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"He that would make his own liberty secure must guard even his enemy
from oppression." -- Thomas Paine

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By 1960 the Rockefeller Foundation distributes well over $500,000,000, one third of it abroad. (1)

In the 1960s, with the addict population of the country estimated to remain steadily at about 60,000, drug-law arrests by federal and local authorities exceeded 20,000 per year. Over 15% of all U.S. federal prisoners were serving time for drug-law offenses. (1) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1960 the use of radioactive materials in biological research is new, and a radiobiological consultant is assigned to the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries central office to advise Bureau laboratories on use of radioactive materials in biological research. (20)

In 1960 the first weather satellite, TIROS-1, is launched from the Air Force Missile Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida. (136)

In 1960 the American Society for Clinical Nutrition was organized and incorporated in the state of New York. (82)

In 1960 the Manufacturing Act was passed. Its purpose was to tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs. By virtue of the Manufacturing Act a system of licensing manufacturers and setting quotas for classes of drugs, both natural and synthetic, was set in place. (93)

In 1960 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries chemists demonstrate the use of thin layer chromatography for isolating and characterizing chemical classes of lipid compounds in fish oils, a new basic test procedure for chemical laboratories. (20)

In 1960, in New York City, with an estimated population of 7,782,000, the tuberculosis mortality rate was 10.4 per 100,000, but in the Harlem district of the city, with a predominantly Negro population, the rate was 41.7, while in adjoining Westchester county, a district with relatively few nonwhite inhabitants, the rate was only 3.2. (1)

In 1960 the periodical, Mankind Quarterly is founded by a member of the Eugenics Society, Reginald Ruggles Gates.  The Advisory Council of the new journal included von Verschuer and a member of the Darwin family, Charles Galton Darwin.  One idea advanced in the journal is the belief that anthropology, if it is understood honestly, shows that mankind is divided into four species. (159)

In the late 1960s the American Medical Association Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals imposed new requirements on hospitals; the American Medical Association Principles of Medical Ethics barred its members from all forms of exchange with chiropractors. … The American Medical Association forced the Veterans Administration to refuse payments to veterans for chiropractic services. … A confidential memorandum dated September 21, 1967 by the Committee on Quackery boasted to the trustees that "Basically the committee's short range objectives for containing the cult of chiropractic, and any additional recognition it might achieve, revolves around four points: 1) Doing everything within our power to see that chiropractic coverage under Title #18 of the Medicare law is NOT obtained. 2) Doing everything within our power to see that registration, or a listing with the U.S. Office of Education, or the establishment of a Chiropractic Accrediting Agency, is NOT achieved. 3) To encourage continued separation of the two national Chiropractic associations. 4) Encourage state medical societies to take the initiative in their state legislature with regard to legislation that might effect the practice of chiropractic." (48)

In 1960, A Review of Literature on Menhaden with Special Reference to the Gulf of Mexico Menhaden, Brevoortia Patronus Goode is published by Gordon Gunter and J. Y. Christmas as a "United States Fish and Wildlife Service Special Scientific Report--Fisheries No. 363"  It was "financed by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries under Contract No. 14-19-9335, with funds made available under the Act of July 1, 1954 (68 Stat. 376), commonly known as the Saltonstall-Kennedy Act. (328) 

From 1961 to 1962 credible sources report that President Kennedy routinely uses marijuana to relieve his back pain and plans to have the drug legalized. (28) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

From 1961 to 1963 at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, 102 human subjects were fed fallout from the Nevada test site, with radioactive simulated fallout particles, and solutions of radioactive cesium and strontium. (48)

From 1961 to 1965 at MIT, twenty elderly patients were injected with or fed radium or thorium. (48)

In 1961 a Plenipotentiary Conference, convened at New York to adopt the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, approved the inclusion in the treaty of provisions to strengthen control of production of cannabis and trade in cannabis preparations, to bring to an end within 25 years the non-medical use of cannabis in countries where this had been traditional, and to permit the absolute banning of the drug (except for research) where this seemed to the government concerned desirable because of the risk to public health. In the convention cannabis is cited (along with heroin) as a drug particularly liable to abuse and having no irreplaceable therapeutic advantages. (1) This convention codified and extended the provisions of the prior multilateral treaties, extending the restrictions of the 1953 protocol to coca and cannabis, and revising the international control machinery by substituting a new International Narcotics Control Board for the Commission on Narcotic Drugs which was formerly an appendage of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. (1) The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs mentions the control of cannabis as one of its primary objectives. (93)  The conference had before it a note by the World Health Organization, (WHO) affirming once more that there was no justification for the medical use of cannabis. (118)  Harry Anslinger heads the U.S. delegation at the United Nations Drugs Convention. (124) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1961, between February and April, more than 220,000 inches of newspaper food column space are devoted to fish topics, of which one-third is based on the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries's consumer education releases to food editors. (20)

In 1961 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries researchers develop new analytical techniques to produce better fish oil fractions and devise new methods to determine rapidly the chemical components of such fractions. (20) [See note 72]

In 1961 the new Bureau of Commercial Fisheries produced film Fishing the Five Great Lakes makes 20 such educational films in national distribution. Since 1946, the Bureau's educational motion pictures have earned 18 national and international film festival awards. (20)

In 1961 Roger Revelle leaves the directorship of Scripps Institute of Oceanography to become the first science advisor to the U.S. Secretary of the Interior. (120)

In 1961 Jim Jones migrates to Brazil, courtesy of the U.S. embassy, who supplies food and transportation. While in Brazil, Jones confides to local residents that he is working for Naval Intelligence. Jones was accompanied by Dan Mitrione, a lifetime friend of his who worked with the CIA providing interrogation and torture techniques to Third World police forces. After his trip, Jones returns to the U.S. and starts the Peoples Temple—what many consider to be a CIA medical and mind control experiment. Jones recruited the poor and homeless. Jim Jones and the Peoples Temple were funded mainly through Lawrence Layton and his family. Layton was the chief of Chemical and Ecological Warfare Research at Dugway Proving Ground, which has been connected circumstantially to cattle mutilations, disease biowarfare and genetics experimentation. The fortune of Layton's wife came in part from I.G. Farben, the key Nazi cartel. Jonestown was built during the time of the CIA MKULTRA program, the target population of which was coincidently the same as Jonestown. Enough drugs were found to have drugged 200,000 people over a year. Jonestown held 1,100 people. The drugs were all psychoactive mind control drugs. None of the victims showed cyanide poisoning. All bore needle marks. (6)

In 1961 the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries begins a major study of the manufacture of fish protein concentrate (FPC), a fine powder containing essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins necessary for human health. The FPC is viewed worldwide as a potential human dietary supplement that could combat world hunger while creating a use for under or non-utilized fishes. (20)

In 1962, Congress had passed amendments to the Food and Drug Act which implemented drug effectiveness requirements by 1964. The drug manufacturers resisted all attempts to force them to comply with these amendments, forcing the Food and Drug Administration to remove them from the market  some sixteen years later. The average life of an effective drug is about fifteen years; this meant that the delaying tactics of the drug manufacturers had allowed them to milk these unproven drugs for their entire effective market life! (48) This was known as the Kefauver amendment. (6)

In 1962 Rand Corporation begins a four year study and experiment with LSD, peyote and marijuana. (6)

In 1962 the Great Lakes Research Center is established. (136)

In 1962 Rachael Carson published Silent Spring spurring an entirely new era of environmental concern and awareness. (87) A former Bureau of Commercial Fisheries biologist/writer/editor, she published her landmark environmental book drawing in part on Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and other Federal and university studies on pesticides like DDT. (20) [See 1948, note 106]

In 1962, in a Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Circular, The Story of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, Paul S. Galtsoff indicates that the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Bureau of Fisheries had grown apart from their prior closely-linked relationship as "the Marine Biological Laboratory has moved more in the direction of squid axons and intracellular processes." (64) [See note 32]

In 1962 the United States leads a new campaign to repress the non-medicinal use of amphetamines, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and hallucinogens as a result of the findings of the Ad Hoc Panel on Narcotics and Drug Abuse, appointed by Pres. John F. Kennedy. (1) The panel "dismissed the alleged link between marihuana and sexual abuse and criminality as "limited." The dangers claimed for marihuana, it said, were "exaggerated," and it challenged the "long criminal sentences imposed on an occasional user or possessor of the drug" as being in "poor social perspective." (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1962 President Kennedy forced Commissioner Harry S. Anslinger to resign after Anslinger tried to censor publications by Alfred Lindesmith. (???)  Though Anslinger was a fervent prohibitionist, in the end it was discovered that he was also a hypocrite as he had been supplying morphine illegally for years to his friend, Senator Joseph McCarthy. His reason: "So the communist would not be able to blackmail this great American Senator for his drug-dependency weakness." (88)

In 1962 new shellfish genetics research begins at the Bureau's Milford Connecticut Biological Laboratory, and the goal is to produce strains of oysters and clams with better growth rates, disease resistance and market qualities. (20) [See note 42]

In 1962 an Army freight and supply vessel is acquired by Scripps Institution of Oceanography and christened R/V Alexander Agassiz. (120)

In 1962 the Supreme Court (Robinson v. California) ruled that addiction to narcotics, in and of itself, was an illness and not a criminal offense. This led to an increase in federal treatment efforts. (93)  The court ruled that the state can establish involuntary treatment and commitment of addicts. (116)

In 1962 the National Institute of Mental Health organizes a conference concerning the power to change behavior for the Federal Bureau of Prisons, during which a psychologist's recommendations of brainwashing of prisoners is met with favorable response. (116)

In 1962 the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council, and the American Medical Association issued a joint statement condemning all ambulatory clinic plans as inadequate and medically unsound, and calling for compulsory civil commitment both in the withdrawal stage and during subsequent "rehabilitation." (1) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1962, the Congress authorized a program in marine geology by the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Survey in turn entered into an agreement with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for a five-year joint investigation of the Continental Shelf and slope off the Atlantic coast of the United States. (205)  The U.S. Geological Survey, headquartered its new branch of Atlantic Marine Geology here to investigate the geology and geophysics of the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean. The Sea Education Association joined the community in 1975, and Woods Hole Research Center in 1985. (206)

From 1963 to 1965 at the National Reactor Test Station of the Atomic Energy Commission in Idaho, radioactive iodine was purposely released on seven separate occasions, and seven human subjects purposely drank milk from cows that grazed on iodine contaminated land. (48)

From 1963 to 1970 a program is conducted (at its peak during this period) by one Dr. Austin Stough who had initiated contracts with the nation's largest pharmaceutical manufacturers to carry out drug testing at a number of prisons in three southern states, Alabama, Arkansas and Oklahoma. During this period, the program involved 137 prisons and was paid for by 37 drug companies, including such leading firms as Upjohn, Wyeth, Lederle, Squibb and Merck. Although the financial rewards were impressive, the results of the program proved inconclusive. The program was later criticized as operating under "gross mismanagement, sloppy handling and contamination" of test samples, criticism which put an end to the program. Hundreds of prisoners suffered from its after effects for years. Stough had set up a prison monopoly which brought in good returns until his methods were exposed as being worthless. (48) [See note 59, (Prisons Previous, Next)]

From 1963 to 1971, 67 inmates of Oregon State Prison and 64 inmates of Washington State Prison had X-rays on their testes to determine the effect of radiation on human fertility. (48) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

On ???, 1963 Sidney W. Bishop, deputy postmaster general, boasted at the Second National Congress on Medical Quackery "I am particularly proud of the excellent arrangements existing between the Food and Drug Administration, the Federal Trade Commission and the Post Office department to maintain coordination in the exchange of information leading to the establishment of criminal prosecution," a laudatory reference to the success of the "war against quackery." It was later revealed that the Coordinating Conference on Health Information had been entirely financed by the leading drug companies of the Medical Monopoly, Lederle, Hoffman LaRoche and others. (48)

In 1963 the Food and Drug Administration gave permission for the use of irradiation to sterilize canned bacon; this permission was rescinded in 1968. (48)

In 1963 the Community Mental Health Centers Act passed by the 90th Congress, was the first to provide federal assistance to non-federal entities for [drug] treatment. (93)

In 1963 the First World Food Congress in Washington, D.C. was held under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization, (FAO) of the U.N. as part of the Freedom from Hunger Campaign. (82)

In 1963 the President's Advisory Commission on Narcotics and Drug Abuse reported that "An offender whose crime is sale of a marijuana reefer is subject to the same term of imprisonment as the peddler selling heroin. In most cases the marijuana reefer is less harmful than any opiate. For one thing, while marijuana may provoke lawless behavior, it does not create physical dependence. This Commission makes a flat distinction between the two drugs and believes that the unlawful sale or possession of marijuana is a less serious offense than the unlawful sale or possession of an opiate." (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1963 zinc deficiency in man was reported by Prasad. (82)

On November 2, 1963 the Committee on Quackery, created by the American Medical Association Board of Trustees, [see note 52] was formally incorporated. It was originally intended to destroy the entire profession of chiropractic in the United States, the nation's second largest health care group. It soon branched out in search of further victims, as the "Coordinating Conference on Health Information." This subsidiary was the brainchild of a New York letterhead outfit called the Pharmaceutical Advertising Council, which in turn was merely a space on the desk of the President of Grey Medical Advertising Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the prestigious Grey Advertising Company in New York. Although it was ostensibly merely an advisory group, the Coordinating Conference on Health Information soon launched an all-out war on independent health practitioners all over the United States. Its victims were usually selected by the nonprofit American Medical Association, aided by the charitable foundations, the American Cancer Society and the Arthritis Foundation, both of which had been smarting under accusations that they were killing patients while independent health advisors were saving them. … In many cases, people were arrested for selling or sometimes giving away booklets which advised such innocuous health practices as taking vitamins! … Many of the attacks were focused against the distributors of an anti-cancer preparation called laetrile, a fruit product. Extremely sensitive to any rival of their very profitable chemotherapy drugs, the cancer profiteers ordered the federal agents to carry out terror raids against their competitors. Often striking at night, in groups of heavily armed SWAT teams, the federal agents broke down doors to capture elderly women and their stocks of herbal teas.  Many of these housewives and retired persons carried small amounts of vitamins and health preparations which they furnished to neighbors or friends at cost They had no funds to fight the massed agencies of the federal government, who themselves were merely patsies for the Drug Trust. In many cases, the victims lost their homes, their life savings and all other attachable assets, because they had posed a threat to the Medical Monopoly. It was the most blatant use of the police powers by the Big Rich to protect their profitable enterprises. To this day, most of these victims have no idea that they were knocked off by the Rockefeller Monopoly. (48)

In 1963 President Kennedy, in an address to Congress, calls for a reduction, "over a number of years and by hundreds of thousands, of persons confined" to residential institutions, and he asks that methods be found "to retain in and return to the community the mentally ill and mentally retarded, and there to restore and revitalize their lives through better health programs and strengthened educational and rehabilitation services."  Though not labeled such at the time, this is a call for de-institutionalization and increased community services. (144)

In 1963, Roger Revelle left Scripps Institution and moved to Harvard University to establish a Center for Population Studies. It's at Harvard that Revelle would impart his climate change views onto a young Al Gore as a student of his. Gore described Revelle as "a wonderful, visionary professor" who was "one of the first people in the academic community to sound the alarm on global warming." He thought of Dr. Revelle as his mentor and referred to him frequently, relaying his experiences as a student in his book Earth in the Balance, published in 1992. (428)

From 1964 to 1974 the Coordinating Conference on Health Information's search and destroy campaign was carried on as a total war by federal agents against anyone who had ever offered any type of health food or health advice. (48)

In 1964 a new MPDI (Marine Products Development Irradiator) is dedicated at the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries's Technological Laboratory in Gloucester, Massachusetts. By processing up to 1 ton of fish per hour at 250,000 rads, scientists can study the extension of seafood shelf life by using radioisotopes to destroy the bacteria that cause food spoilage. (20) [See note 70]

In 1964 the first coastwide samples from the Gulf of Mexico menhaden reduction fishery are acquired, and sampling is continued through the next 31 years. (20)

In 1964 Dr. Max Gerson, author of the book, A Cancer Therapy, emphasizing a low fat diet, no salt and a minimum of protein, was invited to testify before a Senate Subcommittee, which produced a 227 page report, document number 89471. The copies of this report were never distributed by the Senate; it received no coverage in medical journals, and Dr. Gerson never received one cent from any charitable organization such as the American Cancer Society to either prove or disprove his findings, even though these groups claimed they were "researching" a cure for cancer. (48)

In 1964 William Stamps Farish III, grandson of the former president and chief executive of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey, was a personal aide to Zapata chairman George Bush in Bush's unsuccessful 1964 campaign for Senate. (3) [See 1942]

In 1964 Clyde V. Kiser, (Differential Fertility, Milbank Memorial Fund) became president of the American Eugenics Society until 1968. (23)

In 1964 Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen both shared the Nobel prize in medicine for their discoveries concerning cholesterol and fatty-acid metabolism. (1) [See (EFAs Previous)]

In 1964 there are 753 known addicts in Great Britain. … 237 were under 35, 40 were under 20 and 1 was only 15. (1)

In 1964 the Surgeon General's Report connected smoking with lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and other diseases. (87)

In 1965 the Brain Committee, [in Great Britain] found that a few doctors ("not more than six") had commenced prescribing very large amounts of dangerous drugs, principally heroin and cocaine, that addicts were creating new addicts by diverting drugs prescribed for them, and that new controls should be imposed. (1)

In 1965 the fifth Household Food Consumption Survey was made by the USDA. (82)

In 1965 the Milford Connecticut Biological Laboratory begins a long-term study of the genetics of commercial mollusks aimed at hybridization and selective breeding. (20) [See note 42]

In 1965 Sandy Hook sportfish biologists begin long-term investigations into egg and larval fish surveys, red tide, and behavior of adult blue fish. (20)

In 1965 the Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) is created.  It consolidates the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Weather Bureau. (136)

In 1965 Dow Chemical undertakes a 3 year human experimentation program on black prisoners at Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia testing the human effects of dioxin, the highly toxic component of Agent Orange. No follow-up studies were conducted. A previous experiment by Dow on 51 prisoners was also conducted. After the harmful effects are determined, the agent is sprayed on the human population in Southeast Asia, causing decades of death and birth defects in both residents and U.S. soldiers who return from the war. (6) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1965 the Dangerous Drugs Act [in Great Britain] increased penalties to a maximum of 1,000 British Pounds fine and ten years' imprisonment and curbed importation and possession; and by regulations under the act(s) [also in 1967] that 1) require doctors to notify the Home Office of any heroin or cocaine-addict coming to their attention (or to refer him to a special advisory panel if in doubt as to a patient's possible addiction); 2) establish special treatment centres for such addicts (15 in London and a handful elsewhere); 3) limit authority to prescribe heroin and cocaine to doctors at these centres only; and 4) make it an offense for any doctor other than those at the centres to so prescribe. (1)

In 1965 the University of the State of New York which earlier had incorporated the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1954, changed its name to Rockefeller University. (1)

In 1965 cannabis' active ingredient, a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) derivative, was isolated and subsequently synthesized by R. Mechoulam and Y. Gaoni. (1), (106)

In 1965 the 171-foot RV, David Starr Jordan, a new Bureau of Commercial Fisheries research vessel, replaces the 35-year-old, 150-foot Black Douglas at the La Jolla, California research center. (20) [See note 76, note 67]

In 1965 California legalizes the taking of anchovies for meal and oil.  The Bureau's research laboratory in La Jolla California shifts emphasis from sardines to anchovies. (20)

In 1965 Congress passes the Immunization Assistance Act. (6)

In 1965 Congress reverses prohibitive legislation against immigration of feeble-minded. (117)

In 1965 a World Health Organization, (WHO) publication declared that "the harm to society derived from abuse of cannabis consists of the impairment of the individual's social functions and his enhanced proneness to asocial and anti-social behaviour." (1) [See note 11, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1965 the Drug Abuse Control Amendments brought amphetamines, barbiturates, and hallucinogens under severely repressive controls. It grounded in Congress' interstate commerce powers (instead of the taxing power) and designated the Food and Drug Administration (rather than the Treasury) as enforcing agency. The criminal penalties imposed were slightly less severe than those of the Harrison Drug Control Act of 1914, but covered the same range of offense, including prescribing (otherwise than "in the course of … professional practice") and possession (unless proved to be for the possessor's personal use); the prescribed penalties for first offenses were up to one year in prison and $1,000 fine; for subsequent offenses, three years and $10,000; and for sales to minors (under 21 rather than 18), two years in prison and $5,000 fine for first offenses, six years and $15,000 for subsequent offenses. (1)

From 1966 to 1979 McGeorge Bundy was President of the Ford Foundation. (26)

In 1966, the year of his death, Clarence Gamble was involved in a 75-country field study regarding the safety and effectiveness of the IUD. Interestingly, the man obsessed with controlling everyone else's reproduction, produced five children of his own. Having been born into the lap of luxury with the proverbial silver spoon in his mouth, Gamble was certainly not a member of that undesirable, underprivileged class he so scorned and desired to eliminate. Elitists such as Gamble could have all the children they desired. (24)

In 1966 the Endangered Species Act is created. (105)

On November 2nd 1966 a new law is passed that authorizes the development of economical processes for producing fish protein concentrate from unutilized and underutilized species of fish. (20)

In 1966 Congress passes Public Law 89-658, extending the U.S. fisheries zone 9 miles beyond the 3-mile territorial sea, making a full 12-mile zone in which the United States will exercise the same exclusive rights in respect to fisheries as it has in its territorial sea. This is in response to the increased foreign fishing activity off the U.S. coasts. (20)

In 1966 the first piece of comprehensive legislation addressing the management of refuges, the National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act, is passed for the Fish and Wildlife Service.  The Act provides new guidance for administering the System and requires that proposed uses on refuges must be "compatible" with refuge purposes. (139)

In 1966 the R/V Thomas Washington and the R/V Alpha Helix are both commissioned by Scripps Institution of Oceanography. (120)

In 1966 the Marine Resources and Engineering Development Act initiates the Stratton Commission. (136)  The National Sea Grant Colleges and Programs Act is also enacted. (136) [See 1967]

In 1966 population control is adopted as a goal of the U.S. State Department, based on influence of elitist groups (RIAA, Council on Foreign Relations etc.). (6) [See note 143]

In 1966 Rous is awarded a Nobel Prize for discovering a virus that caused cancer in chickens in 1911. (6) [See note 98]

In 1966 the American Cancer Society formulates a State Model Cancer Act which is designed to prevent any treatment of cancer by anything other than surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. The use of other methods constitutes a felony. California, Illinois, Kentucky, Maryland, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio and Pennsylvania now enforce a variation of this "anti-quackery" law. (6)

In 1966 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries marketing personnel introduce such underutilized Gulf of Mexico species as mullet, Spanish mackerel, calico scallops and soft clams to restaurant chains, state school lunch programs and state institutions. (20)

In 1966, in promoting fishery products, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries efforts produce over 74,000 column inches of space in newspapers and magazines with a total readership of over 300 million subscribers or purchasers. In addition, Bureau home economists develop and test 633 recipes during the year for consumers, as well as for institutional, school lunch, and restaurant use. (20) [See note 88]

In 1966 George Bush (S&B 1948) is elected to Congress and his Zapata Offshore drilling company is reorganized. William Stamps Farish III joins the board of directors. Judging from the presence of Farish and the Houston lawyers, we may conclude that although Bush had departed from the formal structure of Zapata, he still had board members to represent his interests,…The sole New Yorker on the post-Bush board was also a new face, Michael M. Thomas of Lehman Brothers. (3)

In 1966 Congress passed the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act, providing that drug users accused or convicted of federal crimes could be committed directly to the federal centres, and that those not charged with any offense could also be committed for treatment by civil process except where adequate state facilities were available. (Some states had also tried to get jurisdiction over the drug user directly by making addiction per se a crime, but the Supreme Court held these statutes unconstitutional, in Robinson v. California [1962]. (???) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

In 1966 the severity of the penalties imposed by the Narcotic Control Act of 1956 was modified slightly by restoring parole eligibility for marijuana violators only. (1) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1967 the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice warned that addiction and drug abuse were a growing problem in the country, and that young people were being increasingly involved. (1) It also stated that "Marijuana is equated in law with the opiates, but the abuse characteristic of the two have almost nothing in common. The opiate produces physical dependence. Marijuana does not. A withdrawal sickness appears when use of the opiates is discontinued. No such symptoms are associated with marijuana. The desired dose of opiates tends to increase over time, but this is not true of marijuana. Both can lead to psychic dependence, but so can almost any substance that alters the state of consciousness. … There is evidence that a majority of the heroin users who come to the attention of public authorities have, in fact, had some prior experience with marijuana. But this does not mean that one leads to the other in the sense that marijuana has an intrinsic quality that creates a heroin liability. There are too many marijuana users who do not graduate to heroin, and too many heroin addicts with no known prior marijuana use, to support such a theory. Moreover there is no scientific basis for such a theory." (106) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1967 a study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition that showed a dramatic difference between the heart-disease rates of populations in northern and southern India. The northerners were meat-eaters and had high cholesterol levels. Their main source of dietary fat was ghee (clarified butter). The southerners were vegetarians and had much lower cholesterol levels. Present-day "wisdom" would predict the vegetarians to have the lower rate of heart disease, but, in fact, the opposite was true. The vegetarians had 15 times the rate of heart disease when compared to their northern counterparts! What was the reason for this surprising difference? Aside from meat versus vegetables, the major dietary difference was that the southerners had replaced their traditional ghee (a real food) with margarine and refined polyunsaturated vegetable oils. Twenty years later, the British medical journal, the Lancet noted an increase in heart-attack deaths amongst the northern Indians. The northerners had also largely replaced the ghee in their diets with margarine and refined vegetable oils. (8) [See note 73]

In 1967, the American Medical Association received 43% of its total income, $13.6 million, from its drug advertisements. It then issued a letter of agreement jointly with the Food and Drug Administration publicizing a campaign to "enhance public awareness of health fraud devices and products by identifying them as ineffective and potential health hazards." (48)

In 1967 the second Dangerous Drugs Act [in Great Britain] was passed. (1)

On January 9th 1967 President Lyndon B. Johnson appoints the 15 members of the Stratton Commission who immediately begin their study of the nation's marine problems and needs. (20) [See 1966, 1969]

In 1967, studying immersion freezing of fish, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries's Technological Laboratory at Terminal Island, California finds that Freon 12 effectively preserves and maintains tuna quality and that residual levels of Freon 12 are low. Propylene glycol is also studied as a freezing agent. (20) [No comment]

In 1967 the Environmental Defense Fund was founded in Long Island, N.Y. (97)

In 1967 Science magazine (10/20/67) features an article on Joshua Lederberg of the Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine. Lederberg notifies the scientific world that "live viruses are genetic messages used for the purpose of programming human cells" and "we already practice biological engineering on a rather large scale by use of live viruses in mass immunization campaigns." (6)

About 1967 the American Medical Association sponsored a National Health Fraud Conference whose principle spokesman was Congressman Claude Pepper. This was an ironic turn of events, because a few years earlier, the then Senator Claude Pepper, one of the most powerful political figures in Washington, had aroused the ire of the American Medical Association because he planned to support socialized medicine in the United States. A longtime spokesman for leftwing interests, who was known as "Red" Pepper because of his political sympathies, Pepper had found himself attacked by the big guns and money of the American Medical Association. They found a candidate to oppose him in Nixon's friend, George Smathers, and Pepper was defeated in Florida. Coming back as a Congressman, Pepper now licked the boots of those who had ousted him. He endorsed their police state methods against anyone who dared to challenge the power of the Medical Monopoly. (48)

In 1967 high-fructose corn syrup was introduced commercially by Clinton Corn Processing Co. (of Clinton, Iowa). Manufactured using their patented enzyme Isomerose, the fructose sweetness of corn syrup was raised from 14% to 42%. With rising sugar prices, "Isosweet" became the sweetener for all major soft drinks. (87)

From 1968 to 1970 a Ten State Nutrition Survey was conducted by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare to identify prevalence, magnitude and distribution of malnutrition and related health problems in the U.S. (82) [See 1970]

In 1968 the American Medical Association was forced to admit blacks. (48)

In 1968, Dr. James Watson, known for having won a Nobel in 1962 for his role in unraveling the molecular structure of DNA, became director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory of Quantitative Biology as a leading researcher in the Human Genome Project. (156)

In 1968 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was identified by De Luca as an active metabolic form of vitamin D3. (82)

In 1968 Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson responded [to the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice's warnings] with a drastic reorientation of the federal program; by executive order he terminated the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration, abolished the Treasury Department's Bureau of Narcotics, and concentrated all drug-law enforcement in a new Federal Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, in the U.S. Department of Justice. (1)

In 1968 scientists at the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Beaufort Biological Laboratory conduct what is believed to be the largest fish tagging program in the world, tagging more than 844,000 menhaden in five areas off the Atlantic coast. The 93,000 recovered tags provide much information on the species' migrations. (20)

In 1968 Dr. Ehrhardt, author of Euthanasia and the Destruction of Life-Unworthy Life is elected president of the World Federation of Mental Health. (116)

In May 1968 the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations adopted a resolution recommending that all countries concerned should intensify enforcement, promote research, and deal effectively with publicity advocating legalization or tolerance of the non-medical use of cannabis. (1) [ See note 9, (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

By 1968 it is estimated that 75% of drug addicts on the eastern seaboard of the United States are users of heroin. (1)

In 1968 Narcotics laws are extended to include synthetic THC. (1)

In 1968 amendments to the Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963 established specialized addict treatment grants.  The significance of the Act was major in that it brought narcotic addiction into the realm of mental illness thus enabling federal support for local drug treatment efforts. (93) [See (Prisons Previous, Next)]

By 1968 the British Medical Association has over 100 branches in various parts of the world and publishes the British Medical Journal and several specialist periodicals. (1)

In 1968 the Encyclopedia Britannica states that "The United States has been the foremost exponent of international controls; the United States, Canada, and Nationalist China (Formosa) are prominent for the severity of their repressive laws and enforcement policies; and the United Kingdom, followed by the Scandinavian countries, probably has had most success in the medical and non-criminal treatment of drug users. The situation is fluid, however, with Western nations, under persistent pressure from the United States, tending to be more and more alarmed about drug use" … "The balance between repressive legislation and policies on the one hand, and the viewpoint emphasizing therapy and rehabilitation on the other, varies according to local circumstances. England, for example, has traditionally had only a very small number of drug abusers and virtually no organized illicit traffic, while the United States has long had a very large clandestine addict population and has been the prime market for contraband drugs. Such differences must be kept in mind in appraising the respective attitudes and policies of each country. (1)

In 1968 George Bush (S&B 1948) brought two "race-science" professors in front of the Republican Task Force on Earth Resources and Population. As chairman of the Task Force, then-Congressman Bush invited Professors William Shockley and Arthur Jensen to explain to the committee how allegedly runaway birth-rates for African-Americans were "down-breeding" the American population. Afterwards Bush personally summed up for the Congress the testimony his black-inferiority advocates had given to the Task Force. George Bush held his hearings on the threat posed by black babies on August 5, 1969, while much of the world was in a better frame of mind—celebrating mankind's progress from the first moon landing 16 days earlier. Bush's obsessive thinking on this subject was guided by his family's friend, Gen. William H. Draper, Jr., the founder and chairman of the Population Crisis Committee, and vice chairman of the Planned Parenthood Federation. Draper had long been steering U.S. public discussion about the so-called "population bomb" in the non-white areas of the world. If Congressman Bush had explained to his colleagues how his family had come to know General Draper, they would perhaps have felt some alarm, or even panic, and paid more healthy attention to Bush's presentation. Unfortunately, the Draper-Bush population doctrine is now official U.S. foreign policy. (3) [See note 147]

In 1968—1969 the addict population [in Great Britain] reaches just under 2000. (1)

In 1969 a study [in Great Britain] done by a special committee under the chairmanship of Lady Wootton of Abinger questioned whether this drug [marijuana] was really as dangerous as others with which it has been classed, and recommended that marijuana offenses be downgraded. Consistently with this, enforcement efforts against marijuana have not been pressed aggressively. (1) This report cited Great Britain's most eminent drug authorities. The report showed marijuana to be a relatively harmless drug that did not lead to crime, dependency, or anti-social behavior. Recommendation: No criminal penalties for marijuana use. (88)  Incoming Labour minister Jim Callaghan rejects the Wootton recommendations and introduces a new Misuse of Drugs Act, which prescribes a maximum five years' imprisonment for possession.…This act lists cannabis as a Class B drug and bans its medical use despite the recommendation of the Wootton Report that "Preparations of cannabis and it's derivatives should continue to be available on prescription for purposes of medical treatment and research". (124) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1969 the World Health Organization, (WHO) reported cannabis as not physically habit forming but a drug of dependence and recommended keeping it under legal control. (1) [See (Cannabis Prohibition Previous, Next)]

In 1969 Dr. Hardin James addressed the American Cancer Society Panel. A professor of medical physics at the University of California at Berkely, he stated that his studies had proven conclusively that untreated cancer victims actually live up to four times longer than treated individuals. "For a typical type of cancer, people who refused treatment live an average of twelve and a half years. Those who accepted surgery and other kinds of treatment lived an average of only three years …" (48) [See note 93]

In 1969 the Gloucester, Massachusetts laboratory begins pioneering study of fish irradiation as a method of extending shelf life [of fishery products]. (20) [See note 75]

On January 11, 1969 the Stratton Commission presents its final report and recommends creation of a new Federal entity-a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency, (NOAA) to include initially, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and other Federal marine and anadromous fishery functions, the National Sea Grant College Program, and other agencies. (20)  The report is entitled, Our Nation and the Sea. (136) [See 1967, 1970]

In 1969 the first meeting of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) is held in Rome, Italy, beginning a period of U.S.-foreign cooperation in research on important oceanic fisheries. (20)

In 1969 Dudley Kirk, (Demographer, Stanford University) became president of the American Eugenics Society until 1972. (23)

In 1969 Arthur Jensen, psychology professor at UC Berkeley states, "For many years the criterion for mental retardation was an IQ below 70…the National Association for Mental Retardation has raised the criterion to 85."  Using this criteria would increase the number of people labeled "mentally retarded" from 5½ million to over 37 million. (116)

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