laboratory is dedicated at the National Marine Fisheries Service Charleston, South Carolina Laboratory. (20)

In 1988 DEA Judge Francis Young concludes that "Marijuana, in its natural form is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man".  He recommends that medical use of marijuana should be allowed.  The DEA administrator rejects the ruling. (124), (123)

In 1988 Vice President George Bush visits Scripps Institution of Oceanography. (120) [See Note 140]

In 1988 Hoffman LaRoche received a great deal of publicity because of unfavorable revelations about its acne drug, "Accutane" after the Food and Drug Administration publicized figures that the drug had caused 1000 spontaneous abortions, 7000 other abortions, and other side effects such as joint aches, drying of skin and mucous membranes, and hair loss. Hoffman LaRoche was falted by FDA for purposely omitting women, and particularly pregnant women, from the studies on which it based requests for approval of Accutane. The company was aware that Accutane caused serious effects when taken during pregnancy. (48)

In 1988 the Anti-Drug Abuse Amendment Act primarily increased the sanctions for crimes related to drug trafficking and set in place new federal offenses. (93) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

On September 15, 1989 the Food and Drug Administration approved menhaden oil as a Generally Recognized as Safe, (GRAS) food. (52) [See note 24] According to Omega Protein's website, in 1989 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration affirmed (GRAS) status for partially and fully hydrogenated menhaden oil. (58)

In 1989 officials of the Food and Drug Administration recognized "macro" food ingredients. Increasingly, these food ingredients are characterized by relatively high use levels in foods and possess significant potential to alter the nutritional parameters of the human diet. These direct additives disappear into the U.S. food supply at levels above 10 million pounds annually. That level is equivalent to a per capita intake of about one milligram per kilogram of body weight per day (1 mg/kg/bw/day) so that there is considerable human exposure. FDA decided that the classical safety evaluation may not be adequate because artificial sweeteners and fat substitutes would be ingested in large quantities relative to most conventional food additives. (85)

In the winter of 1989 a seven-year-long brown tide killed eelgrass and other underwater vegetation near Corpus Christi, Texas. Millions of fish died as a result. (73) It destroyed the beds of sea grass that act as a nursery for fish larvae. (72)

On December 5, 1989 the Food and Drug Administration imposed an automatic detention at U.S. ports on all L-tryptophan tablets, capsules, caplets and powders as well as on bulk shipments of L-tryptophan that are used in the production of these products. (53) [See 1945]

In 1990 a California study found that 70 percent of those sent to prison for drug offenses were black, while two-thirds of drug treatment slots went to whites. (88) [See (Prisons Previous)]

In 1990 Congress passes the Urban and Community Forestry Assistance Act which expands funds for urban forestry twenty-fold and establishes a network of federal and state organizations dedicated to urban and community forestry. (95)

In 1990 NOAA assumes operation of Cospas-Sarsat (space-based system for the search of vessels in distress) program from the U.S. Air Force. (136)

In 1990 the discovery of THC receptors in the human brain is reported in Nature. (124)

In the early 1990s a series of fish kills in North Carolina estuaries killed an estimated 1 billion fishmostly menhaden. The earliest recorded occurrence along the mid-Atlantic coast, (where pfiesteria is suspected at least), appears to have taken place in the early 1980s. Such events continue to occur throughout the 1990s along the mid-Atlantic states, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and Delaware. [See note 82, note 133]

In 1991 Robert Retherford, (East-West Institute, Hawaii; funded by USAID) became president of the American Eugenics Society, (from 1973 called the Society for the Study of Social Biology) until 1994. (23)

In 1991 Clarence Gamble's Pathfinder Fund, one of the most militant, well-funded, and pervasive organizations promoting population control throughout the world, especially in underdeveloped nations, was renamed to Pathfinder International. (24)

In March 1991 the plaintiffs, (NORML et al) appealed yet again [for the reclassification of marihuana to Schedule II] and in April the District of Columbia Court of Appeals unanimously ordered the DEA to reexamine its standards, suggesting that they were illogical and that marihuana could never satisfy them.  An Illegal drug could not be used by a substantial number of doctors or cited as a remedy in medical texts.  As the court pointed out, "We are hard pressed to understand how one could show that any Schedule I drug was in general use or generally available".  The court returned the case to the DEA for further explanation, but it offered no direct challenge to the central dogma that marihuana lacks therapeutic value.  The DEA issued a final rejection of all pleas for reclassification in March 1992. (123)

In 1991 a report by William H. Draper III's (S&B 1950) agency, U.S. Agency for International Development, (USAID) asserts that 254 million couples will be surgically sterilized over the course of the 1990s; and that if present trends continue, 80 percent of the women in Puerto Rico and Panama will be surgically sterilized. The United Nations Population Fund claims that 37 percent of contraception users in Ibero-America and the Caribbean have already been surgically sterilized [by 1991]. (3) Spokespersons for USAID also said that surgical sterilization is the Bush administration's "first choice" method of population reduction in the Third World. (3)

In 1991 a Cobden Club document distributed during Eco-Conference pre-planning advises members that nations must establish quotas for reducing existing population. (6)

In 1991 NOAA's Hazardous Materials Response Division coordinates U.S. assistance in recovering from Persia Gulf oil spill. (136)

On June 21, 1991 James O. Mason, chief of the Public Health Service, announced that the [Compassionate IND] program would be suspended because it undercut the administration's opposition to the use of illegal drugs.  "If it is perceived that the Public Health Service is going around giving marihuana to folks, there would be a perception that this stuff can't be so bad," Mason said.  "It gives a bad signal.  I don't mind doing that if there is no other way of helping these people …  But there is not a shred of evidence that smoking marihuana assists a person with AIDS."  Since then, no new Compassionate INDs have been granted, despite hundreds of applications.  After keeping the program in limbo "under review" for nine months, the Public Health Service discontinued it in March 1992. (123)

In 1992 the High Seas Driftnet Fisheries Enforcement Act is passed to maintain a list of nations that allow large-scale driftnet fishing (which entangles protected mammals and fish as well as commercial fish) beyond their EEZ. (20)

In 1992 the Florida real estate and broadcasting magnate, Malcolm Glazer and his son, Avram Glazer acquires George Bush's old Zapata Offshore Co. along with its Omega Protein business whose "stock in trade" is menhaden. (???)

In 1992, following repeated collapse of New England ground fishing stocks, NMFS initiates a large-scale ecosystem study of Georges Bank. (136)

In 1992, with the creation of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, (SAMHSA), drug abuse demand reduction services were transferred to SAMHSA and research activities remained with NIDA. NIDA along with the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse and the National Institute of Mental Health became Institutes of the National Institutes of Health. It is probably safe to say that, to date, little positive centralization of demand reduction action has occurred within the federal bureaucracy. (93) [See note 113]

In 1992, according to officials at the U.S. Agency for International Development, (USAID), its Population Account received $300 million, a 20 percent increase over the previous year. Within this project, a significant sum is spent on political and psychological manipulations of target nations, and rather blatant subversion of their religions and governments. (3), (18)

In 1992 U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society of London issue a joint statement calling for more rapid stabilization of the population. Entitled Population Growth, Resource Consumption and a Sustainable World, the statement endorses the Malthusian paradigm, which says that 1) the planet can only support a certain finite population, and 2) that human population growth in itself destroys the environment. (6)

In 1992 the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council issued a 400 page report titled Understanding and Preventing Violence.  Funded in part by the Centers for Disease Control, the U.S. Justice Department and the National Science Foundation, the report called for more attention to "biological and genetic factors in violent crime."  In particular, it called for more research on "new pharmaceuticals that reduce violent behavior".  At the same time, the Centers for Disease Control submitted its own proposal in June to coordinate the efforts of seven federal agencies in what they called a "youth violence prevention initiative."  This program, which Goodwin described as the U.S. government's "highest science priority," applies the tools of behavior genetics to detect "biological markers" in "at risk" inner city children and to treat them with drugs "at a very early age before they have become criminalized" (Washington Post, July 29, 1992).  The NIMH has already committed more than 150 million to the Violence Initiative, including a $12 million pharmaceutical study of Ritalin. (153)  The Violence Initiative plan was announced by Frederick Goodwin. (155)

In 1992 the Virginia legislature passed the Health Care Decisions Act, which specifically targeted patients in psychiatric or mental retardation facilities for extermination who have no "reasonable expectation of recovery." (6)

In 1993 the Royal Swedish Academy of Science holds an international conference to discuss issues of population growth, development and the environment. (6)

In 1993, after an exceptionally mild winter in the American Southwest, there had been an explosion in the region's native field mouse population; consequently more people were exposed to rodents, and some were stricken by a mouse-borne virus that had never been noticed before on this continent: the hanta virus. (132)

In 1993 Planned Parenthood announces "condoms for females". (6)

In 1994 a South Korean fishing company, whose vessel was caught poaching fish from U.S. waters in the western Pacific settles in U.S. District Court for a $1 million fine and agrees to have its fleet of 17 fishing vessels tracked by satellite for 5 years. The provision allowing satellite tracking by U.S. authorities is unprecedented. (20) [See 1988, note 148]

In 1994 W.R. Grace and Company, through Agracetus was granted a patent for transgenic soybeans—the first attempt to gain world control of a staple food crop. The soybean industry is worth $27 billion annually worldwide. (6)

In 1994 Joseph Lee Rodgers, (Family Influences) became president of the American Eugenics Society, (from 1973 called the Society for the Study of Social Biology) through 1995. (23)

In 1994 the headquarters for the Human Genome Organization for DNA mapping is located at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, N.Y. (6)

In 1994 the third international Population Conference is held in Cairo, Egypt and is sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund. (159),

In 1994 NOAA opens its Coastal Service Center in Charleston, SC. (136)

In 1994 NOAA establishes its National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System. (136) [see note 148]

In 1995 there were 59,085 deaths caused by diabetes according to the National Center for Health Statistics. This represented a 59.9% increase in a 10-year period. (43)

In 1995 the R/V Roger Revelle is christened at Moss Point, Mississippi by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. (120)

In 1996 the Fisheries celebrates it's 125th anniversary by, among other things, co-sponsoring two exhibits at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.—Ocean Planet and "Science at Sea". (20) [See note 79]

In 1996 the Sustainable Fisheries Act is passed.

In 1996 Peter and James Spalt, owners of Cape Spray Fisheries, are served with violation notices in the largest fishery violation case to-date. The notice includes more than 100 counts seeking damages of $5.8 million for damage done to groundfish and sea scallop stocks owing to their violations of fishing regulations intended to rebuild these stocks. (20)

In 1997 the Food and Drug Administration extended GRAS status, (Generally Recognized As Safe) to refined menhaden oil. (58)

In 1997 passage of the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act provides the first "organic" legislation for the management of the Refuge System.  The Act amends the 1966 Act and strengthens the mission of the Refuge System, clarifies the compatibility standard for public uses of refuges, and requires the completion of comprehensive plans for every refuge. (139)

In 1997 NOAA commissions its first new ship in fifteen years - the Ronald H. Brown. (136)

In 1997 NOAA establishes the Science Advisory Board. (136)

In 1997, for the second time in the organization's 95-year history, the U.S. hosts the annual meeting of a convention organization, the International Council for Exploration of the Sea, (ICES), in Baltimore, Maryland. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) and the National Science Foundation do most of the work organizing the meeting. More than 500 scientists from 28 countries attend. The meeting's keynote address was on harmful algal blooms (HABs) and the event coincidentally occurs during an outbreak of pfiesteria, a harmful algal bloom, in Chesapeake Bay, attracting significant local interest in the ICES meeting. (20) [See note 49 and note 74]

As of 1998 there are more than 200 active hemp businesses in this country. However, due to the prohibitions of the Controlled Substances Act—as well as the DEA's refusal to approve a number of individual applications to grow industrial hemp—the U.S. domestic industrial hemp industry is limited to sales of imported hemp products or products made domestically from imported hemp fiber or seeds.  Imported fertile hemp seeds are immediately sent to a DEA-approved facility for sterilization before being distributed. … Though imported hemp seeds are available today for such purposes, the sterilization that is required before distribution reduces nutritional value while hastening rancidity. (19) [See note 23]

About 1998 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) established an information distribution center at the National Marine Biotoxins and Harmful Algal Bloom Office, which was established "several years ago" at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution by NOAA and the National Science Foundation. The Center provides access to data, information, and expert advice during bloom events and summaries of current and past research on Pfiesteria and related organisms. (56) [See note 74]

In 1998 congress attaches a "rider" to the D.C. Appropriations Bill to deny counting of the votes in the medical marijuana referendum. The legislation stipulates that no new laws may decrease criminal status of marijuana in the District. (???) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1998, aside from the expected pharmaceutical, chemical, insurance, tobacco / liquor companies, various other interesting companies are also found listed as contributors to the Partnership for a Drug Free America, (PDFA) including Proctor & Gamble, Smith Richardson Foundation, General Foods Fund, J.P. Morgan & Co. Inc., Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Readers Digest Association, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Union Pacific Corp, Manufacturers Hanover, American Telephone & Telegraph, Chevron Corporation, Eastman Kodak Co. Inc., Sears, Roebuck, & Co.(32) [See note 10, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous)]

In 1998 the Spalt brothers settle their case with the government, pay $2 million in fines and accept a lifetime ban on fishing commercially. (20)

In 1998 NOAA is a major participant in the United Nations International Year of the Ocean. (136)

On August 11, 1999 more than 20 million dead fish washed up on the banks of the Arroyo Colorado in Texas. The dead fish are young Gulf menhaden, about 2-3 inches (5-8 cm) long, which normally remain in the arroyo until they are large enough to migrate downstream to the Gulf of Mexico. (70)

In 1999 two-thirds of U.S. citizens develop heart disease. (8) 44% of people die from heart disease, 23% die from cancer. (43) 33% of the U.S. population will be diagnosed with cancer. (13)

In December 1999 the Washington Post reported the findings of their own investigation into the deaths of over one hundred mentally-retarded wards of the state. They were in the care of the D.C. Department of Human Services. Of approximately 1,190 retarded individuals in its care, the department was only able to document that 69 had died between January 1993 and September 1999. The Post investigation had identified 47 additional wards who died during that time. The Post also found evidence of delayed treatment, neglect, falsification of circumstances, and other lapses in 34 cases—well over one-third. Of the 116 that died, only 69 had thus been documented. Of those 69 only 8 were autopsied. Not a single investigation into any of these deaths had been documented by the Department of Human Services. (40)

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